ISC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper 2019 Solved for Class 12
Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part – I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.
Answer briefly each of the following questions : [10 x 2]
(i) Distinguish between Exogamy and Endo-gamy.
(ii) What is meant by Avunculocal form of residence ?
(iii) Explain the theory of Animism.
(iv) Differentiate between Levirate and Sororate.
(v) Define urbanisation.
(vi) What is meant by Mass Media ?
(vii) Define the term Ethnocentrism.
(viii) What is meant by domestic violence ?
(ix) Explain the term Brahmanisation.
(x) Define Kinship.
(ii) The type of residence where the nephews and nieces stay in the house of their maternal uncle is called as Avunculocal residence. In such cases, the maternal uncle holds a very high authoritative place in the lives of his sister’s, children. Mostly associated with Matrilineal societies.
(iii) This theory is a tribal form of religious theory founded by E.B. Tylor. This theory is essentially a belief in the spirit or soul of the dead. According to him, Animism is a given form of religion in which man finds the presence of spirit in every object that surrounds him.
(v) The population growth of cities, due to movement of people from rural to urban centers refer to the process of Urbanization. Urbanization was a direct result of industrial growth and development in India. Urbanization promotes individuality and may also be a factor that contributes to the breakdown of the Indian joint families.
(vi) Any form of media that reaches out to a large number of audience or people at the same time providing them with information and spreading awareness can be termed as Mass Media. The newspapers, radios, internet, televisions etc. all serve as examples of mass media, communication takes place through technology.
(vii) The view that makes an individual or a group feel that their own culture/religion/race etc. is superior as compared to those of other groups is termed as Ethnocentrism. This is one of the causes of prejudice. This term was coined by William Graham Sumner.
(viii) Any form of violence that is suffered by an individual within the boundaries of their private sphere or domestic sphere is said to be domestic violence. It can take the form of physical, emotional, financial or psycholo¬gical violence or harassment. Usually women are the most common victims of domestic violence. However in some instances the aged, children as well as men may be the victims of domestic violence.
(ix) M.N. Srinivas described Brahmanisation as the process of imitating the lifestyles of the Brahmins like vegetarianism and teetotalism by the lower castes in order to rise up the social ladder of caste.
(x) The bond of blood or marriage that binds people together in a group is called a kinship. There are mainly two types of kinship groups found, namely, consanguineous and affinal.. While consanguineous refers to those kins who are related by blood, e.g. : Siblings; affinal kins on the other hand refer to those people who are related via the social institution of marriage, e.g. Husband-wife.
Part – II (50 Marks)
Answer any five questions.
(a) Discuss the differences between polygyny and polyandry as forms of marriage. 
(b) Define religion. Discuss religious beliefs and religious rituals. 
(a) Polygyny : This is a form of marriage in which a man marries more than one woman. Polygyny as a polygamous form of marriage which is more popular than polyandry.
Polygyny may be of the following types :
- Sororal polygyny : In this type of polygyny, the man marries a number of women simultaneous who are sisters.
- Non-sororal polygyny : In this type, the several wives of the man are not related as sisters of each other.
Causes of polygyny may include the following :
- When there are more number of females as compared to the males.
- When women contribute economically to the family.
- Sometimes the first wife may force the husband to bring in a second wife to reduce her work load at home.
- Childlessness of the first wife can lead to the addition of a second wife into the family.
Polyandry : In this type of marriage one woman is married to several men at the same time.
Polyandry may be of the following types :
- Fraternal : When several brothers are married to the same woman.
- Non-fraternal : When the several husbands of the woman need not be related as brothers. However both of these types of polyandry should not be confused with ‘wife sharing’ or ‘wife-lending’.
Causes for polyandry may include the following :
- Scarcity of women.
- Heavy bride price.
- Poverty and sterility of men
(b) Religion revolves around man’s belief in the supernatural forces. Religion is a social institution that:
- Binds man to the supernatural .
- Binds man to man.
- Binds the society together.
Religious beliefs and rituals form the two core aspects of any religion.
Religious beliefs : Almost all religious organisations depend upon certain types of beliefs and knowledge with which influence is achieved upon its followers. Religious beliefs form the cognitive part of any religion. They tell us that existence of sacred things is true and also give us information about the super natural world and also informs us about how our worlds are bound to the supernatural world.
Eg.: We believe that God is watching over all his creations and will deliver justice at the end of it all.
Religious Rituals : This is the practical side of religion. Thus it is the symbolic actions associated with the sacred. E.g. recitation of hymns, immersion in sacred rivers. Ritual is a means to remind the individual of the holy world. It helps man to give expression to his religious sentiments. Religion as a social system that can be understood only by taking into account the religious beliefs and rituals.
