ISC Physical Education Previous Year Question Paper 2015 Solved for Class 12
Section-A (60 Marks)
Answer any six questions.
Explain the role of culture in modern games and sports. 
The culture is that which people invented and which must be transmitted to each new generation. It includes our religion, dress, customs, games and sports. Present is an image of the past. Different types of races, jumping and throwing events etc. are some of the events of modem competitions that are result of the past. The ancient culture determined the past that games and sports played in the life of the people. In Indus Valley civilization swimming was quite popular, in Vedic period arrow shooting, fights with dagger, horse riding, chariot race etc., were popular events. Games like Cricket, Hockey etc. were also introduced later on.
In the end we can say that games and sports were the part of our culture and now different competitions are promoted and developed. By games and sports a person develops the self discipline, tolerance and patience etc.
So we can say that culture has an important role in modem games and sports.
Write short notes on the following :
(i) Isotonic exercises. 
(ii) Fartlek training method. 
(i) Isotonic Exercise : Isotonic exercise is done against resistance. A muscle contracts and shortens under a constant load throughout the entire joint range. Isotonic exercises improve the strength, endurance and develop muscle hypertrophy.
In Isotonic exercise the weight that can be lifted 10 consecutive times but not more than 10. This is called 10 repetitions maximum. The exercise is done in 3 sets of 10 repetitions each. The advantage of isotonic exercise is the fast recovery of muscle fatigue.
(ii) Fartlek Training Method : Fartlek is a Swedish term which means speed play and has been used by distance runners for years. Fartlek is a form of road running or cross country running in which the runner, usually changes the pace significantly during the run. An advantage of Fartlek is that the athlete can concentrate on feeling the pace and their physical response to it. Fartlek is also beneficial for the average runner.
Why was Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports (N.S.N.I.S.) formed ? State any five of its objectives. 
In 1958 third Asian games were held in Tokyo where India gave a very poor performance specifically in Hockey. We lost in the finals. The defeat in Hockey gave a major shock to the Govt, of India and all concerned with sports in our country. To improve the performance in sports, All India Council of Sports advised the Govt, of India to abolish the Raj Kumari Coaching Scheme and establish National Institute of Sports at Patiala. This NIS was renamed ‘Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports’ on the 76th birth anniversary of Netaji.
- To give a scientific orientation to the coaching profession.
- To provide systematic and coaching to our National teams.
- To promote sports in youngsters.
- To promote games and sports in different parts of country.
- To develop sports in the country.
Briefly explain the following :
(i) Seeding and Byes. 
(ii) Knock-out and League. 
(i) Seeding : Seeding is the processes by which good teams are fitted in fixtures in such a way so that the stronger teams do not meet each other at the onset of the competition.
Byes : Bye is a privilege given to a team generally by drawing lots and exempting it from playing a match in the first round.
(ii) Knock-out : In this type of tournament the team which is defeated once, gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play.
- There will be economy of expenditure.
- The tournament can be finished in a short period of time.
League : According to this tournament, each team plays with every other team once if it is a single league tournament. If it is a double league tournament each team plays with every other team twice.
- Only strong team get victory in the tournament.
- Every team gets full opportunity to show its efficiency.
- It requires more time.
- It costs more.
(i) Write any five objectives of health education.
(ii) Explain the meaning of rehabilitation. 
(i) Five objectives of health education :
- To develop the health attitudes.
- To eradicate the disease through health drive programmes.
- To provide a healthful environment for physical and mental growth.
- To improve the general conditions of living in the community.
- To instruct the children and youth so as to conserve and improve their own health.
(ii) Meaning of Rehabilitation : Rehabilitation is the process of providing relief help to disabled, deformed, disfigured or injured people to come back to normalcy and lead a respectable and independent life again. Rehabilitation is an integral part of medical care. In other words giving every possible facility to disabled or handicapped person and making an effort to enable him to lead an honourable life is called rehabilitation.
State the corrective measures of the following postural deformities :
(i) Flat foot 
(ii) Knock-knee. 
(i) Flat Foot: The best treatment to help the child with flat feet and no other problem may be to go barefoot. Walking barefoot on sand or rough ground helps, the feet get stronger and form a natural arch. Walking on tiptoe, skipping rope, and picking things up with the toes may also help. In order to strengthen the feet, the following exercises, if practiced daily, may be helpful:
- Stand barefooted with feet parallel and about 2 inches apart, straddling a scam or line in a rug. On the count 1 the feet are forcibly turned out and on the count 2 they are allowed to roll slowly in, but not all the way. This is carried out from twenty-five to one hundred times.
