Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1CM
The action of microbes does not only result in the spoilage of foods but would also be used in the improvisation of the shelf life of the food. The method of improvisation is obtained through the process of fermentation. The nutritive value of the food would also be improved in the process .
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1CT
Recombinant DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) technology could alter the basic blue print of the plant DNA, which when altered in the right way could elaborately add significant value to the food produced. For example, as it is in the case of Bt cotton, the plant itself could be reengineered to ensure that it produces the toxin, thus enabling the wastage of money through the usage of commercial pesticides. This is one of the value additions to a plant as a result of recombinant DNA technology, which would also have a telling effect on the profit ratio as well.
It should be noted that thought the reengineered plants would affect the food value to the products. But the fact remains clear that the altered food grains might induce some unexpected outcomes that might arise at times, which act against both productivity and value. The altered gene will not be subjected to all the extremities that the plant is supposed to undergo mutation. As a result, there will definitely be some unanswered questions about their behavioral pattern, which is the reason why some people go against the production of transgenic crops.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1FB
The nutrient value of the food pulls more microbes towards the food rather than processing and handling factors. This is because processing and handling factors, which are extrinsic factors. Moreover, higher the nutrient value, higher will be the concentration of microbes contaminating.
Thus, Intrinsic factors affecting food spoilage are properties of the food rather than processing or handling.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1L
Carbon cycle initiates through the primary producers by fixing the inorganic carbon dioxide in their system as carbohydrates. The produced carbohydrates pass through the cycle and they are used by consumers. This would ultimately reach the inorganic form. The carbon cycle is a highly essential one, since the fixed carbon in the form of carbohydrate forms the major source of energy for the living system.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1M
Fecal contaminations in water sources are often analyzed by the presence of coliforms in the sample. The coliforms are an integral part of the digestive system of humans and escapes to environment, through feces. However, it could be ascertained that fecal contamination could be matched only with Coliforms.
Thus, the statement, “organisms in water indicate contamination from feces, matches with the term, “coliforms.”
Hence, the correct option is C. Coliforms.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1MC
- Fermentation would enable a partial digestion of the foods thereby leading to a reduced acidity level. Though this would lead to a reduction in the quantum of pathogenic microorganisms, it would not completely eliminate the entire microbial content from the food. Hence, the correct option is (c) sterilize foods.
- Fermentation of food provides a characteristic taste because of the production of certain chemicals as a result of microbial metabolism. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Fermentation lowers the acidity of the food stuff thereby aiding in the reduction the spoilage of food stuffs. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- With a reduction in acidity and with the addition of salt and sugar during fermentation of certain food stuffs, the water activity level required for the unexpected microbe to survive would be reduced drastically. This would ultimately increase the shelf life of the product formed. Hence, the option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 1MTF
The given statement is false.
Fermentation of dairy products relies on lactic acid fermentation process and not on mixed acid fermentation. Mixed acid fermentation is an anaerobic fermentation process that results in the production of complex mixture of acids like acetate, lactate, formate, succinate, and ethanol. These acids are not produced in fermentation of dairy products.
Hence, the correct statement is “Fermentation of dairy products relies on lactic acid fermentation.”
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 2CT
A microbial growth could clearly be divided into a lag phase, log phase, stationary phase and a death phase. The lag phase is the time taken by the microbes when they are introduced into a new system. This is mainly to produce the enzymes and other growth factors necessary for the multiplication of the microbes. The log phase is where the microbes start multiplying exponentially. The next stage is the stationary phase where the number of new cells formed would be equivalent to the cells that dies. The last stage is the death phase, which would happen in a batch culture as a result of depletion of nutrients.
It is at the log phase that the microbes start synthesizing the primary metabolites. This is the reason why the production of primary metabolites is higher on compared to the secondary metabolites. It is during this phase, the metabolic activity of the microbial cell would be at their peak. The secondary metabolites on the other hand would be synthesized during the stationary phase where the metabolic activities of the cells have reduced. This is the major reason why primary metabolites are always higher in their proportion on compared with the secondary metabolites.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 2FB
Most of the microbes are capable of growing and multiplying at room temperatures than at either very high or very low temperatures. The food gets spoiled, depending on the type of food. Moreover, increases the chances of the food to be spoiled when it is left at room temperature. For example, bread consists of carbohydrates its spoilage does not produce much odor, but promote the growth of fungi – molds. Additionally, if the food contains proteins or fats, spoiled food produce terrible odors, due to the breakdown of proteins into short-chained fatty acids.
Thus, leaving foods out at room temperature increases the likelihood of food spoilage.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 2M
The toxin Bt is produced by an organism Bacillus thuringeinsis. The toxin when sprayed on the plants is further fed by specific groups of insects. This would lead to damage the guts of the insects, ultimately killing them. Thus, it could be ascertained that compounds that are capable of killing an insect could only be matched against Bt toxin.
Therefore, the statement, “compound produced by a bacterium that kills insects” matches with the term, “Bt toxin.”
Hence, the correct option is F. Bt toxin.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 2MC
- Since, the quantum of alcohol produced and the product formed will be different every time with naturally occurring microbes are used. The use of natural bacterial culture is neglected. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Though yeast is used in the fermentation process, those occurring naturally on the surface of the grapes cannot be used for fermentation. This is because the quantum of microbial inoculum cannot be the same in all process including natural yeasts. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- Fermentation is a process during which the sugars present would be converted into alcohol, as a result of fungal enzymatic process. Yeast is said to be involved in the production of enzyme in the conversion process. Hence, the option (c) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 2MTF
The given statement is False.
Sauerkraut involves the fermentation of salted cabbage. This involves the action of lactic acid bacteria. Though the process of sauerkraut production is fermentation, the process ends up not with the production of ethanol, but with the lactic acid.
Hence, the correct statement is “Sauerkraut production involves the lactic acid fermentation of cabbage.”
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 3CT
Ethanol, methane, and hydrogen could be used as an alternative fuel that could quench the needs of the present day. Ethanol could be produced through fermentation of molasses, which when mixed with petrol could be used as an alternative for gasoline. This is one of the ways, in which, we can reduce the usage of fossil fuels. But the production cost of ethanol is high and hence, it could be a hindrance for the consumers.
Methane is another gas that could be an effective alternative fuel. Methane could be combusted producing heat energy. But the limiting factor is that methane on combustion produces carbon dioxide and water. Since carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, the usage of methane gas is highly limited.
Hydrogen gas is an effective alternative that could be produced from industrial wastes. This makes it one of the cheaper entities where the production cost becomes minimal. Hydrogen also has a high fuel value producing more than 140 kJ of energy. Also upon combustion, hydrogen produces pure water thus putting an end to the increase in the production of greenhouse gas. Hence, hydrogen alone could be an effective alternative that could quench the quantum of energy produced.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 3FB
In batch and continuous fermentative system the process of formation of product remains same. The factor that differentiates the systems is the volume of fermentative medium. In case of a batch system, volume remains the same through fermentative process. But, as far as the continuous system is concerned, volume of the fermentative liquid varies.
Additionally, in a continuous system, as soon as the product is formed it would be removed, and the volume displaced would be replaced by fresh medium. Hence, for both the process the equipment prepared would enable both batch and continuous fermentation to be performed.
The two types of industrial fermentation equipment are designed for batch production or continuous production.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 3M
Potable water is referred to the water sample that is necessary for drinking. Moreover, potable refers to free organic and microbial contamination that makes it safe entity, for consumption. Thus, it could be ascertained that sample that is fit to drink is potable.
Therefore, the statement, “refers to water that is fit to drink” matches with the term, “portable.” Hence, the correct option is G. Potable.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 3MC
- Uncooked ground meat and fruit are highly perishable. Cheese comes next in the hierarchy which is semi-perishable food stuff. Pasta comes under non-perishable food stuff. Thus the right option is (c) uncooked ground beef, fruit, cheese, pasta.
- In the view of sorting out foods, which are perishable to nonperishable, option (a) contains pasta as the first one, which is a nonperishable food. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Pasta is one of the nonperishable food stuff. Since, it falls last in the hierarchy of food when arranged from a perishable to the non-perishable food. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- Though uncooked meat and fruit can be included in highly perishable foods, the inclusion of a non-perishable food (pasta) ahead of the semi-perishable food (cheese) makes the option (d) incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 3MTF
Pasteurization is the process of subjecting the food to a short term pulse of heating process that would aid in the removal of pathogenic microbes from the food involved. This process was named after the Louis Pasteur for his work on pasteurization process. Pasteurization is intended to reduce the number of viable pathogenic organisms.
Pasteurization is capable of reducing all the vegetative cells including the mesophiles and other pathogenic strains. The microbial load after pasteurization reduces significantly.
Since, pasteurization is a short time pulse of heating process; it cannot reduce the bacterial endospores, which are more heat resistant. Hence, the given statement is True.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 4CT
Insects feeding on non-Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) plants produces more offspring’s than those that feed upon Bt plants. This creates a chance for a breeding between the insects that feed upon Bt plants and non-Bt plants, since they are adjacent to each other. The genes that are responsible for imbibing resistance to the Bt plants would thus be diluted when they are multiplied. The chances dominant gene occurring in the insect becomes reduced. This is the reason why the dissemination of resistance to Bt-toxin could reduce among insects.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 4FB
Potable water is referred to the water sample that is necessary for drinking. It refers to free organic and microbial contamination that makes it safe entity, for consumption. Since, coliforms are indicators of fecal contamination, it is highly important that the water to be consumed should be free from all the coliforms. Thus, it could be ascertained that sample that is fit to drink is potable. Thus, potable water is allowed to have zero coliforms per 100 ml of water tested.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 4M
Microbial biofilm is formed as a result of the polysaccharide coat, which is formed by microbes. Moreover, they tend to bound microbes to the coat. Biofilms formed by aquatic microbes as the concentration of energy source available to the microbes, becomes very low. Biofilms are formed to cope up with energy requirements and to ensure that they are found near the surface of the water.
Thus, the statement, “community of organisms surrounded by polysaccharides and attached to surfaces,” matches to the term, “biofilm.” Hence, the correct option O. Biofilm.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 4MC
- Hence, the correct option is (b) synthetic medium made by hand.
- Corn is a natural substrate that could be used in the production unit, but the microbes have to make use of the nutrient source that is present in corn. Since, not many of the microbes could use corn as a sole source of energy. So, this cannot be used as an effective industrial growth medium. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- The spent liquid that is formed during cheese production is whey. It contains minimal sugar concentration that could not effectively be used as an efficient source of energy for the microbes, when it is involved in the synthesis of specific products. Hence, the option (c) is incorrect.
- Brewing mash is said to be waste that is produced after microbial fermentation. Since it is one of the end products after fermentation, it is ascertained that the utilizable sugars that are a part of the source has already been utilized. The remaining solid mashes that cannot further be used for the saccharification of sugars are left out as waste. This cannot be used as an effective source of energy for the microbes that required adequate micro and macro nutrients for their development and product formation. Hence, the option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 4MTF
Methane could be produced as a result of microbial metabolism of the methanogenic bacterial strains. Methane could be combusted directly and could be used as an effective alternative to house hold cooking gas. The only drawback of using methane is that it could add up to the existing carbon dioxide gas that could lead us to global warming. Hence, the given statement is True.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 5CT
First thing that strikes is the ethical factor that prevents us from using the treated wastewater for consumption. This is because the waste water could not only be produced as a result of industrial activities but also as a result of human activities. This leads to the mixing of fecal coliforms with the waste water being treated.
Even though treatment reduces the visible and invisible organic content, the microbes and more precisely the coliforms would not be removed. This makes it a vital reason why treated waste waters are not entering the water treatment used for the development of water consumption.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 5FB
Coal deposits are associated with reduced metal compounds such as pyrite. Strip-mining of coal exposes pyrite to oxygen and microbes oxidizes the iron. When the same component is exposed to bacteria Thiobacillus, they oxidize sulfur. However, the oxidized compounds are leached by rain water, produce sulfuric acid, and iron hydroxide. When the components are washed off through rain water it would lead in reduction of pH of the natural water system enough to kill fish, plants, and other organisms.
Leaching of compounds from mine tailings often results in the oxidation of two elements: iron and sulfur.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 5M
Oxidation lagoon is one that is used in processing of animal wastes. The lagoons accomplish the equivalent reactions of primary and secondary treatment. In oxidation lagoons, wastes would be pumped into deeper parts and are left for three months. As a result of anaerobic oxidation, organic content would be degraded to simpler forms. The liquid wastes developed would be left at the top, for aerobic digestion.
