ISC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper 2016 Solved for Class 12
Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part – I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.
Answer briefly each of the following questions : [10 x 2]
(i) Define classifications Kinship Terms.
(ii) Explain the term Consanguineous Family.
(iii) Explain moral code and religious code.
(iv) What is a Taboo ?
(v) Define Xenophobia.
(vi) What are Bal Panchayats ?
(vii) What is meant by Sanskritization ?
(viii) State any two functions of education.
(ix) Distinguish between economic goods and free goods.
(x) What is the racial classification of the Tribes ?
(i) Classificatory kinship terms are terms used to refer to more than one relations in a kinship group! Thus, the term ‘Uncle’ is a classificatory kinship term which is used to refer to kins such as chacha, foofa, mama, tau, mausa, etc.
(ii) A consanguineous family is the family which has blood relations with their mates and children.
(iii) Moral codes are the rules governing the distinction between right and wrong. The religious codes refer to the rules which are defined by a specific religion. Provision should be made to enrol the non-admitted children to the age-appropriate class. The specification regarding the pupil- teacher ratios, building and infrastructure, working days, teacher working days and working hours should be clearly spelled out.
(iv) Competent teachers should be employed for the purpose of imparting quality education to the pupils, and corporal punishment should Religious codes can be without any moral ground but moral codes are based on beliefs in divinity. For example, Sati Pratha was practiced as a religious code, which was devoid of a moral ground.
(iv) Taboo refers to sacred prohibition on certain things or acts which ensure order, stability and solidarity within the group. It originates from Polynesian word tabu’ which means ‘to forbid,. The most important is the incest taboo . which strictly prohibits sexual relationship between primary kins and who are related by blood. ‘
(v) Xenophobia is the fear of what is perceived to be foreign or strange. It can be manifested in many forms such as the fear of losing identity, aggression, suspicion about the activities of a particular group, and the desire to eliminate a particular group in order to secure a presumed purity. ’
(vi) Bal Panchayat is the representative organ of Bal Sabha. It’s members are the elected / selected members of the Bal Sabha and is accountable to it. The age of the members is between 10-15 years.. It is an initiative supported by UNICEF to involve children in decision making at village panchayat level.
(vii) This term was coined by M. N. Srinivas, Sanskritization is the process by which a low caste Hindu adopts the customs, traditions, ideology and rituals of the twice bom castes (Brahmin, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas); which is followed by a claim to a higher position in the caste hierarchy.
(viii) Following are the two functions of education :
- It completes the process of socialization by inculcating the values and norms of the society.
- It transmits cultural heritage, such as art, literature, music, religion, philosophy, etc. from one generation to another.
(ix) An economic good is a consumable item that is useful to people, but is scarce in relation to it’s demand, so the human effort is required to obtain it. On the contrary, free goods (such as air) are naturally available in abundance and need no conscious effort to obtain them.
(x) Dr. B .S. Guha has classified the Indian tribes on the basis of the races. He has divided them into the following racial groups: the Negrito, the Caucasoid, the Proto-Australoid, the Mongoloid and the Nordic Group.
Part – II (50 Marks)
Answer any five questions.
(a) Social institutions are the main building blocks of the society. In this context, explain the features of the Social Institutions. 
(b) Explain any five features of a family. 
(a) Social institutions are the building blocks of the society. The features of the social institutions are as follows :
- Social institutions are the means to control social behavior of the individuals.
- Social institutions are dependent upon the activities of the people.
- Social institutions are more stable than other means of social control.
- Social institutions are a collection of social values, norms, rules and regulations.
- Social institutions are a source of completion of specific needs and objectives.
(b) Following are the different features of a family :
- It is a universal institution which is found in each and every society.
- It is a fundamental institution which is established on the basis of impulses associated with mating, procreation and parental care.
- It has limited size which is defined by biological conditions which it be transcended.
- It exercises profound influence over its members and moulds their personalities.
- It teaches the meaning of responsibility and the need of cooperation to its members.
(a) Marriage is characterized by both Exogamy and Endogamy. Explain this statement with a detailed discussion of these two rules of marriage. 
(b) Discuss Panchayati Raj and its three tiers. 