- Same as (1) except the two big toes are held together and on the floor.
- Stand with feet straddling a scam in the rug or on a line on the floor and walk across the room with all the weight borne by the outer borders of the feet. This is done five times up and back.
- Same as (3) except that the feet are raised alternately opposite the other knee.
Special exercises, training in ‘foot posture’, shoe adaptations, heel wedges and shoe inserts (heel cups and insoles) are often prescribed to correct flat feet. However, studies show that usually none of these help. Use of insoles to support the arches may even cause weaker arches. Usually insoles should be tried only when pain is a problem, or in some severe flat feet caused by polio, cerebral palsy, or Down Syndrome.
(ii) Knock-knees : If the knock-knees are severe, braces may help straighten the knees and keep the condition from getting worse. In a child over 6 or 7 years old, braces usually do not help. In extreme cases, surgery may be needed. Knock- knees may also lead to flat feet.
(i) Explain the procedure of administering first aid4o a person with a fractured bone. 
(ii) What is meant by contusion and abrasion ? 
(i) Fracture is the term used to indicate that a bone is broken.
Procedure of First Aid :
- Check the general condition of patient.
- Check the level of consciousness.
- Check pulse, respiration etc.
- Stop bleeding if any.
- Keep the patient warm.
- Cover the open fracture with sterile dressing.
- Transfer the casualty to the hospital.
(ii) Contusion : A contusion is injury to the muscle, bone or soft tissue of the body. It usually results from blunt force, trauma, certain types of contusions are simply called bruises.
Abrasion : An abrasion is a shallow scrape on the skin surface and most commonly found on the hands, elbows or knees. It can be very painful.
Write any five effects of each of the following on individuals :
(i) Consumption of alcohol. 
(ii) Smoking. 
(i) Five Effects of Consumption of Alcohol:
- It depresses parts of the nerves system.
- It effects the coordination even with small doses.
- The efficiency of work is lessened.
- The person who consumes alcohol is unable to take decisions.
- Consumption of alcohol has increased crime and violence.
(ii) Five Effects of Smoking :
- Smoking increase the blood pressure.
- It increase pulse rate which limits the sports performance.
- Smoking reduces stamina and overall physical fitness.
- Smoking reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
- Unlike lung cancer, mouth cancer and heart disease may also develop.
Section-B (40 Marks)
- Select any two games from this Section Answer any two of the three subparts (a), (b) and (c)from each of the two games selected by you.
Question 9. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) Draw a neat diagram of penalty area and the goal post with its dimensions. 
(ii) State any three ways of restarting a play. 
(iii) In a football match, what is meant by the term sudden death ? 
(b) (i) Explain the procedure to be followed for a substitution in a football match. 
(ii) State any three pre-match duties of the referee. 
(iii) Explain the following : 
(1) Banana shot.
(2) Chip shot.
(c) (i) Explain any five offenses committed by a player for which a red card is shown. 
(ii) State any three fouls in the game of football. 
(iii) What is the circumference and weight of the ball ? 
- Throw in Kick off (After goal, Half-time and coach
- Dropped ball extra time if needed)
- Comer kick
iii. When no goal is scored after tie breaker, alternate penalty kicks are given to each team till the tie is broken. This is called sudden death.
- In a football game three substitution are allowed. Procedure—The player will report to the official table when the game will stop. Referee allows the player to enter the field and he will go by centre line. The substitute player will come out of the field and procedure is complete.
- Three pre-match duties of the referee :
(a) To check the equipments are according to law.
(b) To check all the measurements.
(c) To check all the official are on their places.
- Banana Shot r A banana shot is an off centre shot (kick) that makes the ball curve or suddenly change direction before dropping to the ground.
- Chip Shot : A shot in which the ball kicked form underneath with accuracy but less than maximum force to launch it high into the air in order to pass it over the heads of opponents or to score a goal.
- Five offenses when Red card is shown :
- Pushing the opponent (player)
- Charging the opponent (player)
- Hitting the opponent (player)
- Abusing the opponent (player)
- Delaying the restart of play
- Three fouls in the game of football:
- (Throw-in) when ball crosses the touch line.
- Circumference of ball = 68 cm – 70 cm
Weight of ball = 410 gm – 450 gm.
(a) (i) Draw a neat diagram of cricket pitch with specification and dimensions. 