(a) Discuss any five government policies for the up liftment of tribals. 
(b) Briefly discuss any five types of families. 
(a) Measures for the up liftment of the tribes are as follows :
- Ar. 15 provides equal rights and opportunities to all the citizen of India.
- Ar. 16(4), 320 (4) and 335 reserves seats for the tribal people in employment opportunities. Reservation of seats in the legislatures.
LAMPS : Large-sized Multipurpose Co¬operative Societies were established in the tribal societies to give.
- Productive / unproductive loans.
- Sale of surplus produce and purchase of necessities of tribal life.
- Supply of modem agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers etc.
The 20-point programme that focused on the development of the ST’s, assisting tribal families to aid them to cross the poverty line.
Tribal Panchasheela : Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru laid down five principles which stated :
- Nothing should be imposed on the tribal people.
- Tribal rights in forests and land to be respected.
- Over-administration of tribal area not allowed.
- Tribal people to be trained to help them build their own team.
- Money not to be used as a measuring rod to adjudge human development.
Medical and Educational Facilities have been improved in the tribal areas.
Encouragement of crafts and Home Industries : Both the old and new tribal craft, handicraft industries are encouraged.
E.g. : Shilpo Melas (Artisan Fairs).
(b) Types of Families : Based on different attributes families can be of the following types :
Size : Joint and Nuclear. Depending on the size of a family it can either be :
- Joint Family : One which includes a husband and wife, their biological or adopted off springs, grandparents and other relatives, all living together.
- Nuclear : Such a family is comprised of a husband and wife and their biological or adopted children.
Authority : Based on the criteria of authority family can be :
- Matriarchal : In this type of family, the female holds the highest status and authority of being the head of the family.
- Patriarchal: In this type, a male member holds the highest status, authority and decisive powers in the family.
Residence : Based on the form of residence a family can either be
- Matrilocal : In this type, the bride and groom, post-marriage reside in the bride’s mother’s house.
- Patrilocal: In this type, post-marriage the bride and groom stay at the groom’s father’s house.
Descent : Based on tracing of descent families can either be :
- Matrilineal: In this type descent is traced along female line and property is passed down along the female live. Thus descent is traced from the mother’s side.
- Patrilineal : In this type descent is traced along the father’s side and property is passed down along the male line.
Number of spouses : Based on this criteria families can either be :
- Monogamous : Families where one man marries only one woman at a given point of time.
- Polygamous : Families where a man or a woman are married to more than one spouse at a time.
(a) Explain the concept of fundamentalism. Examine the role of state in dealing with this problem. 
(b) Examine Telangana Movement as one of the urban-ethnic movements. 
(a) Fundamentalism is an ideology which is not supportive of progressive thinking. Individuals or groups belonging to this ideology believe in the absolute authority of a sacred text, teachings of a particular religious leader god or prophet. Fundamentalist groups will oppose anything that challenges their religious ideas. The state on its part can play the following roles to control and contain the growth of Fundamentalism.
Spread awareness : The mass media can be used to spread awareness amongst the masses about the issues of fundamentalistic thoughts and how they can cause harm to the general well-being of the society.
Vigilance : The state needs to be highly observant, cautions and vigilant and closely monitor the activities of organisations and groups who can use fundamentalism to spread terrorism.
Educational Curriculum : Textbooks need to be monitored to check so that the future citizens of the nation are not being taught any such ideologies which can trigger fundamentalistic issues in future.
Secularism : Citizens should be made aware of the secular nature of the state and be encouraged to use a secular approach of life for the betterment of the nation as a whole.
Ban on Fundamentalist groups : The government should ban such groups that have a tendency to spread fundamentalistic ideas into the society to brew trouble and cause disharmony within the masses and larger society.
(b) Telangana Movement : The Telangana Movement is an urban-ethnic movement, however the division of the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana was based on linguistic lines.
Causes behind the movement:
(i) Telangana contributed about 45% to the development of the state however only about 25% benefits came back to it.
(ii) Building of the Nagarjuna Sagar dam caused damage to many limestone mines of the Telangana region.
(iii) The region also faced water crisis which made the peasants suffer due to the droughts. Most of the water went to the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh.
(iv) Budget allocation towards Telangana was less. Less opportunities were given to the Telangana people. Government employees were also mostly from Andhra Pradesh whereas the people of the Telangana region felt left out.
Consequences of the Movement:
(i) On 4th March, 2014 the Government of India announced that 2nd June, 2014 was going to be the Telangana Formation Day. Thus, leading to the creation of Telangana as the 29th state of India with Hyderabad as the common capital.
(ii) The water crisis has been solved by the government.
