Kerala Plus Two Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 ICT and Society
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the term often used as an extended synonym for Information Technology (IT). ICT is more specific in integrating telecommunication and computers comprising of many technologies for capturing, ‘ storing, processing, interpreting and printing information.
Information Technology (IT) has increased the number of services that are available with the help of computers and communication technology. Main Services are:
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) aided Governance is generally known as eGovernance. eGovernance is the application of ICT for delivering Government services to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The objective of eGovernance is to ensure that the service of Government reach the public promptly and effectively.
Type of interactions in eGovernance
eGovernance facilitates interaction among ‘ different stakeholders in governance. Categories of these interactions are:
i. Government to Government (G2G):
It is the electronic sharing of data and/or information among government agencies, departments or organisations. The goal of G2G is to support e-Governance initiatives by improving communication, data access and data sharing.
ii. Government to Citizens (G2C): It ereates an interface between the government and citizens. Here the citizens enjoy a large
range of public services. It increases the availability and accessibility of public services. It also improves the quality of services. Its primary purpose is to make the government-citizen friendly.
iii. Government to Business (G2B): eGovernance tools are used to aid the business community to interact with the government. The objective is to cut tapism, save time, reduce operational costs and ereate a more transparent business environment while dealing with the government.
iv. Government to Employees (G2E):
Government, being the biggest employer has to interact with its employees on a regular basis. This interaction is a two-way process between the government and the employees. The policies and guidelines for implementing various government programmes are made available to the employees as government orders or circulars through eGovernance portals. Use of ICT tools helps in making these interactions fast and efficient.
In India the e-Governance infrastructure mainly consists of State Data Centers (SDC) for providing core infrastructure and storI age, State Wide Area Network (SWAN) for connectivity and Common Service Centers (CSC) as service delivery points. The three components are:
i. State Data Centre (SDC): It is one of the important constituents of the core infrastructure for supporting eGovernance initiatives of National eGovernance Plan (NeGP). Under NeGP, it is proposed to create SDCs to combine services, applications and infrastructure and to provide efficient electronic delivery of G2G, G2C and G2B services. These service can be rendered by each state government through a common delivery platform. This platform is supported by a core connectivity infrastructure,
State Data Centre provides several functionalities. These include keeping central data repository of the state, securing data storage, online delivery of services, citizen information/services portal, state intranet portal, disaster recovery, etc. SDCs also provide better operation and management control and minimize the overall cost of data management, resource management, deployment etc.
ii. Kerala State Wide Area Network (KSWAN): It has been set up as a backbone of the State Information Infrastructure (SII). It connects Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode as its hubs and extends to all the 14 districts linking each of the I 152 Block Panchayats. The network also connects a large number of various offices of government departments. The infrastructure supports the integration of a.large number of G2G, G2C service with the applications received from the State Data Centre.
iii. Common Service Centre (CSC):
These are the frontend delivery points of the government, private and social sector services for the rural citizens of India. A highlight of the CSCs is that it offers web: enabled eGovernance services in rural ar} eas. It helps in utility payments such as electricity, telephone and water bills, submission of online applications and generating and distributing the certificates to the needy. Other services that could be offered through CSC are:
- Agriculture services
- Education and training services
- Health services
- Rural banking and insurance services
- Entertainment services
- Commercial services
In Kerala Akshaya centres are working as Common Service Centres.
Akshaya Centres: Akshaya centres were I initially launched in the year 2002 in the Malappuram district in Kerala. Its intention was to impart e-Literacy to the citizens. Akshaya was conceived as a landmark ICT project by the Kerala State Information Technology Mission (KSITM) to bridge the digital divide and to bring the benefits of ICT to the entire population of the State. Its services include grants, efiling, edistrict, e-ticketing, submitting online application for ration card and electoral ID, Aadhaar enrolment, Aadhaar based services, insurance and banking services. Akshaya works in the PPP (Private Public Partnership) model.
Benefits of e-Governance
Implementing e-Governance has many advantages. Major benefits of eGovernance are:
- e-Governance leads to automation of government services, ensuring the information regarding the activities of public welfare is easily available to all citizens.
- e-Governance strengthens democracy by ensuring greater participation of citizens at all levels of governance.
- It ensure more transparency in the functioning and thus helps eliminate corruption.
- It makes every government department responsible as they know that they are closely observed.
- Proper implementation of eGovernance saves unnecessary visits of the public to office. It saves time and money.
Challenges to e-Governance
Though e-Governance has many benefits, it faces some challenges too. They are:
- The existing digital divide is an obstacle in utilising the service of eGovernance. Those who live in remote area with lower e-Literacy will face difficulty to access the services of eGovernance.
- e-Governance application being computer/web-based, security measures are highly required since there is possibility of cyberattack.
- Usually a huge initial investment and planning are required for the proper implementation and maintenance of eGoverS nance services.
- Many people are anxious about the sharing of their personal information, biometry, etc. to the agencies designated for data collection.
- Integrity of various departments is very much essential for the efficiency and effectiveness of eGovernance.
Useful e-Governance Websites
- www.dhsekerala.gov.in: An official site of the Department of Higher Secondary Education, of Kerala that provides various facilities and service to students, teacher and school administrators.
- www.edistrict.kerala.gov.in: It provides government services to the public.
- www.incometaxindia.gov.in: It provides the service of income Tax department.
- www.keralamvd.gov.in: It is the official website of the Motor Vehicles Department of Kerala.
- www.rti.gov.in: Right to Information Act 2005 mandates timely response to a citizen who requests for information from
- www.itmission.kerala.gov.in: It is Government of Kerala site which provides managerial support to various IT initiatives.
- www.spark.gov.in: It is a web-based G2E integrated solution for Service and Payroll Management.
e-Business is the sharing of business information, maintaining business relationships and conducting business transactions by means of the ICT application. e-Business helps in effective e-marketing and increasing sales through effective use of e-Commerce services. It also reduces communication and travel cost through online meeting and shared workspace, etc.
e-Commerce and e-Banking
e-Commerce covers business transaction that involves exchange of money, whereas e-Business includes all aspects of running a business such as marketing, obtaining raw materials or goods, customer education, looking for suppliers etc. Thus e-Business is an extension of e-Commerce.
Electronic Payment System (EPS)
When we move on to electronic business, exchange of money also needs to be electronic. It is both convenient and secure if properly implemented. EPS plays an important role in e-Business.
A system of financial exchange between buyers and sellers in an online environment is called an Electronic Payment System(EPS). The financial exchange is facilitated by a digital financial instrument (such as credit/debit card, electronic cheque or digital cash) backed by a bank and or an intermediary.
Internet banking and core banking help in transforming traditional banking into e-Banking. e-Banking or electronic banking is defined as the automated delivery of banking services directly to customers through electronic channel. It can access data without geographical limitations.
Advantages of e-Business:
The major advantages of using e-Business applications are:
- It overcomes geographical limitations if you have a physical store, you are limited by the geographical area where you can provide service. But with e-Commerce, this limitation can be overcome.
- e-Business reduces operational cost.
- It minimizes travel time and cost.
- It remains open all the time.
- We can locate the product quicker from a wider range of choices.
Challenges to e-Business
- A good percentage of the population is uni aware of IT applications and its uses. Most of the regular Internet users also lack knowledge about online business and its possibilities.
- Most of the customers, especially to rural population, do not possess plastic money-credit card, debit card and net banking system, which is necessary for e-Business.
- If not used with caution, customers may lose valuable information like their credit card number, passwords, etc.
- Products like apparel, handicrafts, jewelry, etc are often purchased after examining physically. But in online shopping, customers don’t have this touch and feel advantage.
- For the success of e-Business of any organisation or company perfect and efficient shipment service is a necessity.
Useful e-Business Websites
- www.irctc.co.in: Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited web site for reservation and cancellation of railway tickets and hotels for accommodation.
- www.amazon.com: US-based retailer with headquarters in Washington.
- www. ebay.in: It is one of the largest online shopping sites in India.
- www.licindia.com: Insurance company website.
- www.airindia.com: Online site for booking Air India flight tickets.
- www.keralartc.com: Online websites for KSRTC bus ticket booking.
- www.bookmyshow.com: Movies and theatre ticket booking website.
The use of electronic media and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in education is termed e-Learning. There are many tools for enhancing the e-Learning process. Some tools are:
i. Electronic books reader (eBooks)
Portable computer device that are loaded with digital book content via communication interfaces is called electronic books reader. It can open any book, any page quickly, without much effort. In principle, any web document can be downloaded from the Internet, sometimes by making online payment, and read whenever required. In some eBook readers, voice output is also available and the reader needs toustlisten the audio of the text.
Textual information available in electronic format is called e-Text. This text can be read and interacted with an electronic device like computer, eBook reader, etc. e-Text can be converted to various formats to our liking using software. e-Text can be automatically read aloud with the help of a computer or an e-Text reader device. This is quite helpful for visually challenged people.
iii. Online Chat
It is a real-time exchange of the text messages between two or more persons over the Internet. In the virtual class environment, online chatting is used to discuss the topics with teachers and other students, chatting can be performed even with a low-speed Internet connection. Video chatting facility also available. It, however, requires fairly high-speed Internet connection and supporting devices such as web camera and speakers.