(a) ‘Marriage is characterized by both exogamy and endogamy.’ Following are the rules associated with marriage :
Exogamy: Everyone prohibits marriage between the individuals who share some degrees of blood or affinal relationships. It is known as exogamy or prohibition of marriage inside the group. In India, the three types of exogamy are Gotra, Sapinda and Pravara exogamy.
Endogamy: Sometimes restrictions are imposed on the selection of the spouse from outside the same caste or class as that of the individual. The rule of marriage which promotes marriage within the same group is known as endogamy. In India, different types of endogamy are: tribal endogamy, caste endogamy, class endogamy, sub-caste endogamy and race endogamy.
(b) Panchayati Raj system came into being as per 73rd amendment in 1992. It refers to a decentralized form of governance where, the villages would be responsible for their own affairs. This vision was known as ‘Gram Swaraj’ or ‘village self governance’. The 3- tier system of Panchayati Raj consists of:
- Village-level Panchayats.
- Block-level Panchayats.
- District-level Panchayats.
Powers and responsibilities delegated to the panchayats at different levels are as follows :
- Preparation of the economic development plan and social justice plan.
- Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice.
- To levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
(a) What is meant by secularism ? Discuss its role in plural society like India. 
(b) Discuss Totemism as a theory of religion. 
(a) Secularism is a belief that states that no religion should be considered as state religion. In Indian context, secularism means equal treatment of all the religions by the state. India is a country with multi-religions. A number of religions are practiced in India such as, Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, etc. The different religions have different rituals and practices.
Given such a condition, chances of religious clashes to emerge between the different groups time- groups, time and again, is inevitable. Thus, the state has granted freedom to every citizen for practicing his/her own religion. In order to safe guard the interests of its citizens , Indian constitution has strictly prohibited any discrimination based on religious grounds. Also the state does not promote any religion as its own state religion.
Role of Securalism in plural society like India:
- It enables the people of different religion to live in civity with respect for all faiths.
- It is a part of democracy which grans equal rights.
- It safeguards minority and democracy by limiting the powers of majority.
- It checks the growth of destructive communalism.
(b) Totemism is a form of tribal religious belief in which people believe that they have descended from animate or inanimate objects and hold a feeling of awe and reverence towards these objects. These objects may range from being plants and animals to even stones or rocks. Durkheim observed totemism as being the simplest and most basic form of religion among the aborigines of Australia.
The totemic object is worshipped and considered to be sacred. Totemic objects are not only important for the people as religion but also are associated with clan membership. Every clan has a totem which could be an animal or a plant. The tribe is reverent towards the totemic object and adopts its name and offers sacrifice to it and adorn it. They consider the relationship with the totemic object of a descendant and believe themselves to have descended from that object. Harming of the totem is not allowed, although, eating of the totem is allowed during special occasions. The loss of a totem is mourned ceremoniously.
(a) Write a note on the Agrarian land relations in India. 
(b) State any five types of economies amongst the Indian tribes and briefly explain them. 
(a) India is primarily an agricultural country, where the land plays a role in determining the agricultural relationships. Agrarian land relations in India can be divided into the following relationships :
Land owners (zamindars): They are the tax gatherers and non-cultivating owners of the land. They mostly belong to upper caste groups.
The tenants: They hire land from others for cultivation and give rent for it.
The agricultural labourers: Their position is that of bondsmen and hereditarily attached labourers. They generally belong to lower caste groups. However, due to the impact of land reform movements and rural development pro-grammes following independence, these rigid relationships have attained somewhat flexibility.
(b) Following are the main tribal economies :
Food-Gatherers and Hunters : The nomadic tribes like the Andamanese, Onge, Kadar, Kharia, Jarawa, Lodha, etc. practise hunting and food gathering. They practice subsistence economy and have a simple type of social organisation.
Permanent Settled Cultivators : The tribes like Oraon, Munda, Bhumij, Ho, Gond, Santhal, practice permanent settled cultivation. They practice wet cultivation through transplantation method and are unaware about modern means of cultivation and irrigation. They practice crop rotation. Some work as sharecroppers (Bhag-Khasi) and some as agricultural labourers. These landless agricultural labourers also practice seasonal migration to the neighbouring states.
