## Kerala Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 14 Presentation of Data

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Which of the following comes under a geometric diagram?

(a) Histogram

(b) Bar diagram

(c) Ogives

(d) Frequency polygon

Answer:

(b) Bar diagram

Question 2.

Which of the following comes under frequency diagrams?

(a) Bar diagram

(b) Histogram

(c) Pie diagram

(d) All the above

Answer:

(b) Histogram

Question 3.

To draw a time-series graph, time is presented on:

(a) X-axis

(b) Y-axis

(c) any of two

Answer:

(a) X-axis

Question 4.

Name the types of graphs.

Answer:

- One dimensional graph
- Two-dimensional graph
- Three-dimensional graph
- Pictograms

Question 5.

State whether true or false.

- The width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal.
- The width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal.
- Histograms can only be formed with continuous classification of data.
- Histogram and column diagram are the same method of presentation of data.
- Mode of a frequency distribution can be drawn graphically with the help of histogram,
- The median of a frequency distribution cannot be drawn from the Ogive.

Answer:

- true
- false
- true
- true
- true
- true

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Which of the following is a cumulative frequency curve?

Answer:

(a) Bar diagram

(b) Histogram

(c) Ogive

(d) Pie diagram

Answer:

(c) Ogive

Question 2.

Distinguish between captions and stubs.

Answer:

Captions refer to the column headings and stubs refer to the row heading.

Question 3.

Match the following.

A | B |

Source note | Row headings |

Captions | Gives origin of data |

Stubs | Explains the specific feature |

Footnote | Column Headings |

Answer:

A | B |

Source note | Gives origin of data |

Captions | Column Headings |

Stubs | Row Headings |

Footnote | Explains the specific feature |

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Three Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

What kind of diagrams are more effective in representing the following?

- Monthly rainfall in a year
- Composition of the population of Delhi by religion
- Components of cost in a factory

Answer:

- Simple bar diagram
- Sub-divided or component bar diagram
- Pie diagram

Question 2.

Name different types of diagrams.

Answer:

The different types of diagrams are:

1. Geometric diagram

- Bar diagrams
- Pie diagram

2. Frequency diagram

- Histogram
- Frequency polygon
- Frequency curve -Ogive

3. Arithmetic line graph

Question 3.

“Diagrams and graphs help us visualize the whole meaning of numerical complex data at a single glance”. Comment.

Answer:

One of the most convincing and appealing ways in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs. The special feature of graphs and diagrams is that they do away with figures altogether. Diagrams and graph is a statistical method which can be used for simplifying the complexity of quantitative data and t make them easily intelligible.

It presents dry and uninteresting statistical facts in the shape of attractive and appealing pictures and charts. They are important methods of visual aids and are appealing t the eye and mind of the observer.

Question 4.

“There are generally three forms of diagrammatic presentation of data” explain.

Answer:

There are various methods to present data. But generally, three forms of presentation of data are there which are noted below:

- Geometric diagram
- Frequency diagram
- Arithmetic line graph

1. Geometric Diagram:

Bar diagram and pie diagram come in the category of geometric diagram for presentation of data. The bar diagrams are of three types-simple, multiple and component bar diagrams.

2. Frequency Diagram:

Data in the form of grouped frequency distributions are generally represented by frequency diagrams like histogram, frequency polygon, frequency curve, and ogive

3. Arithmetic Line Graph:

An arithmetic line graph is also called time-series graph and is a method of diagrammatic presentation of data. A line graph by joining these plotted points, thus, obtained is called arithmetic line graph or time-series graph.

Question 5.

Explain Ogive?

Answer:

Cumulative frequency of any class is equal to the sum of the frequencies of all the classes preceding that class and its own frequency e.g., frequencies are 10, 7, 12, 17 and 22. Cumulative frequencies are 10, 10 + 7 = 17, 17 + 12 = 29, 29 + 17 = 46 and 46 + 22 = 68.

Cumulative frequency of the last class = Total frequency.

For drawing an Ogive, cumulative frequency (i.e. number of values) is taken on the Y-axis and limits of class intervals on the X-axis.

Ogive is of two types:

- less than
- more than

In a “less than” type Ogive, we plot the upper limit of each class along the X-axis and in a “more than” type Ogive, we plot the lower limit of each class along the X-axis. Along the Y-axis, we plot the cumulative frequencies at the end of each class. Ogive can be drawn even if the class interval are unequal or open end. Ogives are performed over frequency curves for comparative study.

Question 6.

Illustrate how classes can be formed while presenting the data?

Answer:

Classes can be formed in two ways:

- Exclusive type
- Inclusive type

1. Exclusive Type:

When the class intervals are so fixed that the upper limit of one class is the lower limit of the new class, it is known as the exclusive method of classification.