(ii) List any three important national tournaments. 
(iii) Give the full forms of MCC and ICC. 
(b) (i) Mention any five conditions when a ball is declared dead in cricket. 
(ii) Specify the measurements of the following: 
(1) Circumference of the ball.
(2) Maximum length of the bat.
(3) Height of stumps from the ground.
(iii) Explain the following terms : 
(1) China man.
(2) Time out.
(c) (i) State any five decisions given by the leg umpire. 
(ii) Explain the following terms : 
(2) Good length
(3) Half volley
(iii) Mention two exceptional circumstances under which the game can be suspended. 
(a) (i) Diagram of Pitch.
(ii) Three National tournaments.
- Ranji Trophy
- C.K. Naidu Trophy
- Deodhar Trophy.
(iii) MCC = Marylebone Cricket Club
ICC = Imperial Cricket Conference, International Cricket Council
- Five conditions when the ball is declared dead:
- After over is complete.
- When the batsman is out.
- When the ball crosses the boundary line.
- When the ball takes more than one bounces on the pitch.
- When the inning is over.
- Circumference of the ball = 22-4 to 22-9 cm.
Maximum length of bat = 95-6 cm (38 inch) Height of stump from the ground = 32 inch.
- China Man : A ball delivered in this way will spin from Off-side to the Leg-side for a right handed batsman.
- Time-Out: A batsman takes more than 2 minutes to come out after the fall of a wicket.
- Five decisions given by the Leg Umpire:
- Run out at striker end.
- Hit wicket.
- Stumping out.
- Height no ball.
- Yorker : Yorker is a delivery which bounces just near the popping crease.
- Good Length : It is a type of delivery in cricket that pitches at a distance from the batsman that makes him difficult to score runs.
- Half Volley : Half volley is a delivery that bounces just short of the block hole. Usually easy to drive or glance away.
- Circumstances in which game can be suspended :
- Due to bad weather.
- Terrorist attack.
- Misconduct by team.
- Due to interference from outside people.
Question 11. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) When is a goal scored in hockey ? How is the game restarted after a goal is scored ? 
(ii) Give the specifications of the following : 
(1) Length and width of the court.
(2) Circumference of the ball.
(3) Duration of extra time.
(iii) When can a goal keeper cross the 23 m line ? 
(b) (i) What is the difference between a penalty corner and a penalty stroke ? 
(ii) Explain the following : 
(iii) When is a sixteen-yard hit awarded? 
(c) (i) List the equipment used by the referee drugging a match. 
(ii) Explain the term bully in hockey. 
(iii) What is the duration of a hockey match? 
(a) (i) Methods of Scoring :
A goal is scored in hockey when the ball crosses the goal line within the goal post. The ball should have been hit from inside the striking circle or has touched the defender’s stick within the circle. The goal can be scored by way of field goal, penalty corner, long corner or penalty stroke.
To restart the game after the goal is scored, a centre pass is taken by a player of the team against which the goal was scored.
- In this an attacker pushes a ball from a mark which is ten yards away from the goal post on the side that team prefers. Five defenders including a goal keeper are allowed to defend their goal.
- A penalty corner is awarded for an offense by a defender in the circle which does not prevent the probable scoring of a rebel.
- In this an attacker is allowed to push or scoop the ball from the penalty spot. All defenders except the goal keeper stand behind the 25 yard line.
- A penalty stroke is awarded when a defender commits a foul in the circle that prevents a probable goal.
- Scoop : Scoop is a stroke in which a ball is lifted up with the flat part of the hockey blade.
- Flick : A stroke executed with a jerking action of the wrists.
- Lunge : Lunging is used to increase the reach to play the ball which is out of reach. The player is required to hold the stick at the top of the stick by either hand. Hold the stick and the arm extending fully and body lunging forward on one leg, knees comfortable bent. It is used when the ball is out of the two-handed reach. To prevent the ball going out of the field either over the side lines or goal line by lunging at the ball and using that extra reach.
(iii) Sixteen yard hit is awarded when the ball crosses the back line. It is a method of restarting the game by defender.
(c) (i) Equipments used by referee during a match:
- Cards (Green, Yellow, Red)
- Note book
- Rule book
(ii) Bully : It is a call used to start or restart play. The referee puts the ball between two opposing players. Two players of both the teams stand in front of each other. They touch this stick to the ground three times and alternately their opponent’s stick after that ball is put is play.
(iii) Duration of a Hockey Match : 4
Quarters of 15 minutes each.
Question 12. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) List the technical equipment used by the table officials. 
(ii) Give the measurements of the following: 
(1) Width of the lines on the court.
(2) Diameter of centre circle.
(3) Length and width of the board.
(iii) What is legal guarding position ? 
(b) (i) What are the conditions to be fulfilled for scoring in the game of basketball ? 
(ii) When is a ball considered to be dead ?
(iii) Briefly explain the term time out. 
(c) (i) What is the duration of the game ?
How is this time divided ? 
(ii) State any three duties of the referee. 
(iii) Explain the following : 
(2) Lay-up shot.
(a) (i) Technical equipment used by the table officials :
- Game clock and stop watch.
- 30 second devices
- Score sheet
- Score board
- Player foul marker
- Team foul marker.
- Width of the lines on the court 5 cm.
- Diameter of centre circle — 1-80 m.
- Length and width of the board — 1-80 m and 1-05 m.
(iii) Legal guarding position is when the , defender merely must have both feet on the floor and be facing the opponent.
- If a player of attacking team puts the live ball into the basket without any foul from outside the 3 point area or in side the three point by any way such as a lay-up shot, a Dunk shot or keeping his on the court or in air, these conditions are said to fulfil for scoring in the game of Basketball.
- In basketball game when the game is stopped due to any reason (side line cross, after basket or foul etc.) ball is considered a dead ball.
- Time-out: Time out is a halt in the play. This allows the coaches of either team to communicate with the team.
Time out is generally used by team to stop the clock and/or reassess the team’s strategy.
- Duration of Game : Four quarters of 10 minutes each with an interval of 2 min. after every quarter.
- Rebound : A rebound in basketball is the act of successfully gaining possession of the basketball after a missing field goal or free throw.
- Lay up Shot : A shot in which a player reaches the ring by taking one and half step.
Question 13. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) Write any five fundamental skills required by a player in the game of volleyball. 
(ii) Name any three of the national tournaments. 
(iii) Explain the following terms : 
(1) Under hand service
(2) Round arm service.
(b) (i) Explain the procedure to be followed for a substitution during the play. 
(ii) Mention any three acts of breach which are punishable. 
(iii) Give the specification of the net used in the game of volleyball. 
(c) (i) List the officials required for conducting a match. 
(ii) State any three duties of a coach during the match. 
(iii) What is the role of a setter in the game ? 
(a) (i) Five fundamental skills required by a player:
- The service.
- The Net Recovery.
- The Block
- The Set-up
- The Attack (smash)
(ii) Three national tournaments :
- Youth National Championship
- Federation Cup
- National Club Volleyball Championship
- Under Hand Service : The ball is held on the extended hand at waist height in front of right shoulder. The serving arm is swung down well behind the body, tosses the ball a few inches into air when the ball contacted with heel of the hand, the wrist or the inside of the clenched fist.
- Round arm service : The ball is tossed above the head. The body weight shifts towards the right leg. The ball is hit at the highest point with the complete straight arm and straight legs.
- Substitution request is made only when a substitute enters the substitute zone. A substitution is the act by which a player after being recorded by the scorer enters the game for another player. One or more players are permitted at the same time.
- 3 Acts of Breach : To talk again and again to the officials concerning their decision.
- To make uncivil remarks to the officials or players of the opposing team.
- To act in an uncivil manner so as to influence the decisions of officials.
- Length of Net — 9-50 m.
Breadth of Net — 1 m.
Height of Net (men)—2-43 m.
Height of Net (women)—2-24 m.
- Officials required for conducting a match:
- Referee — 2 (First and Second)
- Duties of a Coach :
- Encourage the player while playing.
- To guide the player at the time out.
- Tell them about the attacker team play.
- Make substitution if required.
- Setter : A person raising the ball for spike/smash.
Question 14. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) Explain clearly, the pattern of winning : 
(1) a game
(2) a set
(ii) Expand the following : 
(iii) Name any two strokes used by the players in the game. 
(b) (i) Give measurements of the following : 
(1) Height of the net at the centre of the court.
(2) Diameter of the posts.
(3) Weight of the ball.
(4) Width of the strap of the net.
(5) Length of the racket.
(ii) Explain the following : 
(1) Overhead smash.
(2) Ground shot.
(iii) What is the difference between a volley and a lob ? 
(c) (i) Explain the rule of a tie-break in doubles. 
