Kerala Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 9 Environment Sustainable Development
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development One Mark Questions and Answers
What is the name of the UNCED seminal report?
Our Common Future.
Protecting future generations is emphasised by which of the following?
(i) Brundtland commission
(ii) Our common future
(iv) Herman Daly
(i) Bmndtland commission
Kyoto protocol was signed in ______.
In which state, Chipko Movement took place?
(iii) Himachal Pradesh
(iii) Himachal Pradesh
Identify the strategy for sustainable development.
(i) Wind energy
(ii) Solar energy
(iii) Gobar gas
(iv) All the above
(iv) All the above
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development Two Mark Questions and Answers
How does the UNCED define sustainable development?
The UNCED defines sustainable development as the development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.
Explain the supply-demand reversal of environmental resources.
In the initial stages of development, the demand for environmental resources was less than that of supply. But now the world is faced with increased demand for environmental resources, but their supply is limited due to overuse and misuse.
Give two instances of
- overuse of environmental resources
- misuse of environmental resources
1. Overuse of environmental resources:
2. Misuse of environmental resources:
Classify the following into renewable and non-renewable resources.
[Coal, Forest resources, Fish, Petrol]
- Forest resources
A few terms are given below. Make pairs of them.
[Growth, Development, Unidimensional, Multi dimensional]
- Unidimensional – Growth
- Multidimensional – Development
Outline the steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India.
The steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India are:
1. decreasing the absolute poverty of the poor by providing employment opportunities
2. providing livelihood in such a manner that can minimize resource depletion, environmental degradation, cultural disruption, and social instability.
Two major environmental issues facing the world today are ………. and ……………
Ozone depletion and global warming.
What is sustainable development?
Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.
Make a list of items that can be recycled.
The following are the things that can be recycled
- Glass, and
- Certain categories of waste of industries
What happens when the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration?
If the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration, the environment fails to sustain life by providing genetic and biodiversity. This will result in an economic crisis. The rising population in developing countries and the affluent consumption of resources have placed a huge stress on environments.
Give a short narration of ‘Chipko movement’.
‘Chipko Movement’ was started in Karnataka to save trees. The word ‘Chipko’ means ‘to hug’. On 8th September 1983, 160 men, women and children hugged the trees in Salkani forest in Sirsi and forced the woodcutters to leave the ultimate aim of this movement is to save trees.
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development Three Mark Questions and Answers
What are the opportunity costs of negative environmental impacts?
- As the reserves are exhausted huge amount of money should be spent on research to explore new resources.
- Health cost of degraded environmental quality.
- The increased financial commitment for the government due to global warming and ozone depletion.
What do you mean by ‘Green net national income’? How is it calculated?
Green net national income is the difference between net national income and depreciation of natural capital. It can be calculated using the following formula.
Green net national income = Net national income – depletion of natural resources – environmental degradation.
Match the columns
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development Four Mark Questions and Answers
Keeping in view your locality, suggest any four strategies of sustainable development.
The following strategies can be adopted for the sustainable development of our locality.
- Use of solar power through photovoltaic cells
- The practice of bio composting
- Generating wind power
- Using bio pest control
Differentiate between natural capital and man-made capital?
1. Natural capital refers to the sum total of the natural resources and environment available to a country as a free gift of nature.
2. On the other hand, man-made capital refers to the stock of all such things which are produced by man for use as means of production.
Fill in the blanks
- Coal is a …………… energy
- Burning of fossil fuel leads to …………
- Bio composts are used in …………… farming
- CFCs cause ……………… depletion
- global warming
List out the functions of the environment.
The environment performs four vital functions which
are listed out below:
1. It supplies resources:
resources here include both renewable and nonrenewable resources. Renewable resources are those which can be used without the possibility of the resource becoming depleted or exhausted.
That is, a continuous supply of the resource remains available. Examples of renewable resources are the trees in the forests and the fishes in the ocean. Nonrenewable resources, on the other hand, are those which get exhausted with extraction and use, for example, fossil fuel.
2. It assimilates waste
3. It sustains life by providing genetic and biodiversity and
4. It also provides aesthetic services like scenery etc.
Identify the factors contributing to land degradation in India?
The following are the factors responsible for land degradation in India.
- loss of vegetation occurring due to deforestation.
- shifting cultivation.
- forest fires.
- unsustainable fuelwood extraction.
- non-adoption of soil conservation measures.
“The environmental crisis is a recent phenomenon”. Do you agree?
Yes, environment crisis is a recent phenomenon. In early days, when civilisation just began, before the phenomenal increase in population and growth of industrialisation, the demand for environmental resources was within the carrying capacity of the environment and so the pollution was also within the absorptive capacity, of the environment.