Online chat is a framework that provides interaction in a social environment. It helps to communicate with people at different places.
The e-Contents once prepared can be broadcasted through television channels, webcasted or uploaded in websites. Uploaded content can be downloaded viewed and saved for future reference.
v. Educational TV Channels
There are many telecasting/webcasting channels which are dedicated for the e-Leaning purpose. These channels broadcast recorded classes on various subjects, interviews with experts, lab experiments etc. Some of these channels can be watched in the Internet also, eg., Doordarshan’s ‘VYAS’ and Kerala Government’s ‘VICTERS’.
Advantages of e-Learning
- e-Learning has the ability to offer courses on variety of subjects to large number of students from distant location.
- In e-Learning cost for learning is much less. It save journey time and money, instructor fees, etc.
- People with limited financial resources are very much supported by the lower cost of e-Learning.
- It provides facility to do online courses from various nationally or internationally reputed institutions.
- Time and place is not a constraint for e-Learning.
Challenges to e-Learning
- Face to face contact between students and teachers is not possible.
- Proper interaction among teachers and students are often limited due to the lack of infrastructural facilities.
- Equipment and technology (computer and high-speed Internet) requirement restrict adoption of e-Learning.
- Learners who require constant motivation may not be serviced adequately.
- Hands-on practicals in real laboratory scenario is also a constraint in e-Learning.
Useful e-Learning Websites
- www.ignouonline.ac.in: Website of Indira Gandhi National Open University offering various courses in the distance education mode.
- www.nptel.iitm.ac.in: National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning provides e-Content through online courses,
- www.ncert.nic.in: Website of National Council of Educational Research and Training which provides study materials and reference materials.
- www.spokentutorial.org: It is an IIT Mumbai initiative. It provides software training through the spoken tutorials of free of cost. e-Learning
- www.w3schools.com: It is a web developer information website with tutorials and references relating web development topics. e-Learning
- www.gcflearnfree.org: It provides easy to follow lessons in mathematics, science etc. to help anyone anywhere learn skills and gain knowledge.
The security of information passed over Internet is a primary concern.
1. Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
Many people are engaged in creative work like music, literacy work, artistic work, discoveries, inventions, designs and software development. These works are the creation of the mind. They demand a lot of hard work and time. The outcome of such work is called intellectual property.
IPR refers to the exclusive right given to a person over the creation of his/her mind for a period of time. IPR enables people to earn recognition and financial benefit from what they invent or create. IPR owners can disclose their creations in exchange for money. The company which receives the rights, markets and sells this innovation to the society. In this way, the IPR owner, the company and the society benefit from the creation. IPR is encouraged by UN and almost all countries worldwide with the intention of encouraging innovations.
Each country has its own IPR registration system which is applicable to that country. Intellectual property is divided into two categories. They are:
i. Industrial property: Industrial property right applies to industry, commerce and agricultural products. It protects patents to inventions, trademarks, industrial designs and geographical indications. In India, industrial property rights can be registered with Controller General of Patents Designs and Trademarks under Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
Patents: It is the exclusive rights granted for an invention. An invention means a new product or process (procedure) involving an inventive step, and capable of industrial application. It is the legal right obtained by an inventor for exclusive control over the production and sale of his/her mechanical or scientific invention for a limited period of time. To be patentable, an invention I must:
- relate to a process or product
- e-Learning be new
- e-Learning involve an inventive step
- be capable of industrial use
- not be developed with the intention of harm I others.
Patent protection means that the invention cannot be commercially made, used, distributed or sold without the patent owner’s consent. A patent provides the right to the patent owner to decide how the invention can be used by others. The owner can sell the right to the invention to somei one else, who will then become the new owner of the patent. The term of every patent India is 20 years from the date of patent application. Once a patent expires, s the protection ends and an invention can be used by the public freely.
Trademark: It is a distinctive sign that identifies certain goods or services produced or provided by an individual or a company, A trademark can be a name, logo, symbol, etc. that can be used to recognise a product or service. It provides protection to the owner of the trademark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services. It helps consumers to identify and purchase a product or service. A trademark must be registered. The initial term of registration is for 10 years. Thereafter it can ‘ i be renewed.
In order to determine whether person or company is using a particular trade‘ mark, a trademark search can be conducted through the trademark registry maintained by Controller General of Patents De; I signs and Trademarks. The effect of trademark registration is limited to that couni try.