(ii) When do the players change ends in the game ? 
(iii) When is a ball considered to be out of play ? 
- Game : Unit of set completed by winning four points before opponent wins three, or by winning two consecutive points after deuce. If a player wins first point score called 15, on winning second point score called 30, on winning his third point the score is called 40 for that player and the fourth point won by a player and scored game for that player.
- Set: Player winning four points before his opponent wins. Three points takes the game and player winning six game wins a set.
(ii) Expand the following :
- ATP—Association of Tennis Professionals
- AITA—All India Tennis Association
- ITF—International Tennis Federation
(iii) Two stroke used by a player :
- Backhand stroke.
- Forehand stroke.
(b) (i) Measurement:
- Height of the net at the centre of the court—3 feet
- Diameter of the posts—6 inch
- Weight of the ball — 56-7 gm – 58-5 gm
- Width of the strap of the net—5 cm
- Length of the racket—81-28 cm (32 inch)
- Overhead Smash : In this, still swing the arm more fully back and bend it more and push the heel of the hand upward and hit the ball with power. It takes place when ball is high in the air.
- Ground Shot : A ground shot in tennis is a forehand or backhand shot, that is executed after the ball bounces once on the court. It is usually hit from the back of the tennis court, around the baseline.
(iii) Difference between a volley and a lob : A volley : When a player strikes the ball without allowing it to touch the ground.
A lob : Hitting the ball high into the air to drive the opponent back from the net.
(c) (i) Rule of a tie-break in doubles :
- 66 in a set result in a 7 points tie- break game played.
- 7 points earned combined with a 2 points advantage wins the game.
- The 1st point is served from the right service court.
- Service rotates after the 1st point is played.
- Every 6-points the tennis competitors change the court.
(ii) Change of Ends : The player shall change sides at the end of the first third and every subsequent alternate game of each set.
(iii) When the ball crosses the side line and back line and then touches the ground, the ball is considered out of play.
Question 15. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) What are the duties of the umpire before the match and during the match ? 
(ii) Explain any two types of grips used to hold the racket. 
(iii) Define the following : 
(1) Slice drop
(2) Net drop.
(b) (i) State any five duties of a service umpire. 
(ii) Name any three national badminton players. 
(iii) Explain the procedure to be followed for selecting a court for the game. 
(c) (i) Mention any five fundamental skills required by a player in the game of badminton. 
(ii) What is rally? 
(iii) Explain the following : 
(2) Backhand shot
(a) (i) Duties of umpire before and during match:
- Check all the equipments are according law.
- Check all measurements of court.
- See all officials are on their places.
- Uphold and enforce the laws of game.
- Give a decision on any appeal.
- Appoint or remove line judges.
- Record and report to the reieree all matters.
(ii) Two types of Grips :
- Basic Grip : Which can be used for all strokes.
- Frying Pan : Which is solely for lob shots at near the net.
- Slice Drop : The opponent is deceived in believing that he will get a smash or straight clear, but get a drop shot which comes down more steeply as it clears the net.
- Net Drop : A shot hit from the fore . court that just clears the net and drops sharply.
(b) (i) Five duties of service umpire :
- He will see that the server delivers a correct service.
- He approves hand signals for each low.
- To see undue delay to the delivery of the service.
- To see feet not in the service court.
- He may arrange with the service Judge any extra duties to be undertaken, provided that the players are also advised.
(ii) National Players :
- Prakash Padukone.
- Pullela Gopi Chand.
(iii) Before commencing play the opposing side shall toss, the winner is free to change side or service.
(c) (i) Fundamental skills required by a player:
- Correct footwork,
- Back hand
- Net Play
(ii) Rally : A sequence of one or more strokes starting with the service, until the shuttle ceases to be in play.
- Alley : The term ‘alley’ is used in doubles and is T5 foot extension of both sides of the court. There is also the back alley which is the area between the back boundary line and the long service line also used for doubles.
- Backhand Shot : The action of hitting a shuttle approaching to the side of inactive arm. In this stroke it is essential that the right foot is taken across and slightly in front of the body.
Question 16. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) Explain synchronized swimming. 
(ii) Give specifications for the starting platform: 
(1) Height of starting platform
(2) Area of the platform.
(3) Maximum slope of the platform.
(iii) What is meant by relay ? 
(b) (i) Mention five duties of the starter. 
(ii) State any three types of strokes used in swimming. 
(iii) What is meant by dolphin kick ? 
