## Kerala Plus One Computer Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 The Discipline of Computing

**Very Short Answer Type Questions**

**(Score 1)**

Question 1.

The Sumerian number system is also known as

Answer:

Babylonian number system

Question 2.

Who is the first programmer in the world?

Answer:

Agusta Ada King

Question 3.

The computing machine developed by Balaise Pascal is known as

Answer:

Pascaline

Question 4.

The first number system which had a symbol for zero is

a. Egyptian number system

b. Chinese number system

c. Hindu-Arabic numeral system

d. Ionian number system

Answer:

c. Hindu-Arabic numeral system

Question 5.

Sumerian number system used …. as its number base,

a. 20

b. 10

c. 7

d. 60

Answer:

d. 60

Question 6.

Abacus was discovered by the

a. Mesopotamians

b. Egyptians

c. Babylonians

d. Indians

Answer:

a. Mesopotamians

Question 7.

Mark – I was invented by

a. Charles Babbage

b. Howard Aiken

c. Blaise Pascal

d. John Napier

Answer:

b. Howard Aiken

Question 8.

ENIAC machine belongs to which generation?

a. First generation

b. Second generation

c. Third generation

d. Fourth generation

Answer:

a. First generation

Question 9.

Who invented EDVAC?

a. Eckert and Mauchly

b. Herman Hollerith

c. J. Presper Eckert

d. Von Neumann

Answer:

d. Von Neumann

Question 10.

During generation, high level programming languages ;FORTRAN and COBOL were introduced.

Answer:

Second

Question 11.

Fifth generation computers are based on

a. IC

b. vacuum tubes

c. transistors

d. Artificial Intelligence

Answer:

d. Artificial Intelligence

Question 12.

Who is the father of modern computer science as well as artificial intelligence?

a. Charles Babbage

b. Alan Turing

c. Howard Aiken

d. None of these

Answer:

b. Alan Turing

**Short Answer Type Questions**

**(Score 2)**

Question 1.

What do you mean by the theory of computing?

Answer:

The theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved based on computation models and related algorithms.

Question 2.

Nowadays what are the uses of Abacus?

Answer:

Abacus is used even today by children to learn counting. A skilled abacus operation can be as fast as a hand held calculator.

Question 3.

What are the drawbacks of machine languages?

Answer:

Machine language had many drawbacks like difficulty in finding and rectifying programming errors and its machine dependency. The programmer also needed to have a good knowledge of the computer architecture.

**Short Answer Type Questions**

**(Score 3)**

Question 1.

Write a short notes on Abacus.

Answer:

It was discovered by the Mesopotamians. The word ‘abacus’ means calculating board and also known as counting frame. An abacus consisted of beads on movable rods divided into two parts. The abacus may be considered the first computer for basic arithmetical calculations. Abacus works on the basis of the place value system.

Question 2.

On what factors, the action of Turing machine depends?

Answer:

**The action of a Turing machine is determined by:**

- The current state of the machine.
- The symbol in the cell currently being scanned by the head.
- a table of transition rules, which serve as the ‘program’ for the machine.

Question 3.

Explain Von Neumann architedure.

Answer:

Von Neumann architecture consists of a central processing unit (CPU) containing arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control unit (CU), input-output unit and a memory for storing data and instructions. This model implements the ‘Stored Program Concept’ in which the data and the instructions are stored in the memory.

Question 4.

What are the contributions of Alan Turing to the development of computer science?

Answer:

He made significant contributions to the development of computer science, by presenting the concepts of algorithm and computing with the help of his invention the Turing Machine, which is considered as a theoretical model of a general purpose computer. Considering these contributions he is regarded as the father of modern Computer science as well as artificial intelligence.

Question 5.

**Match the following:**

A | B |

a. Pascaline | 1. Leibniz |

b.Leibniz’s calculator | 2. Charles Babbage |

c. Difference engine | 3. Howard Aiken |

d. Mark – I | 4. Blaise Pascal |

5. Herman Hollerith |

Answer:

A | B |

a. Pascaline | 4. Blaise Pascal |

b. Leibniz’s calculator | 1. Leibniz |

c. Difference engine | 2. Charles Babbage |

d. Mark – I | 3. Howard Aiken |

Question 6.

How is the zero represented in the Babylonian Number System?

Answer:

Babylonian number system used 60 as its number base, known as the sex agesimal system. Numerals were written from left to right. It was the largest base that people ever used in number systems. They did not used any symbol for zero, but they used the idea if zero. When they wanted to express zero, they just left a blank space within the number they were writing.

**Long Answer Type Questions**

**(Score 5)**

Question 1.

Briefly write the major changes in the technology during the different generation of computers.

Answer:

**The major changes in the technology during the different generation of computers are:**

- First generation: The first generation computers were built using vacuum tubes. This generation implemented the stored program concept.
- Second generation: In this generation computers, transistors were used. This allowed computers to become smaller and more powerful and faster.
- Third generation: These computers are smaller in size due to the use of integrated circuits (IC’s). IC drastically reduced the size and increased the speed and efficiency of computing.
- Fourth generation: These computers use microprocessors. They have high processing speed.
- Fifth generation: These computers are based on artificial intelligence (AI).

Question 2.

Explain with example how addition is performed using Abacus?

Answer:

The abacus works on the basis of the place value system. Reading it is almost like reading a written numeral. Each of the five beads below the bar has a value of 1. Each of the two beads above the bar has a value of 5. The beads which are pushed against the bar represent the number.

eg., If we want to add 54 to 46, then the arrangements of beads are shown below:

Question 3.

State whether the following statements are true or false. If false,write the correct statement.

A. Augusta Ada King is known as the first programmer in the world.

B. High level programming language was introduced in the third generation computers.

C. John Napier invented logarithm tables.

D.Integrated circuits was developed at Bell Laboratories.

Answer:

A. True

B. False. High level programming language was introduced in the second generation computers.

C. True

D. False. Integrated circuits was developed at Texas Instruments.

Question 4.

Discuss the developments of the number system from the Egyptian to the Chinese Era.

Answer:

Egyptian number system that emerged around 3000 BC. It used 10 as a radix (base). As the Egyptians write from right to left, the largest power of ten appears to the right of the other numerals.

Later on, the era of Sumerian/Babylonian number system began. It used 60 as its number base, known as the sexagesimal system. Numerals were written from left to right. It was the largest base that people ever used in number systems. They did not use any symbol for zero, but they used the idea of zero. When they wanted to express zero, they just left a blank space within the number they were writing.

The Chinese number system emerged around in 2500 BC. It was the simplest and the most efficient number system. The Chinese had numbers from 1 to 9. It had the base 10, very similar to the one we use today. They used small bamboo rods to represent i the numbers 1 to 9.

Question 5.

Compare the Analytical Engine and Difference Engine of Charles Babbage.

Answer:

Difference engine could perform arithmetic calculations and print results ; automatically.

Analytical engine is the real predecessor of the modern day computer. Analytical engine marks the development from arithmetic calculation to general purpose computation. The Engine had a ‘Store’ (memory) where numbers and intermediate results could be stored, and a separate ‘Mill’ (processor) where arithmetic processing could be performed. Its input/output devices were in the form of punched cards containing instructions.

Question 6.

Discuss the evolution of computer languages.

Answer:

The first programming language developed for use in computers was called machine language. Machine language consisted of strings of the binary digits o and 1. It is difficult to write programs using this language. To make programming easier, a new language with instructions consisting of English-like words instead of o’s and 1’s, was developed. This language was called assembly language. The programs written in this language are not transferable from one machine to another. High level languages are machine independent and which used simple English like words and statements.

**Textual Questions & Answers**

Question 1.

Which is the base of Mayan’s number system? (1)

Answer:

20

Question 2.

Greek number system is known as (1)

Answer:

Ionian number system

Question 3.

Which was the first computer for basic arithmetic calculations? (1)

Answer:

Abacus

Question 4.

Who invented logarithms?

Answer:

John Napier

Question 5.

What is the name of the machine developed by Blaise Pascal? (1)

Answer:

Pascaline

Question 6.

Computing machines recognizes and operates in language. (1)

Answer:

machine

Question 7.

What does EDVAC stand for? (1)

Answer:

Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

Question 8.

Give the name for a simple kind of theoretical computing machine. (1)

Answer:

Turing machine

Question 9.

What are the features of Hindu- Arabic number system? (2)

Answer:

The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated in India, around 1500 years ago. It was a positional decimal numeral system and had a symbol for zero.

Question 10.

How is the zero represented in the Babylonian number system? (1)

Answer:

Using blank space

Question 11.

Discuss the developments of the number system from the Egyptian to the Chinese Era. (3)

Answer:

Egyptian number system that emerged around 3000 BC. It used 10 as a radix (base). As the Egyptians write from right to left, the largest power of ten appears to the right of the other numerals.

Later on, the era of Sumerian/ Babylonian number system began. It used 60 as its number base, known as the sexagesimal system. Numerals were written from left to right. It was the largest base that people ever used in number systems. They did not use any symbol for zero, but they used the idea of zero. When they wanted to express zero, they just left a blank space within the number they were writing.

The Chinese number system emerged around in 2500 BC. It was the simplest and the most efficient number system. The Chinese had numbers from 1 to 9. It had the base 10, very similar to the one we use today. They used small bamboo rods to represent the numbers 1 to 9.

Question 12.

Discuss the impact of Hindu- Arabic numeral system in the world. (2)

Answer:

Hindu-Arabic numeral system was a positional decimal numeral system and had a symbol for zero. This invention can indeed be termed as one of India’s greatest contributions to the world. Later on many of the countries adopted this numeral system.

Question 13.

Compare the Roman number system and Mayan’s number system. (3)

Answer:

The Romans used 7 letters (I, V, X, L, C, D and M) of the alphabet for representing numbers.

