ISC Psychology Previous Year Question Paper 2018 Solved for Class 12
Maximum Marks: 70
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 from Part I and five questions from Part II,
- choosing two questions from Section A and three questions from Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Part – I (20 Marks)
Answer all questions.
Question 1. 
Answer briefly all the questions (i) to (xx) :
(i) Who put forward the General Adaptation Syndrome model of stress ?
(ii) Define personality according to All port.
(iii) What is meant by abnormal behavior ?
(iv) Name one information processing theory of intelligence.
(v) Explain the term central trait.
(vi) What is counter transference ?
(vii) How is discrimination related to prejudice ?
(viii) What is attribution ?
(ix) Explain the term super ego.
(x) State any two symptoms of histrionic personality disorder.
(xi) What is the difference between interest and achievement ?
(xii) Name the principle on which Id functions.
(xiii) Who put forward the theory of moral
(xiv) What is meant by intelligence ?
(xv) State two characteristics of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
(xvi) What is meant by the term psychoanalysis ?
(xvii) Explain the term relaxation training.
(xviii) What is meant by gender stereotype ?
(xix) Explain the term belief.
(xx) What is meant by the term puberty ?
(i) Hans Selye in 1936, put forward the General Adaptation Syndrome model of stress.
(ii) According to G. All port, “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought.”
(iii) Abnormal behavior of individual is marked by limited intelligence, emotional instability, personality disorganization and character defects, who for the most part, have led wretched personal lives and become social misfits or liabilities.
(iv) Triarchic theory of Intelligence.
(v) The term Central Trait by All port refers to general characteristics that form the foundation, or most descriptive trait of an individuals personality. These are the characteristics by which you might describe a person such as honest, hard-working, intelligent, out-going etc.
(vi) In psychotherapy the therapist may transfer his attitude or feelings to the patient which originated outside the therapy situation.
(vii) Discrimination is the behavioral manifestation of prejudice. Members of a particular community, class or group are treated in a particular way, i.e. either positively or negatively, because of belonging to a particular community, class, gender or caste and not because of any other genuine or personal factors
(viii) Attribution is the process through which we seek to determine the causes behind others’ behavior.
(ix) According to Freud, Super ego is akin to conscience which incorporates the moral standard and values of parents, and rules and norms of society which cautions the person to remain firmly on the right path.
(x) 1. Using proactive or sexually seductive behavior to draw attention.
2. Adopt a speech style to impress others.
(xi) Interest is what one enjoys doing, while achievement is the knowledge or skill a person acquires for something after the person has been trained in it.
(xii) There is only one principle, on which Id functions, i.e., seeking of pleasure.
(xiii) Piaget and Kohlberg are the two psychologists who have described in detail the ways in which an individuals become a moral being.
(xiv) Intelligence is mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract
concepts, and use know-ledge to manipulate one’s environment.
(xv) In generalized anxiety disorder,
- Distress and uneasiness are persistent,
- Painful and is spread across multiple situation.
(xvi) Psychoanalysis is a method of psycho-therapy in which therapist attempts to bring repressed unconscious material into conscious.
(xvii) Relaxation training describes bodily reactions in calm, meditative emotional states.
(xviii) Gender stereotypes are over simplified ideas, messages and images about differences between males and females. It is based on the child’s personality, behavior, appearance, skills and interests.
(xix) Beliefs are an acceptance that something exists or is true, especially without proof or any logic.
(xx) Puberty is the period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained. It is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
Part – II (50 Marks)
Section – A
Answer any two questions.
(a) Explain the various subsets of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. 
(b) Give any four reasons for assessing Interest. 
(a) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Wechsler (1939)-“Intelligence is the aggregate of global capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when faced with challenges.”