(iii) Employment opportunities in both private and government firms are given to the Telangana people.
(a) ‘Jajmani system is a caste based system. Examine this statement with reference to rural India. 
(b) Make a comparative study of Joking relationships and Avoidance relationships in Kinship usages. 
(a) The Jajmani system represents a type of system of exchange that existed in rural India. The term (Jajmani) is derived from the vedic term ‘Jajman’, refering to a man who conducted Yajnas or fire sacrifices to appease the gods. The Zamindars were the jajmans in this system and the people who rendered services to them were collectively termed as ‘Praja’.
Traditional occupational obligations : The jajmani system created interdependence amongst the castes for the fulfillment of their economic needs.
Established closer family links : Years of exchange of services and goods led to the creation of strong social links between the families of the Jajmans and the Kamins (Praja).
Exclusivity of the relationship : Jajman and Kamins maintained exclusivity both in terms of rendering as well hiring of services under this system. E.g. : A Brahmin presides our the ceremony of giving a name to a child; a carpenter is hired for jobs of carpentry or woodwork.
Added to village solidarity : As per M.N. Srinivas, the jajmani system which promoted interdependence amongst the castes acted as one of the key factors that promoted village solidarity and stronger social fabric. This system contributed to vertical solidarity of the caste system.
Multiple relationships : The relationship was not only economic in nature but extended into other aspects as well. For e.g. : Mutual support is expected between such groups during crisis just as help is expected during ceremonial occasions.
(b) Joking v/s Avoidance Relationship : Kinship usages are rules that serve two purposes :
- Create special groupings.
- Govern the role of relationship amongst the kins.
Avoidance and Joking relationships have features that are starkly contrasting.
(a) What is a Political organisation ? What role does it play in bringing about change in society ? 
(b) Define gender bias. Examine its consequences for both, men and women. 
(a) A political organisation is any organisation that involves itself in the political process. The role that it plays in bringing about a change in the society is described as follows :
De-centralisation : The formation of the Panchayati Raj system in India gave the people at the grassroot level a scope to voice their issues as well as find solutions for the same. This system enabled the better redressal of issues at the grassroot level.
Reservation of Seats : The 73rd Amendment Act brought in reservation of seats in the Panchayat for women (2-3rd) STs and SCs. Thus allowing the oppressed sections of the society for representation in the political scenario and enabled their issues and greviances to be brought under the limelight.
Creation of Bal Panchayats : One initiative under the Panchayati Raj system was the creation of the Bal Panchayats. These enabled the issues of the children to be voiced, addressed and tackled by the children themselves. This system promoted the growth of leadership qualities amongst the children.
Empowerment of Women : Various – schemes have been launched at various levels to enhance the overall status of women. Schemes ranging from educational benefits to provision of cooking gas and pre and post pregnancy aids and health check-up. All such changes have brought in betterment in the condition of women.
Social Recognition : Voting rights have been granted to the third genders and also many of them can now opt for education and build a more respectful life for themselves.
Gender bias refers to the discrimination on the basis of the gender of a person whether male or female. Given the fact that ours is a partriachal society, there is a general tendency for the society to be skewed towards men, however gender bias or preference towards one gender over another can impact both the genders.
Gender bias and women :
(a) Crimes against women : Since our society is dominated by men this gives rise to various types of crimes being meted out towards the women like rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, eve-teasing, acid attack and so on.
(b) Work and Women : Many women face sexual harassment at their workplace. Also glass-ceiling effect is an other consequence of gender bias wherein women hardly rise the official hierarchy to occupy high posts. Women are often not paid equal remuneration for equal work in comparison to their male counterparts.
(c) Family and Women : The girl child is neglected due to preference for male child. Issues like dowry, child marriage and female infanticide and female foeticide result due to such attitudes. Women are denied educational rights, expected to not voice their opinions and stay within the domains private sphere. Also many a times nutrition is also not adequately given to them. Property inheritance right was denied to women for a long time.
Gender bias and man :
(d) Children : Men are not given enough rights in matters of abortion of their biological child stating it to be the sole decision of the mothers.
(e) Lack of Laws : Most of the legal system is skewed towards women making men often fall prey to false charges of rape or domestic violence. There are not enough laws to protect men against crimes like sexual assault, harassment or rape.
(f) High expectations from society : The men often feel burdened by the high expectations that the society has from them. Some men who are not able to fulfill the parameters of masculinity set by the society often feel distressed and can suffer from various diseases. Even today men are expected to be the main bread winners in the family.
(a) Make a comparative analysis between caste and class. 
(b) What is meant by prejudice ? Elaborate on any four causes of prejudice. 
(b) Prejudice is a ‘pre-judged’ notion or attitude towards the members of another group. The attitude is generally negative, this often gives rise to discrimination on different grounds.
