## PH3256 – Physics for Information Science Syllabus Regulation 2021 Anna University

**Aim of Objectives:**

- To make the students understand the importance in studying electrical properties of materials.
- To enable the students to gain knowledge in semiconductor physics
- To instill knowledge on magnetic properties of materials.
- To establish a sound grasp of knowledge on different optical properties of materials, optical displays and applications
- To inculcate an idea of significance of nanostructures, quantum confinement, ensuing nano device applications and quantum computing.

### PH3256 – Physics for Information Science Syllabus

**Unit I: Electrical Properties Of Materials**

Classical free electron theory – Expression for electrical conductivity – Thermal conductivity, expression – Wiedemann-Franz law – Success and failures – electrons in metals – Particle in a three dimensional box – degenerate states – Fermi- Dirac statistics – Density of energy states – Electron in periodic potential – Energy bands in solids – tight binding approximation – Electron effective mass – concept of hole.

**Unit II: Semiconductor Physics**

Intrinsic Semiconductors – Energy band diagram – direct and indirect band gap semiconductors – Carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductors – extrinsic semiconductors – Carrier concentration in N-type & P-type semiconductors – Variation of carrier concentration with temperature – variation of Fermi level with temperature and impurity concentration – Carrier transport in Semiconductor: random motion, drift, mobility and diffusion – Hall effect and devices – Ohmic contacts – Schottky diode.

**Unit III: Magnetic Properties Of Materials**

Magnetic dipole moment – atomic magnetic moments- magnetic permeability and susceptibility – Magnetic material classification: diamagnetism – paramagnetism – ferromagnetism – antiferromagnetism – ferrimagnetism – Ferromagnetism: origin and exchange interaction- saturation magnetization and Curie temperature – Domain Theory- M versus H behaviour – Hard and soft magnetic materials – examples and uses– Magnetic principle in computer data storage – Magnetic hard disc (GMR sensor).

**Unit IV: Optical Properties Of Materials**

Classification of optical materials – carrier generation and recombination processes – Absorption emission and scattering of light in metals, insulators and semiconductors (concepts only) – photo current in a P-N diode – solar cell – LED – Organic LED – Laser diodes – Optical data storage techniques.

**Unit V: Nanodevices And Quantum Computing**

Introduction – quantum confinement – quantum structures: quantum wells, wires and dots — band gap of nanomaterials. Tunneling – Single electron phenomena: Coulomb blockade – resonant¬tunneling diode – single electron transistor – quantum cellular automata – Quantum system for information processing – quantum states – classical bits – quantum bits or qubits -CNOT gate – multiple qubits – Bloch sphere – quantum gates – advantage of quantum computing over classical computing.

**Text Books:**

- Jasprit Singh, “Semiconductor Devices: Basic Principles”, Wiley (Indian Edition), 2007.
- S.O. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, McGraw-Hill Education (Indian Edition), 2020.
- Parag K. Lala, Quantum Computing: A Beginner’s Introduction, McGraw-Hill Education (Indian Edition), 2020.

**References Books:**

- Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley India Edition, 2019.
- Y.B.Band and Y.Avishai, Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and
- Information Science, Academic Press, 2013.
- V.V. Mitin, V.A. Kochelap, and M.A. Stroscio, Introduction to Nanoelectronics, Cambridge University Press 2008.
- G.W. Hanson, Fundamentals of Nanoelectronics, Pearson Education (Indian Edition) 2009.
- B. Rogers, J. Adamsband S.Pennathur, Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, CRC Press, 2014.