Thus, the statement, “used in the processing of animal wastes, mimics primary, and secondary wastewater treatment,” matches with the term, “oxidation lagoon.” Hence, the correct option is I. Oxidation lagoon.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 5MC
- Poly-Hydroxy-Alkonate (a polymer) a storage product produced, which is similar in shape to the petroleum based product, could be used as an alternative biodegradable plastic. Hence, the correct option is (b) PHA.
- Sludge is a component that comes out of the aeration tank. Sludge is a mixture of coarse organic content and microbial biomass. This cannot be used in the formation of biodegradable plastic. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the quantum of oxygen required by the microbes to reduce organic load in a water sample. BOD indirectly gives the load of organic content that is an integral part of the waste water system. This is in no way connected with biodegradable plastic, making option (c) incorrect.
- Alum is a chemical that is used as a flocculation agent that aids in the removal of solid and other suspended biomass that forms a part of the water. This is one of the primary methods deployed in the treatment of waste water. It cannot be used in the production of biodegradable plastic. Hence, the option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 5MTF
Water treatment is more or less the same for both drinking and sewage water. Both the procedures involve the primary (sedimentation), secondary (flocculation), and tertiary treatment (Chemical treatment) systems. Hence, the given statement is True.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 6CT
Food wastes (including vegetables), waste papers were the components that were predominantly found in the garbage. These components form the compostable wastes, which could be oxidized as by microbial action.
On the other hand glass pieces, plastic bags, and metal pins are those which cannot be composted and that could be recycled. More than 85% of the wastes could be either recycled or could be composted making only about 15% to be left back without being recycled.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 6FB
Biogeochemical cycling involves three primary steps:
production, consumption, and decomposition.
Biogeochemical cycle involves the cycling of chemical elements from an unusable form to usable form. The unusable form would be converted from an inorganic form to an organic form, which would be consumed by the living systems. After the destruction of living system, hosting the chemical element, other microbes would act on it rendering it to be decomposed and form the inorganic component again.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 6M
Xenobiotic compounds are man-made and are non-biodegradable by the microbes. When the concentration of the compounds is high in the environment, leads to pollution in the environment. However, the compounds are insoluble and highly stable. Moreover, most of the compounds of xenobiotic are non-degradable and recalcitrant in nature.
Therefore, the statement, “refers to compounds that are resistant to microbial degradation,” matches with the term, “recalcitrant”. Hence, the correct option is J. Recalcitrant.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 6MC
- Pseudomonas syringae produces a protein that is involved in the formation of ice crystals. The product is such that, the microbe could thrive even without the formation of ice crystals. Thus, when microbe is developed, which is devoid of this gene, even when the microbe is grown on plants it could prevent the plants from freeze damage. Hence, the correct option is (d) prevention of ice formation.
- Non-biodegradable plastic could be replaced by the more biodegradable plastic in the form of storage product that is produce by microbes. Pseudomonas syringae are not used in the production of products thus making option (a) incorrect.
- Alternative fuels in the form of methane, ethanol or hydrogen could be produced by other strains of microbes including Bacillus. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- Fermentation is the process of converting soluble sugars in the system to alcohol. Primarily fermentation is done through Saccharomyces strain. Thus, it could be ascertained that option (c) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 6MTF
Recalcitrant molecules are highly non-biodegradable and are man-made molecules. Very rarely, naturally occurring microbes could act directly on recalcitrant components, rendering them inactive. The enzyme that possess properties, but which are not used for the purpose, is used in degradation process. For example, laccase is used in the decolorization of textile dyes. Moreover, laccase is in no way connected to decolorization, but its services could be incorporated in environmental management. Thus, the statement, “recalcitrant molecules are degraded by naturally occurring micro-organism,” is true.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 7CT
Water treatment through the different stages removes the solid organic wastes as well as microbes (predominantly coliforms), thus enabling it potable. When such potable water is consumed, there are least opportunities for the microbes to gain access in to the human system that could probably elicit a disease. Also most of the microbes that are soil borne is not specifically pathogens and the natural barrier (skin) that would prevent the entry of microbes, thus eliminating the chance of a microbial infection.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 7FB
Nitrogen exists primarily as dinitrogen gas (N2) in the environment.
Nitrogen exists as a dinitrogen gas possessing a triple bond in between the two nitrogen atoms. The dinitrogen gas is an inorganic form of nitrogen. The triple bond requires high energy to be broken down. Hence, the conversion of inorganic nitrogen to its organic form becomes an all-important process in the entire living systems.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 7M
Water activity is the presence of water molecules that are devoid of binding to solute particles. The higher the water activity, the greater would be the chance for the microbes to thrive. Hence, in food preservation, reduction of water activity by the addition of solutes would always be preferred.
Thus, the statement, “water that is not bound by solutes”, matches with the term “water activity”. Hence, the correct option is B. Water activity.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 7MC
- Sludge is composed of both coarse particles and microbial biomass. This could be recycled into the effluent for the reduction of organic component in the effluent in an aerator. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Poly-hydroxy-alkonate (PHA) is an alternative form of plastic that is biodegradable. This is formed as a result of storage products of microbes within their cell. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the measure of organic content present in a water source. This is in no way connected with flocculating organic particles. Hence, the option (c) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 7MTF
Biofilm is a complex aggregation of microorganisms, like bacteria. They may be harmful and beneficial. Additionally, biofilms keep microbes intact with each other and with solid surface near the shores, for acquiring nutrients. It is a phenomenon found common in aquatic microorganisms. Without the formation of biofilm, the microbes find it difficult to adhere to solid substrates.
Thus, the chances of the microbes acquiring nutrient, in the vast land scape of the aquatic arena also gets reduced. For instance, some of the bacterial biofilms are present on the surface of the teeth and tongue. Hence, the given statement, “biofilms of microorganisms form in aquatic environments only” is true.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 8CT
Influenza viruses are capable of producing new antigenic determinants over a period of time. This process ensures that the human system does not have a premeditated immunity in the form of memory cells, thus making it a deadly component. This is the main reason why influenza virus could be used as a devastating biological weapon.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 8FB
Phosphorus exists primarily as phosphate ion in the environment.
Phosphorus undergoes little change in the oxidation state in the environment. It usually exists in the form of phosphate ion in the environment. Phosphorus cycle involves the conversion of the inorganic form to the organic form. The conversion takes place through microorganisms and from the organic to inorganic form through pH-dependent process.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 8M
Biomass is the quantum of organisms that is present in a particular locality. The concentration of biomass could always be decisive factor in industrial fermentation. The ecosystem on planet earth form biosphere. Moreover, the term biodiversity defines the number of species living in a given ecosystem. However, biomass refers to quantity of all the species.
Thus, the statement, “refers to quantity of all organisms present in an environment,” matches with the term, biomass.” Hence, the correct option is K. Biomass.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 8MC
- Though chemicals could have a deleterious effect on microbial cells, it cannot have an effect on viruses. This is because; viruses are obligate, intracellular parasites. They don’t have any cell bodies, and internal organelles to be effected by chemicals. Thus the right option is (b) viruses.
- Tertiary treatment through chemicals reduces the microbial load by a greater extent. Chlorination of the water system reduces bacteria, fungi, and algae. Thus it could be ascertained that algae would be depleted by the action of chemicals. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- Fungal spores could also be removed as a result of chemical treatment. Bacterial endospores, viruses, and protozoan cysts are not supposed to be deactivated by chemical treatment. Hence, the option (c) is incorrect.
- Bacteria are susceptible to the action of chlorination. Chlorine completely removes the entire component of the bacteria, thereby proving that option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 8MTF
Microbes are non-cooperative, unless they depend on one another for specific reasons. It is a known fact that growth rate of microbes is higher and exists stiff competition for food and shelter in an environment. Thus, provides that they cannot exist through cooperation. Hence, the given statement, “cooperation is common among microorganisms living in micro habits” is False.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 9CT
Any fermentative product that is formed from fruits tends to be called a wine and those whose initial ingredients becomes grains, produces beer. Since rice is a grain, the fermentative product that is formed as a result of rice fermentation could be called a rice beer instead of “sake” (rice wine).
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 9FB
A biosensor is a device composed of microbes and electronics used to detect other microbes or their products.
One of the new applications about microorganisms pertaining to the solving of environmental issues is the biosensor. Biosensors involve the microbes or microbial products in contention with electronics. This process enables the presence of certain microbes or their products. Sensors could be used to serve as early warning system to give officials more time to respond to a possible terror attack.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 9M
Eutrophication is a process in which, water gets polluted in a number of ways paves way for other organisms to thrive on them. This leads to the reduction in the oxygen level (as the final electron acceptor in respiration of organisms that lead to oxygen reduction) of the entire water system, putting the indigenous organisms under great stress.
Moreover, an excess growth of microorganisms in aquatic system result in more nitrogen and phosphorus that acts as fertilizers. This results in the growth of microbes with depletion of oxygen.
Thus, the statement, “process whereby pollutants accumulate to high levels in waterways, causing overgrowth and anaerobic conditions,” matches with the term, “N. Eutrophication.” Hence, the correct option is N. Eutrophication.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 9MC
- It is during the secondary treatment stage that most of the organic content is reduced. The total solids that comprise the dissolved and suspended organic content would be reduced by the action of microbes in the aeration tank. Thus the right option is (b) secondary treatment.
- During sewage treatment, the primary treatment aids in the removal of solid coarse particles from the waste water. Since, only the coarse particles are removed from the system, option (a) is incorrect.
- During tertiary treatment the organic load in the form of microbes alone would be removed from the system. This would be only a limited reduction in the organic load on compared with the efficiency of the entire treatment system. Hence, the option (c) is incorrect.
- Sludge treatment is a separate system that deals with the reduction of sludge that is being developed in a separate process. Hence, the option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 9MTF
Microorganisms thrive well in aquatic environment, primarily near the shores and at the topmost layer of the system. As the depth increases in the water system, the microbial density reduces proportionately. This is because in cold environments the concentration of biomass and metabolic activity is dominant. Thus, the low temperature for organism facilitates the production of energy and organic carbon.
Hence, the given statement, “aquatic microorganisms are more prevalent near the surface than at the bottom of waterways” is true.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 10CT
Wine when exposed to air becomes an excellent source of energy for microbes. This would enable the microbe to populate in the wine and initiate their metabolic activity. Microbial metabolic action would convert ethanol to acetic acid, thus creating a vinegary taste or a smell when wine is consumed (vinegar is said to be composed of 4% of acetic acid).
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 10FB
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen required by aerobic organisms to fully metabolize organic waste in water.
Waste water would be full of organic content, which could be quantified indirectly by the process of biochemical oxygen demand. In this process, the waste water would be added to oxygenated water as a seed. This would be left as such for about 5 days at specific temperature range. After incubation, the difference between the initial and the final oxygen concentration would be equivalent to the load of organic content present in the waste water sample.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 10M
Nitrogen fixation is a process through which the atmospheric inorganic nitrogen would be fixed by the action of nitrogen into usable forms of organic nitrogen (ammonia). Nitrogen fixers are called as alphaproteobacteria, which grow in association with the roots of plants. Moreover, convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and make it available for plants as fixed nitrogen. Nitrifying bacteria derive electrons from the oxidation of nitrogenous compounds.
Hence, the statement, “process of reducing nitrogen from atmosphere,” matches with the term, “nitrogen fixation.” Hence, the correct term is M. Nitrogen fixation.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 10MC
- Microbial communities can never be composed of a single pure population of microbe. Microbial community is composed of many different species of organisms. Hence, the option (a) is incorrect.
- A microbial community cannot represent all the microbes present in a locality. Since, a locality could be differentiated based on various physical and chemical characteristics, there is a greater probability that certain microbes cannot thrive in a particular environment. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect.
- A biosphere is an arena where the entire area is made up of all the possible living organisms. Since, it involves all the living organisms, option (d) is incorrect.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 10MTF
The littoral zone exists between high tide and low tide region. Moreover, the littoral region acts as a transition zone existing between the terrestrial and marine ecosystem. However, the organisms that are found near the shores of the oceans are littoral organisms and not the abyssal organisms. Abyssal organisms that are those that are found near the hydrothermal vents found at the bottom of the ocean.
Thus, in littoral zone the ecosystems existing includes the following; estuaries, mangrove forests, and salt marshes. Hence, the given statement, “abyssal organisms that are found near shores of oceans” is false.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 11M
Antagonism is the characteristic feature of the organism that prevents itself from the action of other microbes in the vicinity by the production of certain metabolites. In other words, it is an interaction one species get benefitted by the expense of another. For example, bacteria thrives in human body do harm to the host. Hence, the given statement matches with option (L) Antagonism.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 11MC
- An environment is said to be a vast space where generally the nutrient is supposed to be considered very limiting compared to the quantum of living organisms present. This proves that option (a) is the right choice.