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), has received some adverse criticism for the 1939 version. The principle changes are in the improved content, extension of the standardization population sample, and improved direction for administering and scoring. WAIS, has six subsets that constitute the verbal scale and five in the performance scale. It is used for 16 to 64 years and takes one hour. As below
Information test : This test consists of items of information covering a wide range. It consists of 29 questions covering a variety of topics which an adult should know about the virtue of having lived in a culture. Along with vocabulary, the information test is less affected by ageing or pathology. Still, the repressive person will often poorly perform while the pedantic and obsessive individual will score higher often giving pretentious responses.
Comprehension test : Includes fourteen items in which the subject is asked to explain why certain practices are followed, to interpret proverbs and what should be done under such circumstances. For example, if one finds a stamped addressed envelop on the street.
Arithmetic test : It requires the subject to solve fourteen problems, found in the grade- school arithmetic tests. Problems are orally presented and paper and pencil cannot be used.
Similarities test: Consists of thirteen items which requires the subject to state how two things are alike.
Digit span test : Short term memory for lists of digits starting from three to nine digits, which are orally presented and must be immediately repeated back.
Vocabulary test : Requires the subject to define forty words of increasing difficulty. Vocabulary is the best single measure of general intelligence. It correlates most highly with full scale I.Q.
Performance Scale : Digit symbol is a code-substitution test which has often been used in non-verbal test procedures. In this, there are nine symbols paired with nine numbers, along with the key before the subject. He must fill in as many blanks are the answer sheet as he can in one-and-a-half minutes.
Picture completion test: In this the subject is asked to fill the missing part of a series of twenty one drawings. Close attention is required for this test.
Block design test : In this test their are eight items.
Picture Arrangement: As the name itself reflects in picture arrangement test the subject has to arrange the picture in a manner of storytelling.
Object Assembly : In this test fragmented objects have to be assembled, in their original wholes. The active wall can be adjusted in one hour.
(b) What one enjoys doing things, that indicates his interest. It may be different from what he has to do and what he is capable of doing. Individual offer among themselves with regard to their interest. The motivation of an individual is influenced by his interest and his aptitude and abilities.
Interest plays an important role in determining the selection of a career. Young students need more information about their interests with a view to cultivate the areas of their is interests at the right time and in right direction. Interest assessment is used for counselling individuals who are looking for occupation or who want assistance in the choice of vocational training. It also helps to determine vocational abilities of a person and interpret test score in terms of a wide range of occupations. Interest tests are used to predict success in specific professions. The study of interest was initiated in the area of educational counseling in 1920’s with the development of Strong Vocational Interest Blank by E.K. Strong.
(a) Explain the personality theory put forward by Carl Rogers. 
(b) Describe in detail the Thematic Apperception Test used to assess personality. 
(a) As a humanistic theorist Carl Rogers focused on the self rather than on behavior or physical constitution. He proposed that human being have many positive characteristics and have a strong natural instinct and tendency to bloom into fully functioning persons. One central assumption of Roger’s theory is that, left on their own individuals show many positive characters and continuous strive to become fully functioning person’s i.e., psychologically healthy person who live life to the fullest.
Adjusted Individual Poorly-adjusted individual.
An individual based on all the information and beliefs he has about his own characteristics develops idea about himself called self concept. However, when this self concept does not match with the reality or our perception of the environment reaction to self, an anxiety is generated in the individual which makes the person unhappy and maladjusted.
Thus, according to Rogers, lesser the gap between the self concept and real self [congruence]. Happier and more adjusted a person will be and vice-versa. According to Rogers, to cope with the anxiety of in congruence between self concept and real self-experience, an individual often charges the perception of reality to make consistent with his or herself concept.
(b) Thematic Apperception test commonly known as TAT was prepared by CD Morgan and H.A. Murray in 1935. It is projective psychological test, consisting of 30 pictures, which displays, ambiguous situations. These evoke responses unknowingly ugly from the subject by means of imaginary story from the interpretation of these stories, the subject’s personal thoughts, desire conflict may be derived.
Test Description : The test material consists of 30 cards of which 30 depict various scenes with human being as character where 1 card is blank. The cards are marked and arranged as sets, one set for each boys and girls, one set for males over 14 years of age and one set for females over 14 years of age and one set for both males and females. The pictures given have vague and identific situation portrayed in them. It is basically a story telling test.
(a) Explain the measurement of aptitude with the help of GATB. 
(b) Describe the first five stages of Erik Erickson’s Theory of personality. 
(a) Measures of Aptitude with GATB. As described by F. N. Freeman, “An aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of our individual’s capacity to acquires (with training) some specific knowledge, skill or set of organised responses. Such as a ability to speak a language. The GATB is a work-related cognitive test developed by the U.S. Employment Service (USES) division of the department of labour. It has been extensively used to study the relationship between cognitive abilities, primarily general intelligence, and job performance.
Structure of (GATB) the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) is consist of 12 separately timed subtests, which are combined to form nine aptitude scores. Eight of the subtests are paper and pencil tests which purport to measure nine (9) abilities aptitude.
(b) Erik Erickson : Erickson like Homey emphasized (1902-1944) the importance of thinking process of conscious mind unlike Freud whose primary focus was an unconscious mind. Erickson developed a new approach of developmental milestone. He introduced eight stages a psycho social development where he described the 8 chief conflict areas of crises along with their respective favorable and unfavorable outcomes which play key role in personality development at that particular stages.
Section – B
Answer any three questions
(a) Give an account of Piaget-operational stage of Cognitive Development. 
(b) Discuss in detail how alcohol can be a major concern during adolescence. 
(a) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and now humans gradually come to acquire, construct and use it. Piaget’s theory is mainly known as developmental stage theory. To Piaget’s cognitive development was as progressive reorganization of mental process resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience.
He believed that children construct an understanding of the world around them, experiences discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in the environment then adjust their ideas accordingly. Moreover, Piaget claimed that cognitive development is at center of the human organism, and language is contingent an knowledge and understanding acquired through cognitive development. Characteristics of the Stage of Cognitive Development:
- The stages can be generalized. This means that all aspects of cognitive development would follow the same pattern.
- The stages are invariant means that they would always rigidly follow a fixed sequence and no stage can be slipped.
- The stages are universal, meaning all the children everywhere will follows the described pattern of cognitive development.Stages of cognitive development. There are four stages of cognitive development.
- Sensorimotor stage (up to 2 years)
- Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
- Concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
- Formal operational stage (11 years on wards)
(b) Adolescence age is from 13 to 18 years/ teenagers. Adolescence is attained when children are in the high school and peer influence is very strong.
Causes and effect : They like to try out various things such as alcohol which is harmful for health. This can be by observing adults or trying to escape from stress. If they are too much into alcoholism, they may given up studies and also lose jobs, if employed. They Society and Educational institutions may also refuse to accept them.
More alcohol seeking or excess consumption of alcohol is defined by American Psychiatric association (APA) as “alcoholism” or alcohol dependence. It is a complex disorder that includes social and inter-personal issues. Long term and uncontrollable harmful consumption can cause alcohol related disorders. It is contained in beer, wine and hard liquor and is a chemical compound known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol.
Alcohol acts on the central nervous . system as a blocker of messages transmitted from one nerve cell to the next. The APA recognizes alcohol disorder as alcohol abuse. It is similar to dependence in that the use of alcohol impairs the affected person’s ability to achieve goals and fulfills his personal and social responsibilities. It also affects his or her interpersonal relationship to a great extent. This disorder affects the person’s metabolism, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, bone marrow and endocine system.
Symptoms of a alcohol addiction : The various symptoms manifested by the person who is addicted to alcohol include the following : Tolerance / Withdrawal / Disorientation to time, place and person/ Hallucinations, yisual, auditory and tactile / Delusions of suspicion, paranoid feelings, delusions of grandeur reoccupation with obtaining alcohol by any mean/Disordered perception/ Overnight abstinence / Irritability / Nausea and vomiting. This disorder occurs twice as often in males than in females. It develops in people of all races and social-economic classes. The alcohol abuse depends upon the following causes. Behaviorally it relates to internal and external motivation.
Biologically repeated or continued use of alcohol can impair brain levels of a pleasue neurotransmitter called dopamine. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals in the brain which pass impulses from one nerve cell to the next According to Erik Erickson, adolescence go through a phase of role confusion. So they experience confusion even during social relationship. Adolescents need to be monitored well and if addiction develops, they need to be counselled and rehabilitated.
(a) Explain how stress can affect the performance of an individual. 
(b) Enumerate any five defence mechanisms. 
(a) Stress is most often associated with individuals. This is largely due to the consequences of stress being most visible at the individual level. However, businesses can also suffer from stress, as a result of the stress experienced by the individuals within the organisation. There are many potential consequences of stress for both individuals and organisations. Common individual consequences of stress include :
Chronic fatigue : Stressful tasks require the individual to work beyond a point at which they feel that they can cope. In an attempt to cope, they will often increase their working hours and reduce their break times. This is done at the expense of family, social and leisure time. Even when not at work, they might find it hard to switch off. Prolonged exposure to stressful work can lead to chronic fatigue whereby the individual is both physically and mentally exhausted.
Physical health : Prolonged exposure to stressful activity leads to a rise in the individual’s cortisol levels. Excessive levels of cortisol can suppress the immune system, thus exposing the individual to a wide variety of potential illnesses. The individual may also adopt unhealthy behaviors in an attempt to cope with the stress e.g., increased alcohol consumption. These behaviors can further increase the individual’s chances of experiencing bad health.
Psychological health : For stress to occur, the individual must feel that they are unable to cope. This feeling of helplessness can have a dramatic effect on their mental health. Anxiety and worry levels increase and this can in turn lead to the individual experiencing depression. The individual consequences of stress can be very dangerous. Failure to recognize, and deal with, the symptoms of stress, at an early stage, leads to the stress spiraling out of control. The stress may start off in one small area of their life but as they fail to tackle it soon spreads to other areas.
Perhaps the biggest problem with the individual consequences of stress is that they cannot be contained; they take over the person’s whole life. Despite being called the individual consequences of stress, they do have knock on effects for far more than just the individual. Organisations, families, communities and any other groups, with whom the individual has regular contact, suffer some consequence from the individual’s stress. For that reason alone, stress should never be seen as just and individual problem. It is a societal problem.
(b) Five Defense Mechanisms :
Repression : Thoughts or desire which cause anxiety are driven into unconscious state of mind, where we are no longer consciously aware of them. They are seemingly forgot ten.
Eg., As he grows up, the child forgets his childhood when he lost both his parents.
Regression : Acting or thinking in a childish manner when frustrated or anxious.
Eg., A customer starts throwing tantrums on having to stand in queue at the store.
Identification : Attempting to reduce anxiety by imitating the behavior of someone we fear or love.
Eg., After returning from school, a student imitates his principal whom he is scared off.
Reaction formation : Acting in a way exactly opposite to the way we really feel.
Eg., A son jokes with this friends on hearing the news of death of his father.
Displacement : Transferring emotion/reaction from one object to another or from one person to another.
Eg., A manager pulled up his superior lectures his subordinate on good performance.
Projection : Ascribing one’s personal feelings to another person or object.
Eg., A citizen upset over high taxation feels all others are also feeling the same.
(a) Give two symptoms for each for the following: 
(i) Bipolar disorder
(ii) Avoidant personality disorder.
(b) Describe any six behavioral therapy techniques. 
(a) Bipolar disorder also known as ‘Manic Depression’ is expressed through serious shifts in mood energy, thinking and behavior. The term ‘bipolar’ refers to the presence of two extreme types or poles of mood with mania on one pole to depression, melancholy or sadness on other pole.
Symptoms : (1) Decreased need of sleep, extremely active high level of energy.
(2) Irrationally optimistic and highly talkative than usual.
Avoidant personality Disorder: Individuals with avoidant personality disorder is marked by behavior pattern social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negativity evaluation by others as a result they are reluctant enter into any social interaction and in limited social relationship. It is also known as Anxious personality disorder.
- SymptomsSelf imposed self isolation.
- Self critical.
(b) Behavioral therapy techniques :
In classical conditioning:
Flooding : A type of behavior therapy, behavior modification which tries to eliminate fear by exposing the patient over and over again to the stimuli which arouse the fear based on the principle of extinction.
Systematic desensitization : A form of behavior therapy for phobias in which individuals first learn how to induce a relaxed state in their own bodies. Then, while on a relaxed state, they are exposed to stimuli that elicit fear.
Aversion Therapy : This technique involves unpleasant stimulation in aversion therapy. Its objective is not to undo fear or revulsion but to induce such feelings, specifically in relation to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviour.
Modelling Techniques :
Modelling is based on the type of cognitive learning known as observational learning. Modelling is also a valuable Technique tool, especially in the phobias.
Extinction : Time out from reinforcement or simply time out, it is also called omission training.
Token economies : The use of conditioned or secondary reinforces money like tokens to strengthen desired behaviours in mental hospitals, prisons, and other similar institutions. By the use of these tokens desirable behaviours which aid therapy can be shaped.
Shaping : In instrumental conditioning, teaching a desired response through a series of successive steps which lead the learner to the final response. Each small step leading to the final response is reinforced.’Also, called the method of successive approximations
Covert Sensitization’s : A useful alternative to physical punishment is covert sensitization. In this technique, the unwanted behavior is imagined together with its imaginary punishing consequences, e.g. an alcoholic is trained to imagine drilling and its consequences such as vomiting or being fired.
- Relaxation training
- Functional analysis of behavior
- Identifying positive and negative reinforces
- Differential reinforcement
- Assertive training
(a) Explain any five ways of changing an individual’s attitude by persuasion. 
(b) With reference to Milram’s experiment, discuss why and when people obey others. 
(a) The credibility, reliability, trustworthiness, confidence and skills of the communicators are important determinants in the process of persuasion.
- Fast speakers are apparently better at persuading than people who speak slowly.
- Attractive people are better persuading than unattractive people., Hence advertisers look for attractive models, movie star.
- Messages that do not seem to contend to persuade the individual to change his attitude, tend to be more persuasive.
- Sometimes, when people are distracted by some extraneous event and are inattentive to what is being said, they are persuaded more easily.
(b) First, in many situations, the persons in authority relieve those who obey of the responsibility for their own actions. ‘I was only carrying out orders’ is the defines many offer after obeying harsh or cruel commands. In life situations, this transfer of responsibility may be implicit, the person in charge (e.g. the mainly or police officer) is assumed to have the responsibility for what happens. In Milgram’s experiments, thus transfer of responsibility was explicit.
Second, persons in authority often possess visible badges or signs of their status. They wear special uniforms or insignia, have special titles, and so on. These serve to remind many persons of the social norm ‘Obey the persons in charge.’ This is a powerful norm and when confronted with it, most people find it difficult to disobey. / person of authority.
A third reason for obedience in many situations in which the targets of such influence might otherwise resist involves the gradual escalation of the authority figure’s orders. Initial commands may call for relatively mild actions, such as merely arresting people. Only later do orders come to require behavior that is dangerous or objectionable. / Consistency.
Finally, there come many situations involving destructive obedience move very quickly demonstrations quite suddenly turn into riots, arrests into mass beatings or mass murder. / Group influence.