Industrial designs: It refers to the orna1 mental or aesthetic aspects of an article. A design may consist of three-dimensional features such as the shape, surface of an article or two-dimensional features, such s as patterns, lines or colour. An industrial design right protects the visual design of objects that are not purely functional. Industrial designs are applied to a wide misty of industrial products and handicraft.
Geographical indications: Geographical indications are signs used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that place of origin. Some of the popular products with geographical indications related to Kerala are Aranmula Kannadi and Palakkadan Matta Rice.
ii. Copyright: It is a legal right given to the creators for original work, usually for a limited period of time. Copyright applies to a wide range of creative, intellectual or artistic forms of works. This covers rights for reproduction, communication to the public, adaption and translation of the work. In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 came into effect from January 1958. This Act has been amended five times.
The general rule is that the copyright lasts for 60 years after the death of the last surviving author. Registration of copyright gives a legal status to creative work. This makes it intellectual property, exclusive legal right over the creation. It should be noted that it is not necessary to register to get the copyright. Copyright registrations in India are handled by the Copyright Office under the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The copyright holders of work can authorize or prohibit:
- its reproduction in forms, including print form and sound recording.
- its public performance and communication to the public.
- its broadcasting.
- its translation into other languages.
- its adaption, such as form a novel to a screenplay for a film.
Unauthorised use of intellectual property rights such as patents, copyrights and trademarks are called intellectual property infringement. It may be a violation of civil law or criminal law, depending on the type of intellectual property, jurisdiction (countries) and the nature of the action.
• Patent infringement is caused by using or selling a patented invention without permission from the patent holder.
• Trademark infringement occurs when one party uses a trademark that is identical to a trademark owned by another party, where both the parties use it for similar products or services. It is better to register the trademarks to get the legal advantage,
• Copyright infringement is reproducing, distributing, displaying or adaptation a work without permission from the copyright holder. It is often called piracy. Enforcement of copyright is generally the responsibility of the copyright holder.
Cyberspace is a virtual environment created by computer systems connected to the Internet. It is the term used to refer to simulated world, where we can do many things at one place. Cyberspace is an unreal world in which communication over computer networks occurs. It is an information superhighway where individuals gather information, interact, exchange ideas, provide social support, conduct business, play games, engage in discussions and so on.
Cyberspace is a space where social interactions dominate. Some people consider cyberspace as an uncontrolled and un; regulated electronic space where anyone is free to do anything as they wish and express themselves freely. Such acts of people affect or negatively influence many others, Hence, when an individual works on the Internet, they have to follow some rules and ethics which are beneficial to all users.
Cybercrime is defined as a criminal activity in which computers or computer networks are used as a tool, target or a place of criminal activity. The victims of cybercrime lose money, reputation and face mental trauma.
An important aspect of cybercrime is its nonlocal character. A crime can occur jurisdictions separated by vast distances.
That is an attacker may operate from a country and attack a destination in some other country. So the investigating team and the judiciary of different countries must keep hand in hand. Due to the anonymous nature of the Internet, it is possible for people to engage in a variety of criminal activities. People commit cyber crimes knowingly or unknowingly.
Cyber crimes include phishing, hacking, denial of service attacks, etc. Computer crime mainly consists of unauthorised access to computer systems, credit card frauds, illegal downloading, child pornography, cyber terrorism, creation and/or distribution of viruses, spam and so on. Cyber crimes can be basically divided into:
1. Cyber crimes against individuals
It is an act of a person in cyber that causes physical or mental trouble to an individual. They can be different types:
i. Identity theft: It occurs when someone uses another person’s identifying information like their name, credit card number, etc. without their permission to commit fraud or other crimes. It is a form of stealing a person’s identity, by which someone pretends to be someone else, to gain access to resource.
ii. Harassment: Posting humiliating comments focusing on gender, race, religion nationality at specific individuals in chat rooms, social media, email, etc are called harassment. The use of vulgar or indecent language, treating any illegal and immoral act through a computer or a computer network is considered as harassment.
The use of the Internet, to harass someone is called cyberstalking. Common characteristics of cyberstalking include threats, false accusations, monitoring, identify theft and data destruction or manipulation. Stalking also includes sexual or other I exploitation of minors. It can destroy friendships, careers, self-image and confidence.
iii. Impersonation and cheating: Impersonation is an act of pretending to be another person for the purpose of harming the 1 victim. There are people who utilise the ano nymity of the Internet to commit impersonation online.
Similar crimes occur in online auction also. They demand money before the delivery of item and never carry out their i order.
iv. Violation of privacy: It is the intrusion into the personal life of another, without a valid reason. This gives the person whose privacy has been invaded, the right to file a lawsuit for damages against the person/organisation that intruded. It con1 sists of distributing private information like personal data, photography, workplace monitoring videos, etc.
v. Dissemination obscence material:
It may include hosing website containing prohibited materials, use of computers for producing obscene material, downloading obscene materials through the Internet, etc. These obscene content may misguide adolescents.