- Nutrients cannot be present in excess in the environment considering its vast area. To have an excess load of nutrient in an environment equivalent to feed the living organisms, the nutrient should be present ubiquitously. Thus, option (b) is rendered as the incorrect choice.
- In an environment of fluctuating physical conditions, the quantum of nutrient present always modifies. Sometimes the microbes tend to utilize nutrients slowly and at other times it tends to use them more vigorously for their growth and development. This shows that nutrient level in the environment is not stable, thus proving option (c) as the incorrect choice.
- Nutrients in the environment are due to the action of the primary producers that are able to photosynthesize. It is from these primary producers the nutrient flows to the consumers. Since the fixation of carbon by the primary producers is a natural process, option (d) becomes an incorrect option. Thus, the right option is (a) limiting.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 12M
Spoilage is the term used to denote the undesirable changes in food occurring as a result of activity of microbes. On the other hand a desirable change in the component of the food is termed fermentation. Hence, the given statement matches with the option (A) Spoilage.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 12MC
- Minerals like phosphorus and sulphur are found in an unusable format in the form of soil and rock. Even though it trickles from these rocks, it should be converted to usable form by microbial action. This shows that option (a) is not the right choice.
- Any mineral is required by the living organisms in limited quantum to make sure that the bodily activities are performed in the right balance. Minerals cannot be found in a usable form in water because it then becomes so adequate that we need not bother about its presence. Thus, it could be ascertained that option (b) is the incorrect choice.
- Most of the minerals are present in unusable forms in soil and rock. The conversion of the unusable form to usable form requires the action of living organisms. This shows that option (c) is the right choice.
- Water cannot be a source of most chemical elements, as it would increase the total dissolved solids in the system that would have other deleterious effects on aquatic living forms. This shows that option (d) cannot be the right choice. Thus, the right choice is (c) unusable forms in soil and rock.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 13M
Pasteurization is the process of subjecting the food to a short term pulse of heating process that would aid in the removal of pathogenic microbes from the food involved. This process was named after the Louis Pasteur for his work on pasteurization process. Pasteurization is intended to reduce the number of viable pathogenic organisms. Hence, the given statement matches with the option (D) Pasteurization.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 13MC
- In a carbon cycle microbe uses chlorophyll and sunlight to fix carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere into usable form of organic component. This shows that option (a) is the right choice.
- Carbon dioxide is the inorganic form of carbon, which when fixed by the microbes takes the organic form in the form of carbohydrates. This proves that option (b) is an incorrect choice.
- Carbon cycle is the conversion of inorganic form of carbon (carbon dioxide) to useful forms of carbon in the form of carbohydrates (organic). Fossil fuel is formed as a result of action of heat and pressure on decayed organic content. This shows that option (c) cannot be the right choice.
- During the process of photosynthesis carbon dioxide will be fixed to an organic carbohydrate form. The process utilizes water molecule that would at the end form oxygen, proving that option (d) is the incorrect choice.
Thus, the right option is (a) convert CO2 into organic material for consumption.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 14M
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) gives the quantum of organic material present in a sample through indirect means. The organic load would be allowed to act upon by microbes (seed) that would reduce the oxygen level in the system. The level of reduction in the oxygen in the system is directly proportional to the quantum of organic load present in the system. Hence, the given statement matches with the option (H) BOD.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 14MC
- The process of converting organic nitrogen ammonia is termed nitrogen fixation, which involves the usage of the enzyme nitrogenase. This shows that option (a) is not the right choice.
- The conversion of ammonia to NH4+ is through a process termed ammonification. This shows that option (b) is incorrect.
- Nitrification is a process that is characterized by the conversion of NH4+ to nitrate ions (NO3–). This proves that option (c) is the right choice.
- The process through which nitrite is converted to nitrogen gas is termed as denitrification. Hence, option (d) cannot be the right choice. Thus, the right choice is (c) converts NH4+ to NO3–.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 15M
Secondary metabolites are those that are produced when the microbial biomass enters the stationary phase. Antibiotics and other such substances are produced during this phase to enable the microbe to survive against other microbes in the vicinity. Hence, the given statement matches with the option (E) Secondary metabolites.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 15MC
- In aquatic environment, most microorganisms were found occupying the littoral zone, mainly because of the rich nutrients prevailing as it is near the shore. This shows that option (a) is the right choice.
- The limnetic zone is found next to the littoral zone that is the shallow or the top most portion of the aquatic environment. The limnetic zone is said to comprise the photosynthetic primary producers. This shows that option (b) is incorrect.
- The profundal zone is found just below the limnetic zone. The penetration of light in this area reduces with depth proving that there would be a gradual reduction in the quantum of microbes present. This shows that option (c) is incorrect.
- The benthic zone is the deepest part of the aquatic environment, which is devoid of light and nutrients and as a result, the microbial population do not grow well. This shows that option (d) is incorrect.
- The abyssal zone has nothing, but the hydrothermal vents that are formed at the base of the oceans. Presence of life at this point is expected to be nil proving that option (e) is incorrect. Thus, the right option is (a) littoral zone.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 16MC
- Small pox is caused by a category ‘A’ biological weapon, which is categorized as one of the most dangerous animal pathogen. Small pox is caused by the Orthopoxvirus. Hence, option (a) cannot be the right choice.
- Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium which is categorized under the type ‘A’ biological weapon. Hence, option (b) cannot be the right choice.
- Q fever is a bacterial disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The organism is categorized under the moderately dangerous category ‘B’ biological weapon. This shows that option (c) should be the right choice.
- Talaremia is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Francisella tularensis. The organism and the disease come under category ‘A’ biological weapon, thus showing that option (d) is the incorrect choice. Thus, the right option is (c) Q fever.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 17MC
- Microbes that are readily available in the environment make it an efficient component to be used as a weapon than the one that is highly a rarity. But this option would enable the scientist that when a rare species is used the attack it could be easily identified as an attack. Hence, option (a) cannot be the right choice.
- When the initial impact is huge it could lead to the spread of disease through the secondary and tertiary wave that could be fatal. This is a major criterion that could lead to huge number of casualties. This could be an effective reason making option (b) as the right choice.
- It is not necessary that the microbes should be treated within the hospital system, but could also be treatment of the patients outside the hospital as well. This shows that option (c) is incorrect.
- Symptoms are characteristic features that could be identified as a result of the disease caused by the microbes that is spread. The faster the symptoms appear the faster would be the action of the doctors against the microbes. Hence, option (d) cannot be the right choice.
- Thus, the right option is (b) can be spread by contact after original dissemination.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 18MC
- Anammox reaction is characterized by the oxidation of ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as an electron acceptor. It is an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium oxidation. It is an important microbial process for nitrogen cycle and plays significant role globally. Hence, option (a) should be the right choice.
- Anaerobic reaction in the case of carbon cycle leads to the formation of carbon dioxide and methane gas. Thus, it could be ascertained that option (b) cannot be the right choice.
- In sulfur cycle, the anaerobic reaction leads to the formation of H2S from sulfate. Hence, option (c) cannot be the right choice.
- The processing of metal oxidation enables the unusable forms of metals to be converted to usable forms of metals for life activities. This shows that option (d) cannot be the right choice. Thus, the right option is (a) anaerobic and part of nitrogen cycle.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 19MC
- Industrial fermentation is the formation of a desired product through large scale production unit that involves microbes.
Ethanol production cannot be the only product that is developed through industrial fermentation, thus making option (a) as the incorrect choice.
- Industrial fermentation refers to the production of product of interest employing large scale units. This proves that option (b) is the right choice.
- Process of oxidation and reduction are a part of microbial activity irrespective of the volume of the source used. Hence, option (c) cannot be the right choice.
- A desirable change in the food by microbial metabolism is as a result of fermentation. This proves that option (d) is incorrect.
- Thus, the right option is (b) involves the large-scale production of any beneficial compound.
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy Chapter 26 Answers 20MC
Lyophilization is a process of freeze drying the contents. In Lyophilization, the contents would be frozen first and then the water molecules would be removed through vacuum suction. This process is otherwise called cryodesiccation, as dehydration is involved in this process.
Since cell lysis, or use of gamma radiations, or rapid heating is not observed in lyophilization, the options (a), (b), and (c) cannot be the right options. Thus, the right option is (d) freeze-drying.