Pastoral Economy : The Toda of the Nilgiri hills of South India and Bhotia of Almora practice pastoral economy. They rear buffaloes and cows; the milk and milk- products are exchanged to get the things for everyday use. .
Shifting Hill Cultivators : Tribes such as the Gonds, the Nagas, Khasi, Savara, Garo practice this primitive form of cultivation by adopting‘slash and bum’ method. It is known as Jhum cultivation by the Assam tribes and as Podu by the Gonds. A hilly forest area is selected for this purpose which is abandoned after three successive cultivating seasons as the soil loses its fertility. Different Kharif crops such like Bajra, Jowar, pulses, potato, tobacco, and sugar-cane are grown through this method.
Craftsmen : Some of the tribals practice their traditional crafts along with their main sources of subsistence. The Naga and the Khasi tribes are proficient in colored hand loom products. The Lohar are traditional blacksmiths. As they get only marginal profits in their traditional specialized crafts, they resort to other jobs.
(a) Give a detailed account of any five features of Indian tribes. 
(b) Define the term ethnicity. Describe any four features of ethnicity. 
(a) Following are the features of Indian tribes:
- Common habitat : Different tribes have different territorial area under which a tribal population lives.
- Common language : A particular tribe has a definite language with no script. The language might be sub-divided into a dialect according to the particular area.
- Common religion : Religion plays a major role in the lives of the tribal people. A tribal group has a common deity or totem which represents that tribal group.
- Endogamous group : All tribes practice clan exogamy and tribe endogamy, hence are endogamous groups.
- Unity : All the members of the tribe have a sense of unity. It is a self sufficient group which lends a helping hand to their members when in need.
(b) Ethnicity : Ethinicity is a situation when a social group which is generally a minority in a society shares within itself a common culture and a we-feeling. Ehnicity refers to a category of people who identify with each other on the basis of common ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences. Following are the features of ethnicity :
- It is primarily an inherited status.
- Its members have shared cultural heritage, origin, myth, ancestry, homeland, language and/or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, history, mythology and ritual, dressing style, cuisine, art and physical appearance.
- The members have a belief that they are culturally distinctive and different from the outsiders.
- The ethnic group has a very strong sense of solidarity.
- They are generally a territorial group as well.
- Ethnic divisions are social groups- people within the group share a common culture-they are like in groups and have
- the ‘we’ feeling.
- Ethnic groups are characterized by discrimination by other groups.
- Ethnic groups are generally not the dominant group.
- Historical conditions influence ethnic group interrelationships.
- Position and significance of ethnic groups varies from society to society.
(a) Briefly explain any five functions of Dormitories in tribal India. 
(b) Write a note on the Telangana Movement. 
(a) Following are the functions of dormitories in tribal India :
Safety : Since the dormitories are usually at the center of a tribal community, it is thought they were created to have warriors organized, together and ready at a moment’s notice in times of battle.
As a Recreational Centre : Dormitories acts as a recreational centre for different plays and also serves as a guest house.
Community : The dormitories create a sense of community and help ensure the longevity of the tribe and its culture.
Tradition : Tribes in ancient India used to live in communal houses and allowed for everyone to work together. With this tradition, the tribes may have tried to recreate this on a smaller scale.
Separation : Dormitories might have been created to segregate the genders, so the males and females did not have access to each other, keeping them pure.
(b) The Telangana movement is a movement based separate linguistic identities. It refers to a movement by the people to demand a separate state ‘Telangana’ from the existing state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It continued for about 60 years. The proposed state corresponds to the Telugu speaking portion of Hyderabad where the children were imparted education in Telgu and Urdu.
After several years of people’s movement, the UPA government decided to bifurcate the state of Andhra Pradesh. On 7th February, 2014, the Union Cabinet passed a bill for creation of the state Telangana. As per the bill, Hyderabad will be the capital of Telangana while, it will also remain the capital of the remaining state of Andhra Pradesh. Thus, Telangana State came into being as a separate state on 2nd of June 2014.
Causes of the Movement:
- Money and resources diverted from here to the Andhra region.
- Development of Andhra Pradesh at the cost of Telangana region.
- Under developed and overdeveloped areas together posed a challenge for administration.