Therefore, environmental problems did not arise. But with the advent of industrialisation and outbreak of population, environmental problems arisen and the resources for both production and consumption proved to be beyond the rate of regeneration of the resources and the absorptive capacity of the environment.
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development Five Mark Questions and Answers
Account for the current environmental crisis.
Environment performs four functions, namely, supplies resources, assimilates wastes, sustains life and provides aesthetic services. But the rising population of the developing countries, the affluent consumption and production standards of the developing countries and industrial revolution have brought the situation of environmental crisis i.e., it all had put great pressure on the first two functions of the environment.
Many resources have become extinct and the wastes generated are beyond the absorptive capacity of environment. The crisis has worsened by the drying up of rivers. Besides, the intensive and extensive extraction of both renewable and non-renewable resources has exhausted some of these vital resources and thus we are compelled to spend huge resources on technology and research to explore new resources.
The situation becomes more worsened with the current issues of global warming and ozone depletion. They also put great strain on the government’s finite financial resources.
In 2007 Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded to an individual Algore and an institution IPCC, both engaged in creating awareness about the consequences of global warming. Suggest some measures to keep global warming under control.
Global warming refers to the increase in the atmosphere temperature. The temperature increases due to the emission of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are emerged from the burning of biomass and from the consumption of petrol, coal, etc, can absorb temperature.
This can be reduced by :
- Reducing pollution and waste.
- Using more solar, wind and tidal energy.
- New technology and eco-friendly means of production.
- Effective rules and its implementation.
Plus One Economics Environment Sustainable Development Eight Mark Questions and Answers
Prepare a Seminar Report on “Strategies for Sustainable Development”
[Hint: A Seminar Report should have a title, Introduction, Content, and conclusion].
“Strategies for Sustainable Development”.
The plus one commerce batch of (Name of school) conducted a seminar on the topic “Strategies for Sustainable Development” on 12/09/ 2017 at 11.0 a.m with the ample guidance of our economics teacher. Our class was divided into five groups to cover the entire area of the topic. Each group focused on two points each. They focused on the area given to them and the group leader presented the seminar paper after required preparation.
Sustainable development is, in this sense, a development that meets the basic needs of all, particularly the poor majority, for employment, food, energy, water, housing, and ensures growth of agriculture, manufacturing, power, and services to meet these needs.
1. Strategies for sustainable development use of non-conventional Sources of Energy:
India, as you know, is hugely dependent on thermal and hydropower plants to meet its power needs. Both of these have adverse environmental impacts. Thermal power plants emit large quantities of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. It also produces fly ash which, if not used properly, can cause pollution of water bodies, land and other components of the environment.
2. LPG, Gobar Gas in Rural Areas:
Households in rural areas generally use wood, dung cake or other biomass as fuel. This practice has several adverse implications like deforestation, reduction in green cover, wastage of cattle dung and air pollution. To rectify the situation, subsidized LPG is being provided.
In addition, gobar gas plants are being provided through easy loans and subsidy. As far as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is concerned, it is a clean fuel it reduces household pollution to a large extent. Also, energy wastage is minimized
3. CNG in Urban Areas:
In Delhi, the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport system has significantly lowered air pollution and the air has become cleaner in the last few years.
4. Wind Power:
In areas where speed of wind is usually high, windmills can provide electricity without any adverse impact on the environment. Wind turbines move with the wind and electricity is generated.
5. Solar Power through Photovoltaic Cells:
India is naturally endowed with a large quantity of solar energy in the form of sunlight. With the help of photovoltaic cells, solar energy can be converted into electricity. These cells use special kind of materials to capture solar energy and then convert the energy into electricity.
6. Mini hydel Plants:
In mountainous regions, streams can be found almost everywhere. A large percentage of such streams are perennial. Mini-hydel plants use the energy of such streams to move small turbines.
7. Traditional Knowledge and Practices:
Traditionally, Indian people have been close to their environment. They have been more a component of the environment and not its controller.
If we look back at our agriculture system, health care system, housing, transport, etc., we find that all practices have been environment-friendly. Only recently have we drifted away from the traditional systems and caused large scale damage to the environment and also our rural heritage.
In our quest to increase agricultural production during the last five decades or so, we almost totally neglected the use of compost and completely switched over to chemical fertilizers.
9. Bio-pest Control:
With the advent of green revolution, the entire country entered into a frenzy to use more and more chemical pesticides for higher yield. Soon, the adverse impacts began to show; food products were contaminated, soil, water bodies, and even groundwater were polluted with pesticides.
All five groups presented their topics with necessary facts and figures. After the presentation, there was a question-answer session. The active participation of everyone made this session live and interesting. On the whole, the seminar was a big success.