2. Cyber crimes against property Cybercrimes against forms of property like credit cards, intellectual property, etc. are termed as cybercrime against property. These crimes include hacking, piracy computer vandalism (destruction of others property), unauthorised intrusion through cyberspace, unauthorised possession of information stored in computers, etc. These are classifieds into:
i. Credit Card fraud: It involves an unauthorised usage of another person’s credit card information for the purpose of payments for purchases or transferring funds from it. There are instances where the web servers of large organisations are hacked and credit card information of a large number of people is stolen by Internet thieves, They use this information to make payments or they sell this information to other fraudsters over Internet for a small price,
ii. Intellectual property theft: The infringement of IPRs come under this category. Violation of copyright, patent, trademark, etc. are intrusions against property, Copying of another person’s language, thoughts, ideas or expressions and presenting them as one’s own original work is called plagiarism. There are stringent copyright laws available in India which protect intellectual property rights. Plagiarism can be easily detected through various tools available online.
iii. Internet time theft: The usage of the Internet time by unauthorised persons, without the permission of the person who pays for it is called Internet time theft. This leads to loss of internet time and money.
3. Cyber crimes against government The various governmental computer networks and websites are vulnerable to risks and threats of cyber crimes. The different categories of cyber attacks against government are:
i. Cyber terrorism: It is a cyber attack against sensitive computer networks like nuclear power plants, air traffic controls, gas line controls, telecom, etc. These types of attacks against governments are increasing globally. Cyber terrorism focuses on the use of the internet by anti-nationals to affect a nation’s economic and technological infrastructure. It may prove to be very costly to a country. Therefore governments provide very powerful security mechanisms for their servers.
ii. Website defacement: This is a common cyber attack against a government. Defacement of websites includes hacking of government websites and posting derogatory comments about a government in those websites.
iii. Attacks against e-governance websites: These types of attacks deny a particular online government service. This is done using a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. They gain access to website administration through content management system and destroy the data. This causes huge loss to the government.
Cyberethics is the discipline of using appropriate and ethical behaviors and knowledging moral duties and obligations pertaining to online environments and digital media. Some of the ethical practices over the internet are:
- Use antivirus, firewall, and spam blocking software for your PC.
- Ensure security of websites (https and padlock) while conducting online cash transactions.
- Do not respond or act on emails sent from unknown sources.
- Use unique and complex passwords for accounts and change your passwords on a regular basis.
- Do not select the check boxes or click OK button before reading the contents of any agreement/message.
- Avoid the use of unauthorised software,
- Do not hide your identity and fool others,
- Do not use bad or rude language in social media and emails.
- Remove the check mark against “Remember me” before logging into your account using computers other than your personal ones.
Cyberlaw refers to the legal and regulatory aspects of the internet. It can be defined as a law governing the use of computers and the internet. Cyberlaw is important because it touches almost all aspects of transactions and activities using internet, Whether we realise it or not, every action and every reaction in cyberspace has some legal perspectives.
Information Technology Act 2000: The Information Technology Act, 2000 is India’s legislation regulating the use of computer, servers, computer networks, data and information in electronic format. The acts aim to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication.
IT Act allows using alternatives to paper-based communication and facilitates electronic filing of documents with government agencies. It gives legal acceptance for l electronic communication. It also addresses offenses and disputes in the cyberspace and provides justice to victims of cyber crimes, IT Act aims to provide legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India.
The Act was amended by the Information Technology Amendment Bill 2008, which was passed in December 2008. Sections 65 – 74 of the Act specifically deals with cyber crimes.
Forensics is the process of using scientific knowledge for identifying, collecting, preserving, analysing and presenting evidence to the courts. Cyber forensics can be defined as the discipline that combines elements of law and computer science to collect and analyse data from computer systems, networks, communication systems and storage devices in a way that is admissible as evidence in a court of law. The goal of computer forensics is to analyse data in a way that preserves the integrity of the evidence collected so that it can be used effectively in a legal case.
It is the state of getting exhausted with excess information. It occurs due to accumulation of information from many sources like internet, email and cell phones, but cannot be processed. While collecting information, its quality and relevance are also to be considered. Infomania is the excessive enthusiasm for acquiring knowledge. This may result in neglecting the more important things like duties, family, etc.
Studies prove that people addicted to infomania lose concentration and sleep. Excessive use of technology reduces intelligence.