Marks (Percentage) | No. of students |

0-10 | 15 |

10-20 | 17 |

20-30 | 22 |

30-40 | 30 |

40-50 | 39 |

50-60 | 45 |

In this method, the higher value of the variable in the class is not included in that class i.e.,

Marks (Percentage) | No. of students |

0 and more but less than 10 | 15 |

10 and more but less than 20 | 17 |

20 and more but less than 30 | 22 |

30 and more but less than 40 | 30 |

40 and more but less than 50 | 39 |

50 and more but less than 60 | 45 |

2. Inclusive Type:

In this method, the students get say 39% marks will be included in class 30 – 39 itself i.e.,

Marks (Percentage) | No. of students |

0-9 | 5 |

10-19 | 8 |

20-29 | 7 |

30-39 | 13 |

40-49 | 25 |

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Four Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Choose the correct answer

a. Bar diagram is a

- one-dimensional diagram
- two-dimensional diagram
- diagram with no dimension
- none of the above

b. Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the

- mean
- mode
- median
- all the above

c. Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the

- mode
- mean
- median
- none of the above

d. Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding

- long term trend
- cyclicity in data
- seasonality in data
- all the above

Answer:

a. 1. one-dimensional diagram

b. 3. mode

c. 3. median

d. 1. long term trend

Question 2.

Point out major parts of a statistical table.

Answer:

- Table number
- Title
- Headnote
- Stub
- Box head or caption
- Body or field
- Footnote
- Source note

Question 3.

Give the rules for constructing tables.

Answer:

The rules of constructing diagrams are:

- Every diagram should be titled.
- It should suit the size of the paper
- It should be neat and attractive
- It should be neatly indexed
- It should contain footnotes
- The details in the diagram should be self-explanatory

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Explain the advantages of diagrammatic presentation.

Answer:

The advantages of diagrammatic presentation are given below.

- Diagram give a clear picture of data
- Comparison can be made easy
- Diagrams can be used university at any place
- It saves time and energy
- The data can be remembered easily

Question 2.

Show how the pie diagram is drawn for the following data?

Items | Production in K.G. |

Tea | 3260 |

Coffee | 1850 |

Cocoa | 900 |

Total | 6010 |

Answer:

Question 3.

Give steps in the preparation of pie diagram.

Answer:

A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a component bar diagram, a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components it represents. It is also called a pie chart. The circle is divided into as many parts as there are components by drawing straight lines from the centre to the circumference.

The following steps in the preparation of pie diagram are given below:

- Convert each component as percentage of the total.
- Multiply the percentage by 360/100 = 3.6 to convert into degree.
- Starting with the twelve o’clock position on the circle draw the largest component circle
- Draw other components in clockwise succession in descending order of magnitude except for each all components

Like all others and miscellaneous which are shown last:

- Use different columns or shades to distinguish between different components
- Explain briefly the different components either within the components in the figure or outside by arrow.

### Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Eight Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Write short notes on the following

- pie diagrams
- frequency curves
- frequency polygon
- ogive
- arithmetic line graph

Answer:

1. Pie Diagram:

A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a component bar diagram, a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components it represents. It is also called a pie chart. The circle is divided into as many parts as there are components by drawing straight lines from the centre to the circumference. Pie charts usually are not drawn with absolute values of a category.

The values of each category are first expressed as percentage of the total value of all the categories. A circle in a pie chart, irrespective of its value of radius, is thought of having 100 equal parts of 3.6° (3607100) each. To find out the angle, the component shall subtend at the centre of the circle, each percentage figure of every component is multiplied by 3.6°.

2. Frequency Polygon:

A frequency polygon is a plane bounded by straight lines, usually four or more lines. A frequency polygon is an alternative to histogram and is also derived from histogram itself. A frequency polygon can be fitted to a histogram for studying the shape of the curve. The simplest method of drawing a frequency polygon is to join the midpoints of the topside of the consecutive rectangles of the histogram.

3. Frequency Curve:

The frequency curve is obtained by drawing a smooth freehand curve passing through the points of the frequency polygon as closely as possible. It may not necessarily pass through all the points of the frequency polygon but it passes through them as closely as possible

4. Ogive:

Ogive is also called the cumulative frequency curve. As there are two types of cumulative frequencies, for example, less than type and more than type, accordingly there are two ogives for any grouped frequency distribution data. Here in place of simple frequencies as in the case of frequency polygon, cumulative frequencies are plotted along the y-axis against class limits of the frequency distribution.

For less than give the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective upper limits of the class intervals whereas for more than ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective lower limits of the class interval. An interesting feature of the two ogives together is that their intersection point gives the median

5. Arithmetic Line Graph:

An arithmetic line graph is also called a time-series graph and is a method of diagrammatic presentation of data. Init, time (hour, day/date, week, month, year, etc.) is plotted along the x-axis and the value of the variable (time series data) along y-axis. A line graph by joining these plotted points, thus, obtained is called arithmetic line graph (time series graph). It helps in understanding the trend, periodicity, etc. in long-term time-series data.

Question 2.

3 Forms of presentation of data

- Textual
- Tabular
- Diagrams & graphs Prepare a flow chart.

Answer: