ISC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2013 Solved for Class 12
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Answer briefly each of the questions (i) to (xv): [15 x 2]
(i) Explain in brief the classification of states as suggested by Pindar and Thucydides.
(ii) Mention the difference between a totalitarian state and an authoritarian state.
(iii) How is liberal democracy a representative government ?
(iv) Mention four essential features of a federation.
(v) Why is it necessary to have a written constitution in modern times ?
(vi) Define the theory of Separation of Powers.
(vii) Why is bi-party system considered best for parliamentary form of government ?
(viii) State two duties of an elected representative.
(ix) Explain the meaning of Positive Dimension of Sovereignty of British Parliament.
(x) Mention any two privileges of the members of House of Lords.
(xi) What is the role of civil servants in law-making
(xii) State the judicial powers of the President of India.
(xiii) What is Equity Legislation ?
(xix) Explain the meaning of Rule of Law.
(xv) Mention the different steps taken by the constitution of India to combat untouchability.
(ii) Totalitarianism is the type of government or state that work to hold all power and authority to control each and every aspect of life, e.g., economial, political, social, etc. Its purpose is to grant all power and authority to a single person, the dictator. So that no other individual can question his authority. For the totalitarian state, the one in power has a Christine the people. Examples of individuals who have ruled using totalitarianism are Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Authoritarian State, on the other hand, have social and economic institutions that are not under the government’s control. Authoritarians are more focused on the status quo and are driven by control. They impose their rule through fear. Examples of famous authoritarians are Saddam Hussein of Iraq, Ferdinand Marcos of Philippines.
(iii) In a liberal democracy, government is the representative of the people. It is elected by the people without any discrimination, except a minimum age qualification criterion. People can change the government through elections. Government represents the people and has to continuously prove its representativeness. So, in a liberal democracy, government is called a representative government.
(iv) (a) There are two or more levels of govemment.
(b) Although the different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own areas of jurisdiction in relation to matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
(c) The area of jurisdiction of the each tires of government is clearly specified in the constitution.
(d) The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one tier of government. Such changes require the consent tires of government.
(v) Written constitution means a constitution written in the form of a book or a series of documents combined in the form of a book. A written constitution is an enacted constitution. It provides a definite design to government institutions, their organizations.
powers, functions and inter-relationships. It embodies the constitutional law of the state. The government is bound by its provisions and has to work strictly with accuracy towards its provisions.
(vii) Bi-party system is considered best for parliamentary form of government because :
- Bi-party system is the essence of a successful parliamentary democracy. It ensures a strong and stable government.
- Bi-party system offers a clear programme of the two parties before the voters who know certainly for which policies they are voting.
(viii) Two duties of an elected representative are as follows:
- They act as a communication link between the people of his constituency and the government.
- They work for ensuring the fulfillment of promises made by their party in the Election Manifesto during elections.
(xi) Civil servants play an important but indirect role in law making. They draft the bills which the ministers submit to the legislature for law making. The ministers provide all the information asked for by the legislature and the legislative committees by taking the help of the civil servants.
(xii) Judicial Powers of the President of India are:
- The President has the powers to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted for an offence. This is particularly in all cases involving punishment with death [Article 72(1)].
- He appoints Judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court and other Administrative Tribunals.
(xv) Untouchability is constitutionally prohibited and now this evil practice is crime punishable by law. The government of India has recognized and protected them as ‘Scheduled Castes’. And a system of reservation of seats in the legislatures, admissions in educational institutions, government and private sector for people belonging to scheduled caste has been made for their upliftment.
Answer two questions
(a) Explain the classification of states and governments as given by Stephen Leacock. 
(b) Discuss any six essential features of a Presidential form of government. 
(b) The six essential features of a presidential form of government are as given below :
Head of State Real Executive : In the presidential system there is only one chief of the executive, and that is real. The chief of state is not merely the titular executive but he is the real executive and actually exercises the powers which the constitution and law confer on him.
Real Executive Elected by People : The executive is not hereditary or nominated. He is elected by the people. The President of the United States is elected indirectly by the people through an electoral college.
Fixed Tenure : The executive has a fixed tenure. For example, the President of the USA is elected for a term of four years. He cannot be removed from office before the expiration of his term.
Executive Not Member of Legislature : The executive in the presidential system is not a member of the legislature. The President of the USA is neither a member of any of the chambers of congress, nor is he present in the legislature to introduce and pilot legislative measures. Here the principle of separation of powers is followed.
Executive Not Responsible to Legislature : In the presidential system, the executive is not responsible to the legislature. His tenure does not depend on the wishes of the legislature. His term of office, is fixed and he cannot be removed before its expiration. The executive is independent of the legislature. The legislature is not empowered to control and direct the executive.
Legislature cannot be Dissolved before Expiry of its Term : Dissolution of legislature is not possible in presidential system. For example, in USA the President is not empowered to dissolve any of the chambers of congress before the expiration of its term.
(a) Discuss the various conditions which are essential for the success of a federation. 
(b) Give any six problems faced by federal governments. 