In sum, the high levels of obedience generated in Milgram’s studies are not as mysterious as they may seem. A social psychological analysis of the conditions existing both there and in many real situations identifies several factors that together may make it very difficult for individuals to resist the commands they receive. The consequences of course, can be truly tragic or innocent and often defenseless victims.
Write a short note on any two of the following : [5 x 2]
(a) Attitude and its components.
(b) Role of Psychology in understanding the criminals and in preventing crime.
(c) Career counseling.
(a) Attitude is a preparation or readiness to response. It is also defined as learned response to a person or an object in either a favorable or an unfavorable way. According to Gordon All-port, “an attitude is a mental or neural state of readiness, developed through experience, exerting a direct influence upon the individuals response to different objects.
Main Components of Attitude :
Effective component: It is the feeling or emotion associated with the evaluation process of a particular object, person and situation. It refers to the emotions associated with said stimulus. They may be pleasant or unpleasant and act as the triggering factor behind the intensity of the resulting behavior.
Cognitive component : In individuals the thought and beliefs “that led to the development of attitude toward an object, person or situation. Positive belief about the attitude object give rise to positive feeling and attitude while unfavorable belief about any object leads to negative attitude towards it.
Behavioral component : It is the way of expression or behavior that result from the attitude. The individual acts favorable i.e shows inclination towards positively seen attitude object. The person may also act unfavorably or show avoidance towards negatively seen attitude object.
(b) Criminal behavior : In a legal sense a person of 18 or above are convicted by the court of law for violating the IPC, CPC is labelled a criminal in our country and the illegal act for which the person is convicted is considered as a crime. Any behaviour like gambling, abduction attempt at suicide, trespassing another’s property, prostitution, sexual assault etc., are termed as criminal behavior.
- There is a great need for social reform and breaking social and caste barrier.
- Efforts should be made for the prevention, control and treatment of the identified delinquent.
- The task of narrowing the guilt between the rich and the poor should be given priority.
- Attempt should be made to minimize undesirable influence of literature, films, and other mass media.
- Parents, elders, social educational and political leaders should be such that they become ideal of socially desirable behavior.
(c) Career counselling: Career counselling is the process of helping the candidates to select a course of study that may help them to get into job or make them employable. A career counsellor helps candidates to get into a career that is suited to their aptitude, personality, interest and skills. So, it is the process of making an effective correlation between the internal psychology of a candidate with the external factors of employability and other courses. Career counsellors work with people from various walks of life, such as adolescents seeking to explore career options, or experienced professionals contemplating a career change. Career counsellors typically have a background in vocational psychology or industrial/organizational psychology. Career Testing : An objective form of career counselling is through an aptitude test, or a career test.
Career testing is now usually done online and provides insightful and objective information about which jobs may be suitable for the test taker based on combination of their interests, values and skills. Career tests usually provide a list of recommended jobs that match the test takers attributes with host of people with similar personalities who enjoy are successful at their jobs. There are various ways to test an individual for which field he is suitable psychometric testing being one among them.
Psychometric Testing : Different test companies have their own methods of testing. Usually, there are multiple sets of questions relating to personality type, how the test taker would handle aspects of work and home life, what his or her goals are for the future and his or her strengths and weaknesses.
Currently more than 500 tests of personality of different types are in use. These tests have now become very scientific, refined and comprehensive compared to earlier tests.
Intelligence Tests : Various intelligence tests are applied to detect one’s intelligence. While, average intelligent and intelligent persons can be selected for any common job, below average intelligent persons are advised to take up repetitive and jobs requiring less skills. Besides these main tests there are other testes like achievement tests, general aptitude tests, special aptitude tests and various types of special ability tests. Tests are essential for any selection, recruitment, counselling, training and even at the time of promotion.
A general answer tracing the testing of a student (aptitude, personality, intelligence, ability and achievement); Explaining test results and achievability of goals; handling the admission process to courses (prerequisites for a course, presentation, at interviews etc.) and finally finding the right fit for the student.