(c) (i) Explain the correct procedure of doing butterfly stroke. 
(ii) What should be the minimum temperature and the maximum temperature of the pool during a competition ? 
(iii) What is the full form of FINA ? 
(a) (i) Synchronized Swimming: Synchronized swimming is a hybrid of swimming performing a synchronized routine of elaborate move in the water accompanied by music. It demands advanced water skills and required great strength,- endurance etc. Synchronized swimming is both an individual and team sport.
- Height of starting platform = 0-5 m to 0-75 m
- Area of the platform = 0-5 m x 0-5 m
- Maximum slope of the platform = Not more than 10°.
(iii) Relay : A swimming relay is when four swimmers perform to complete the race is (4 x 100 m) in the distance divided in four each swimmer completes equal number of distances.
(b) (i) Five duties of starter :
- Call-up the competition approxi-mately 10 minutes before the race.
- Check clothing and numbers.
- To assure a fair start.
- Act as relay take-off judge when assigned.
- On receiving full clearance from the referee, the starter assumes full control of the swimmers until a fair start has been achieved.
(ii) Three types of strokes :
- Breast stroke.
- Back stroke.
- Butterfly stroke.
(iii) Dolphin kick : A swimming kick used mainly in butterfly stroke in which the legs are extended straight back and moving up and down in unison with a slight bend in the knees on the upward movement.
- Butterfly Stroke : The arms are at shoulders width apart and pulled back together under the body elbow slightly bent in almost a double free style arm action. The arms leave the water at hip level and are thrown side ways forward through the air in a flying action to the entry position. The first is like the ordinary breast stroke leg kick but is not so wide after the hands entered the water. The head can be either forward or turned side ways to breathe.
- Temperature of pool during competition min. 24°C max. 26°C.
- FINA : Federation International de Nation Amateur.
Question 17. [10 x 2]
(a) (i) Mention the standard weight of the following equipment used in athletics field events : 
(1) Javelin for men
(2) Discus for men
(3) Shot put for men
(4) Hammer for men
(5) Hammer for women,
(ii) Explain the term block clearance in the sprint events. 
(iii) State any two commands used for a sprint start. 
(b) (i) What is a crouch start ? Name the events for which it is used. 
(ii) Explain the following : 
(1) False start
(2) Triple jump
(iii) What is relay? 
(c) (i) Explain any two types of starts in short distance races. 
(ii) Mention any three skills a long jump athlete should possess. 
(iii) What do AF1 and IAAF stand for ? 
- Javelin for men = weight – 800 gm
- Discus for men = weight – 2-00 kg
- Shot put for men = weight – 7-260 kg
- Diameter 110 mm – 130 mm
- Hammer for men = weight – 7-260 kg
- Hammer for women = weight – 4-00 kg
(ii) Block Clearance : As the athlete drives from the blocks the rear leg is pulled through fast the front leg fully extends the arms drive vigorously in a short arm action while the head remains in a natural line with the trunk.
(iii) Commands for sprint start:
- On your marks
- Go or Pistol fire.
(b) (i) Crouch Start : As per rules of competition in the sprint race the crouch start with starting blocks is compulsory while taking start sprinter drives against the starting block, the block push back against the feet. Jo avoid the risk of slippage the starting blocks must be fixed firmly. Crouch start is of three
- Bunch start.
- Medium start.
- Elongated start.
(ii) (1) False start:
(a) A false start occurs if any movement is made before firing of the Pistol.
(b) If any movement occurs in the “set” position.
(2) Triple Jump : Triple jump is also called Hop step and Jump on the hop the jumper lands on the same foot after hop take off on the left foot upon which he landed and last phase of the event with jump. The jump is a normal long jump action, in which the jumper takes off from , the foot he had landed on the step.
(iii) Relay : Relay requires four sprinters together running a complete lap of the track, passing on a baton which has to arrive at the finish lines with the runner of the east leg.
(c) (i) Two types of starts in short distance races :
(1) Bunch Start: In bunch start the feet are spaced close together so close that the toe of the back foot is placed opposite the heel of the front foot while the runner is in standing position.
(2) Elongated start : The knee of the rear leg is placed opposite the heel of the front foot, while kneeling on the mark. This is generally for the tall sprinters.
(ii) Three skills a long jump athlete should posses :
(1) Approach run
(3) The flight.
(iii) AIT—Athletics Federation of India.
I AAF—International Association of Athletics Federation.