(a) Various conditions are essential for the success of a federation. Some important conditions are discussed below:
Desire for union : The first essential condition for the formation and successful working of a federation is strong desire for unity among the people of the federating units.
Preservation of individuality : The federating units while desiring for union should also be conscious of their individualities and be . committed to preserve these even after becoming part of the federation.
Political maturity and education : Both play an important role behind a successful federation. The system of federation demands an understanding on the part of the people regarding the respective roles of the Central and State governments in the operation of the federal system.
Geographical Contiguity : Geographic contiguity greatly helps the people of a federation to work as a united nation. Geographical distance definitely played a big role in the breaking up of the Pakistani federal system into two sovereign states Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Community of Race, Language, Culture and Religion : A federation characterized by community of race, language, culture and religion alone can work in a strong and healthy manner. These elements can create a sentiment of unity, hold together the people and bind them into one nation.
Approximate Equality of units : The working of a federation also depends upon the size and resources of the federating units. The ideal condition is that as far as possible, there should be approximate equality among them. Wide differences in size, population and resources can prevent the growth of the feeling of equal participation as equal partners of the federation.
Similarity of Social Institution : The federation must be characterized by similar social institutions, only then it can work in harmony. Dissimilar social institutions can hinder the desire for union. These can create great difficulties in the way of working of a federal system.
Economic Development : The factor that influences the federating units to form a federal union is the expectation that the union will be a source of strength and economic development for them. The pooling and coordinating of their resources will result into big economic prosperity and development and is essential for the successful working of a federation.
(b) On the basis of division of powers between the central government and regional or state governments, the governments are classified as unitary and federal. A federal government is one where the powers are divided between the union government and states by the constitution itself. According to Garner, “Federal government can be defined as a system of central and local governments combined under a common sovereignty, both the central and local governments being supreme within definite spheres, marked out for them by the general constitution or by the act of parliament which creates them.”
The federal form of government has been adopted in most of the big countries like the USA, Australia, Canada, India etc. The problems faced by federal governments today are examined under the following points.
A federation is a complex system of government which involves a detailed division of powers and dual administration and justice. All federations face a major problem to ensure a clear cut and settled division of power between the union and the federating units.
Due to division of powers and dual administration, the disputes between the centre and states and between the states are common. There is always a problem of satisfactory settlement of these disputes.
The federation involves dual system of administration and justice for a single political system. This creates problem of co-ordination among states as well as central and state governments. India always faces a problem of co-ordination between the central agencies and state machinery in the field of law and order.
A federal government faces the problem of correcting regional imbalances.
In federal government, the problems of national unity and integrity, delay in decision making and weak central government are common due to the very nature of federal government.
The problem arising from the need to make quick decisions and to secure a full mobilization of resources particularly during times of an emergency.
Answer three questions
(a) What is the theory of checks and balances ? Explain how it has been implemented in the US Constitution. 
(b) Explain any six merits of a multi-party system. 
(b) The six merits of a multi-party system are as follows :
- The multi-party system ensures the representation of all shades of public opinion.
- Under the multi-party system, the authoritarian tendencies in political parties are checked as there is greater competition among them for popular votes.
- Under multi-party system, the legislature enjoys authority and thus cabinet dictatorship is not possible.
- The multi-party system does not lead to despotism as the coalition government is afraid of legislature.
- In the multiple party system the voter has a wider choice to caste his vote.
- In a multi-party system there is greater individual freedom and all shades of opinion can express themselves through various groups and parties.
(a) What are the different functions performed by the Executive in modern times? 
(b) Explain the three important rights exclusively exercised by the British Monarch. 
(a) In modern times, Executives perform many different types of functions. The following are the major functions of the executive :
Enforcement of Laws : The primary function of executive is to enforce laws as formulated by the legislature and to maintain law and order in the state. .
Appointment-making Functions : All major appointments are made by the chief executive. For example, the President of India appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Ambassadors, Advocate General of India, Chief of the Armed Forces, Governors of the States etc.
Treaty-making Functions : It is the responsibility of the executive to decide as to which treaties are to be signed and with which other countries. It is again the responsibility of the executive to secure legislative ratification of the treaties negotiated and signed by it.
Defense, War and Peace Functions : The Chief executive of the state is also the Supreme Commander of the armed forces of the State. A minister always heads the defense department. In this way, the executive symbolizes the supremacy of the civil over the military. In most of the states, the executive has the right to declare war upon any enemy of the state.
Foreign Policy-making and the Conduct of Foreign Relations : The executive first formulates the foreign policy of the nation and then implements it for securing the desired goals of national interest. The executive also appoints the ambassadors of the state to other states and conducts foreign relations. The department of the foreign affairs is headed by the foreign minister and he is responsible for the working of his department.
Policy-making : Modern welfare state has to formulate policies, prepare short-term and long-term plans and implement these policies and plans. These two functions can be legitimately described as the most important functions of the executive, through which the state carries out its objective of promoting the welfare all around and development of its people.
Function relating to Law-making : In a Parliamentary system, the executive plays a leading role in law-making by legislature. Financial Functions : The executive has the responsibility to prepare the budget. It proposes to levy new taxes or changes in tax structure and administration. It collects and spends the money as sanctioned by the legislature.