The Mayans used a number system with base 20. It is the sum of the number of fingers and toes. This number system could produce very accurate astronomical observations and make measurements with greater accuracy.

Question 14.

Discuss the features of Abacus. (3)

Answer:

An abacus consisted of beads on movable rods divided into two parts. The abacus may be considered the first computer for basic arithmetical calculations. Abacus works on the basis of the place value system. Reading it is almost like reading a written numeral. Each of the five beads below the bar has a value of 1. Each of the two beads above the bar has a value of 5. The beads which are pushed against the bar represent the number.

Question 15.

Compare the Analytical Engine and Difference Engine of Charles Babbage. (5)

Answer:

Difference engine could perform arithmetic calculations and print results automatically.

Analytical engine is the real predecessor of the modern day computer. Analytical engine marks the development from arithmetic calculation to general purpose computation. The Engine had a ‘Store’ (memory) where numbers and intermediate results could be stored, and a separate ‘Mill’ (processor) where arithmetic processing could be performed. Its input/output devices | were in the form of punched cards containing instructions.

Question 15.

Bring out the significance of Hollerith’s machine. (3)

Answer:

It is the first electromechanical punched card tabulator that used punched cards for input, output and instructions. The card had holes on them in a particular pattern, having special meaning for each kind of data. The significance of this machine is the use of electricity to read, count and sort punched cards whose holes represented data.

Question 16.

What are the developments in computing machines that took place during the Second WorldWar? (2)

Answer:

During the second world war, the British developed a secrete code breaking computer called Colossus to decode German messages. It was designed using vacuum tubes.

Question 17.

State the Moore’s Law and discuss its significance. (3)

Answer:

Moore’s law states that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. Moore predicted that the trend would continue ‘for atleast ten years’. His prediction has proven to be accurate. Although this trend continued for more than half a century, Moore’s Law is considered only as an observation and not a physical or natural law.

Question 18.

Discuss the evolution of computer languages. (5)

Answer:

The first programming language developed for use in computers was called machine language. Machine language consisted of strings of the binary digits 0 and 1. It is difficult to write programs using this language. To make programming easier, a new language with instructions consisting of English-like words instead of o’s and 1’s, was developed. This language was called assembly language. The programs written in this language are not transferable from one machine to another.

Question 19.

Discuss the working of Turing Machine. (2)

Answer:

Turing machine is a model of a computer proposed by Alan Turing. Turing machine is a theoretical computing device that could print symbols on a paper tape in a manner that emulate a person following a series of logical instructions. A Turing machine consists of an infinitely-long tape which acts like the memory in a computer.

Question 20.

List out and explain the various generations of computers. (5)

Answer:

**First generation computers (1940-56):** The first generation computers were built using vacuum tubes. This generation implemented the stored

program concept, eg., Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC), Universal Automatic Computer (UNIV-AC).

**Second generation computers (1956¬63):** In this generation computers, vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. This allowed computers to become smaller and more powerful and faster. The manufacturing cost was also less. The concept of programming language was developed. Programming languages FORTRAN and COBOL were introduced, eg., IBM 1401, IBM 1620.

**Third generation computers (1964¬71):** These are smaller in size due to the use of integrated circuits (IC’s). IC drastically reduced the size and in-creased the speed and efficiency of computing. Keyboards and monitors were introduced. The high level language BASIC was developed during this period, eg., IBM 360, IBM 370.

**Fourth generation computers (1971 onwards):** The computers that we use today belong to this generation. These computers use microprocessors and are called microcomputers use Large Scale of Integration (LSI). These computers are smaller in size and have faster accessing and processing speeds, eg., IBM PC, Apple II.

**Fifth generation computers (future):** These are based on artificial intelligence. The fifth generation computing also aims at developing computing machines that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organisation.

Question 21.

Prepare a seminar report on evolution of positional number system. (3)

Answer:

Egyptian number system (3000BC) used 10 as a radix (base) and write from right to left. Sumerian/Babylonian number system used 60 as its number base, known as the sexagesimal system and written from left to right. The Chinese number system which are represented by using small bamboo rods. Greek/Ionian number system (500 BC) was a decimal number system. The Romans used 7 letters (I, V, X, L, C, D and M) of the alphabet for representing numbers. The Mayans used a number system with base 20. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated in India, around 1500 years ago. It was a positional decimal numeral system and had a symbol for zero.

Question 22.

Discuss the various computing machines emerged till 1900’s. (5)

Answer:

- Abacus: It is considered the first computer for basic arithmetical calculations. Napier’s bones: A set of rods by which the multiplication problem easily per-formed.
- Pascaline: A computing machine capable of adding and subtracting two numbers directly.
- Leibniz’s calculator: A calculating machine which performs multiplication and division.
- Jacquard’s loom: It simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with punched cards.
- Difference engine: In these, mathematical calculations can be broken up into simple operations.
- Analytical engine: It had a memory, processor and input-output devices in the form of punched cards for arithmatic calculation and general purpose computation.
- Hollerith’s machine: It is the first electro mechanical punched card tabulator used in US Census Bureau.

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