- The backward tribal areas did not get their reightful share. E.g. 45% of the state income comes from Telangana region but only 28% is utilized for its development.
- Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is in the Telangana District but water from this Dam is supplied to other areas and this area is worst drought hit area.
- Building of dam has resulted in the loss of several hectares of lime stone mines which were the source of livelihood of the tdbals.
Consequences of the Movement:
- Formation of a new State.
- All employees holding posts reserved for Telangana locals were transferred immediately.
- The surplus resources will be put to use for the development of this region.
- They were provided with educational facilities, jobs and proper budget allocation.
- Water problem to be solved as soon as possible.
(a) Explain any five features of castes in India. 
(b) What does gender bias imply ? Mention any four consequences of gender bias. 
(a) Following are the features of caste in India:
Segmented division of the society which divides the society into different segments. The status of the person is determined not by wealth, but by the traditional importance of the caste which an individual has been bom into. .
The restrictions on feeding and social intercourse which help in preserving the ceremonial purity of the superior castes.
Social and religious hierarchy, according to which the Brahmins are the most privileged group and the shudras are subjected to many kinds of social disabilities.
The rule of Endogamy forbids the individuals to marry outside their caste or the subcaste.
Restrictions on choice of occupation that an individual is expected to follow his caste based occupation. Brahmins are to work as priests and impart education and read the religious texts, the Kshatriyas are warriors who are supposed to protect others, the Vaishayas are traders and merchants and the Shudras are meant to carry out the menial jobs.
(b) Gender bias refers to the practice of discrimination on the basis of the gender of the person whether a male or a female. Gender is a socially constmcted term and it refers to the social role of the person as a male or a female. Though our constitution has strictly granted equal rights to all irrespective of the gender of the person, yet biasness prevails in our society.
The consequence of gender bias can be as follows:
Low sex ratio : As a male child is preferred over the female child, infanticide and female foeticide is still prevalent in our society resulting in a low sex ratio.
Low female literacy ratio : The literacy level of the female in 2011 is 65.46% as compared to 82.14% for males. The statistics clearly indicates that investing on female education is considered as a wastage of money as it would not prove to be beneficial because she would go to her husband’s home.
Gender wage differentials : The females earn 64% of what their male counterparts earn with the same occupation and with the same qualification and equal amount of job responsibilities.
Domestic violence and dowry deaths : The females are exploited, verbally abused, beaten for satisfying the male ego. In extreme cases, the women are even killed for failing to fulfill the demands for dowry.
(a) Explain five features of social change. 
(b) Define mass media. Discuss various types of mass media. 
(a) The features of the social change are as follows :
- Social change is a universal phenomenon which occurs in all societies, whether primitive or modem as no society can remain static.
- Social change is a community change as it brings about a change in the life patterns of several individuals.
- The speed of social change is not uniform in age period or within the same society.
- Social change occurs as an essential law, whether it is a natural change or a planned one.
- Definite prediction regarding the nature and extent of social change is impossible.
- Social change is a human change and may create chain section.
(b) Mass Media refers to a technology that is intended to reach a large number of people. Its basic purpose is to convey the information to the general public. The popular mass media are newspaper, radio, television, internet, magazine, etc. People rely on mass media to draw information related to social issues, political issues, entertainment, economics, etc.
The newspaper and magazine target to reach only literate people, while radio and television can reach all the people. In the recent past, with the invention of internet, people are now able to draw information immediately at the mere click of the mouse. Mass media plays a major role in forming the public opinion and in controlling the actions of the people.
The various types of mass media are :
Traditional Media: It is most appropriate to term as mass media, because it relates to the minds and hearts of the local population. Performing arts, folk theaters like Yatra of West Bengal, Shumang Leela of Manipur, and puppetry etc. come under the horizon of the traditional media.
Print Media: The print media includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, news¬letters, books and even leaflets and pamphlets. Visual media like photography can also be mentioned under this sub-head, since photography is an important mass media, which communicates via visual representations.
Electronic Media: This mass media includes television and radio. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CD’s and DVDs as well as the new hottest electronic gadgets.
New Media: Mobile phones, computers and internet are often referred to as the new- age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, blogging, Internet TV and many other mass media which are booming today.