What are the Advantages of Synthetic Detergents over Soap
Soaps and Synthetic Detergents :
Soaps : Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms, e.g.,
The common fatty acids and their formula are given below :
Table : Some Examples of fatty acids
|Name of fatty acid||Formula||Name of Fatty acid|
Glycerides : They are esters of glycerol, an alcohol containing three hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Glycerides are present in fats or oils of animal and vegetable origin.
Saponification : The process in which oil or fat (glyceride) is hydrolysed with sodium hydroxide to get soap and glycerol is called saponification.
Other examples of soaps are Sodium palmitate (C15H31COONa), Sodium oleate (C17H33COONa)
Sodium linoleate (C17H31COONa) etc.
Advantages of Soap :
(i) Soap is cheaper and readily available.
(ii) It works well for cleaning of clothes with soft water (water which does not contain Ca2+ and Mg2+)
(iii) Soaps are 100% biodegradable, i.e., decomposed by micro-organisms present in sewage, therefore, they do not create water pollution.
Disadvantages of Soap :
(i) It does not work well with hard water containing Ca2+ or Mg2+. It reacts with Ca2+ and Mg2+ to form white precipitate which is called scum and soap goes waste. The reaction which takes place is a follows.
Thus, soap solution forms less lather with hard water.
(ii) Soap is not suitable for washing woolen garments because it is basic in nature and woolen garments have acidic dyes.
(iii) Soap are less effective in saline water and acidic water.
Detergents : Detergents are sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acids of hydrocarbons of alkene type. They have –SO3H group, i.e., sulphonic acid group.
(i) Sodium lauryl sulphate
(ii) Sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate
C12H25–C6H4 –Na+ OR
Advantages of Detergents over soaps :
(i) Detergents work well even with hard water but soaps do not.
(ii) Detergents may be used in saline or acidic water
(iii) Detergents are more easily soluble in water than soaps.
(iv) Detergents can be used for washing woolen garments whereas soaps cannot be used.
(v) Detergents having linear hydrocarbon chain are biodegradable.
Disadvantages of Detergents over Soaps :
(i) Synthetic detergents having branched hydrocarbon chain are not fully biodegradable, i.e., they are not decomposed by micro-organisms in sewage and create water pollution.
(ii) They are more expensive than soaps. Let us take up differences between soaps and detergents.
People also ask