Causes of prejudice may include :
(a) Learnt behavior : The faulty process of socialization in which children can be taught or imbibed with colored opinions—which in turn impact their social behavior can be cited as one of the causes of prejudice.
(b) Stereotype : This can be defined as an exaggerated belief associated with a category. Such stereotyped notions often give rise to prejudices.
(c) The Authoritarian personality : Theodore Adorno and his co-workers developed a model of prejudice called ‘authoritative personality’. He concluded that some people tend to be intolerant, insecure and bullies to inferiors. These kind of people tend to be prejudiced most of the time.
(d) Scapegoating : Sometimes when the members of a group are angered or frustrated with a particular group, however, given social circumstances are unable to face up against this group, they usually vent out their anger on a group that is less powerful than their own group thus making these less socially powerful groups or individuals their scapegoats.
E.g.: A man is angered at his boss but cannot shout at him. He comes back home and shouts at his son instead.
(a) What is RTE ? Discuss any four of its implications. 
(b) Define social movements. Explain any four reasons that lead to social movements. 
(a) The Right to Education Act was passed in 2009 by the Government of India. Under this act the Government ensures free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6-14 years under Article 21 A of the Indian Constitution.
The four implications of this RTE Act are as follows:
- No child has to pay a fee or expenses which may prevent her/him from pursuing and completing elementary education.
- Children need to be admitted to their age- appropriate classes.
- No formal of corporal punishment to be enacted out on the children. Teachers need to ensure that the children are provided with an anxiety free environment which will enhance their overall growth and development.
- No child will be expelled or held back until the completion of elementary education.
- Persons with learning disabilities will be eligible to be placed under the RTE until the age of 18 years.
- All schools should have the required infrastructures like classrooms, toilets, blackboard, textbooks and good teachers.
- Mid-day meals were introduced in an attempt to make more and more children come to the school to get food and education. India became one of the 135 countries to make education a fundamental right for each child when the RTE Act came into force on 1st April, 2010.
(b) A social movement is a collective effort to transform established relations within a particular society.
The four reasons that can lead to social movements are as follows :
Dissatisfaction with existing social conditions : Sometimes when people feel dissatisfied with present scenario of the society and want to reform and bring in changes a social movement may emerge.
Eg.: Sexual Harassment of women in the Bollywood industry triggered the recent #Metoo movement.
Relative Deprivation : If one group feels deprived in comparison to another group in a society, it can trigger a social movement. Eg.: Recently a violent movement had broken out in the NCR region wherein the two communities of Jats and Gujjars were also demanding reservation of seats as they felt deprived in comparison to the other socially not so advanced groups who enjoy the privilege of reservations of various kinds.
Stress and Strain : Strain and stress caused due to structural deficiencies within the societal framework can lead to the creation of social movements.
Eg. : Lack of rights for the members of the LGBTQ community led to the start of the various rainbow parades and social movements to bring in change in the mind-set of the larger society about this community.
Resistance to a change : Sometimes a social movement may be caused as a result of resistance to another movement that is trying to bring in social change or disrupt the existing status quo of the society.
(a) Examine the two types of Kinship. 
(b) Briefly discuss the role of traditional markets in rural India. 
(a) The concept of kinship is very important for Anthropology. The bond of blood or marriage that binds people together in a group is called kinship. There emerges mainly two types of kinship.
Based on blood ties : People who are related to each other based on blood ties are said to be Consanguineous kinship.
Mother N Daughter
Father N Son.
Based on marital ties : People who are related to each other through the social institution of marriage are termed as affinal kins of each other.
E.g.: Husband N Wife Brother-in-Law Sister-in-Law. etc.
(b) Role of traditional markets in rural India Traditional markets in rural India play the following role :
Weekly market : These markets also caused ‘Haat’ happen either on a weekly or a bi-weekly pattern.
Sell of commodities : The markets serve as a place of exchange. Here buyers and sellers come in contact, interact and exchange goods and services.
Barter system : The initial versions of rural traditional markets were based on the barter system where people engaged in exchange of goods and services. Money as a medium of exchange was absent.
Recreation centers : These markets also served as places where various types of entertainment happened. Artisans and artists showcased their talent and sold their products and services.
Social interaction : Many people visited such markets to interact, form social networks, gossip fix marriage and catch-up with their kins from other village.
Social structuration : The way in which the shops are placed such markets directly reflect the social stratification that is operative in the society. The higher castes have their shops in the central, critical locations whereas the lower castes have shops at the outskirts or periphery of the market.
Products sold : Traditional markets witness the sell of various products ranging from forests products, vegetables to handicrafts etc.