Besides the above eight functions, there are several other functions like developmental functions, planning, securing socio-economic and cultural development of the people of the state which are also performed by a modern executive.
(a) Discuss the powers of the Supreme Court in the USA. 
(b) What are the features of Judicial Review in India ? 
(a) In the U.S. governmental system, the Supreme Court potentially exercises the highest power.
Some important powers of U.S. Supreme Court are given below :
As the Interpreter of the Constitution : The Supreme Court acts as the final interpreter of the constitution. Its interpretations of the constitutional provisions are “considered inherently superior and final”.
The Supreme Court determines as to whether a law is in conformity with the constitution or not. As the final interpreter of the constitution, the Supreme Court possesses the power to strike down any portion of law from the statute book if it is to be found in conflict with the constitution. It is thus the power of the Supreme Court to judge the constitutionality of any law or executive action. The Supreme Court has built up the doctrine of ‘Judicial Supremacy’.
As Guardian of the Constitution : The Supreme Court is the protector and guardian of the constitution of the United States and also the protector and guarantor of the rights of the American citizens. The Supreme Court has the power to declare any law Ultra vires if, in its opinion, the law is not in conformity with the constitution. As a guardian of the constitution, it keeps the powers of various organs and functionaries of the government within their respective spheres of activities.
As an agency for the Development of the Constitution : The Supreme Court has an important role towards the development of the constitution. By the power of Judicial Review, The Supreme Court always interprets the constitution to meet the needs of the time. This power also enables the Supreme Court to ensure that the acts of legislature and executive orders do not violate the provisions of the constitution. The transformation of USA as the top industrialized and technologically advanced country in the comity of modern states has been possible due to the interpretation and development of the constitution as a harbinger of progress and the credit for it goes to none other than the Supreme Court. Its interpretation has helped the federal government to become more powerful and play a leadership role in the developmental process.
As the Guardian of Fundamental Rights : The Supreme Court has always acted as the custodian and protector of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the American people. The Supreme Court has always maintained the doctrine of ‘clear and present’ danger. It means, ‘any law restricting the right of freedom of speech, press, religion and assembly would be declared invalid unless it is shown that limitation thereon is justified because of ‘clear and present danger’ to the public security. The concept of inequality and segregation in the field of education was declared illegal by the Supreme Court in 1954. The Supreme Court has to its credit many decisions which uphold the concept of liberty and rights.
Power of Supreme Court in Law-making : The Supreme Court has the power to make a new law or make any changes over any existing law. This power has made the Supreme Court ‘not merely a court of law but also a law-making body’ indeed a third house of legislature. It has also the power to reject any law. “The Supreme Court has no legislative initiative but acting negatively it sets the framework within which the legislature must work”. This has made the Supreme Court a super legislature.
(b) The following are the salient features of the system of Judicial Review in India :
1. Both the Supreme Court and High Courts exercise the power of Judicial Review. But the final power to determine the constitutional validity of any law is in the hands of the Supreme Court of India.
2. Judicial Review can be conducted in respect of all Central and State laws, the orders and ordinances of the executive and constitutional amendments.
3. Judicial Review cannot be conducted in respect of the Acts incorporated in the 9th Schedule of the Constitution.
4. Judicial Review applies only to the questions of law. It cannot be exercised in respect of political issues.
5. Judicial Review is not automatic. The Supreme Court can conduct judicial review over a law only when it is challenged during the course of litigation. In other words, it becomes operative only when laws are specifically challenged before it or when
during the course of litigation in a case, the question of constitutional validity of any law is raised before it.
6. While declaring a law to be void, the Supreme Court has to cite the provisions/ articles of the constitution which violate the law. It has to demonstrate the invalidity of the law struck down by it.
(a) Give any eight remedial steps for meeting the evils of communalism. 
(b) Suggest any six measures to eradicate economic inequality. 
(a) Communalism is a major social and political problem of India which threatens the fabric of Indian democracy.
The eight remedial steps for meeting the evils of communalism are as follows :
Communalism breeds in the minds of people. Hence, the values and orientations of people have to be changed through well designed education system. People have to inculcate the values of brotherhood and social harmony.
Media and other forms of modern communication should be used to generate awareness among people about the dangers of communalism and importance of communal harmony and social equality of people of all religions.
Poverty and economic backwardness are the breeding grounds for communalism. Hence, the government should undertake vigorous social and economic welfare programmes to ensure social and economic progress of all.
Legal provisions against communal practices should be strengthened. The communal organisations and associations of all forms should be banned. The political leaders mobilizing support on religious lines should be punished.
Special anti-riots police force having people from all communities should be organised on national basis. Such forces can be more effective in the situation of communal riots.
The Muslims in India lack a viable middle class status due to lack of education and economic development. By education and economic progress, an enlightened middle class should be strengthened among minorities.
Concrete steps should be taken to prevent the use of religious places for preaching communalism.
Foreign intervention should be carefully watched and presented from encouraging communalism in India.