ISC History Previous Year Question Paper 2012 Solved for Class 12
Maximum Marks: 80
Time allowed: Three hours
- Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.
- Answer Question 1 (Compulsory) from Part I and five questions from Part II, choosing two questions from Section A, two
- questions from Section B and one question from either Section A or Section B.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
Answer all questions.
Question 1. 
(i) Name the two newspapers that Tilak edited in order to promote radical nationalism in India.
(ii) Name one well-known revolutionary organisation established in Bengal and one in Maharashtra in the early years of the 20th century.
(iii) What was the main demand of the Shimla deputation ? How was this demand fulfilled by the British Government ?
(iv) Why did Rabindranath Tagore give up his knighthood in 1919?
(v) Mention the two main principles of the Gandhian philosophy of Satyagraha.
(vi) What was the main provision of the Poona Pact ?
(vii) Name the nationalist leader who played the most important role in propa-gating and popularizing socialist ideas in the 1930’s in India.
(viii) Who was the founder of the Forward Bloc party in 1939 ?
(ix) What was the significance of the Lahore Session of the Muslim League in 1940?
(x) State any one reason for the Cabinet Mission’s rejection of the idea of a separate state of Pakistan.
(xi) Who introduced the ‘Battle of Wheat Campaign’ ? What was its primary objective ?
(xii) Why and by whom was the “Final solution ” policy implemented ?
(xiii) Why did Mussolini support General Franco during the Spanish Civil War ?
(xiv) Name the two countries that originally signed the Anti-Comintern Pact (1936).
(xv) State any one reason for the US decision to use the atom bomb against Japan.
(xvi) Which major crisis in Europe led to the establishment of NATO ?
(xvii) Why was the Berlin Wall erected by the Communists in 1961 ?
(xviii) What is meant by the veto power of the Security Council ?
(xix) How did the rise of Nazism in Germany impact the Palestinian conflict ?
(xx) Why did Nasser nationalize the Suez Canal ?
(vii) Jawaharlal Nehru, insisted on the inculcation of a new socialist ideological orientation.
(viii) Subhash Chandra Bose was the founder of the Forward Bloc party in 1939.
(ix) Jinnah’s ‘Two Nation Theory’ was an outcome of the Lahore Session of Muslim League in 1940.
(x) Cabinet Mission rejected the idea of two sovereign states because it was believed that it would not solve the problem of the minorities.
(xiii) The nationalist agreed to allow Italy to establish bases in Spain if there was a war with France, Mussolini knew very well that from Spain. French industries in Marseilles could be easily bombed and thus, Italy would be able to establish his supremacy in the Mediterranean.
(xiv) Germany and Japan.
(xv) After aerial attack on Pearl Harbor, USA served ultimatum to Japan to surrender before USA. After the fall of Germany and Italy, Japan was still continuing the war, so after USA decided to use atom bomb against Japan.
(xvi) The conflict between Western and Eastern Europe over German problems was getting intense. The Soviet blockade of West Berlin made America decide to form a mutual military assistance organisation with the Western European countries. This resulted in the establishment of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation “NATO”.
(xvii) Khruschev announced that Russia no longer recognize the claims of western powers over west Berlin. He also demanded that the western powers should withdraw from the west Berlin. When the U.S. refused to accede to this demand, Russia erected Berlin wall in Aug. 1961. The 28 miles Berlin wall across the entire city effectively blocked the escape route to the west.
(xviii) The five permanent, members of the Security Council have the right to veto. By an application of this right a permanent member may reject any decision of the Security Council.
(xix) Germany’s Palestine policy between 1933 and 1940 was based on a fundamental acceptance of the post-World War I status quo in the Middle-east. For different reasons, the Hitler regime continued in the footsteps of the various Weimar Governments by identifying German interests with the postwar settlement in Palestine. That settlement embodied a growing Jewish presence’ and homeland in Palestine, as well as the establishment of British imperial power over Palestine and the Middle-east. It also represented a denial of Arab claims to national self determination and independence in Palestine and throughout the Middle-east.
Between 1933 and 1940, German policy encouraged and actively promoted Jewish emigration to Palestine, recognized and respected Britain’s imperial interests throughout the Middle-east and remained largely indifferent to the ideals and aims of Arab nationalism.
(xx) Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1956 declared nationalization of the Suez Canal to be able to use the funds collected from toll tax to help build Aswan dam. This was a result of America’s refusal to further loans to Egypt for political reasons.
(a) Briefly explain two political events in India and two at the international level that led to the rise of radical nationalism at the turn of the 20th century. 
(b) Give an account of the Anti-Partition Movement and its subsequent development into the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement. 
(c) How did the differences in interpretation and application of Swadeshi and Boycott, widen the rift between the Moderates and the Radical nationalist ? 
The first World War led to a maturing of Indian nationalism. In this context, answer the following :
(a) Why did the Indian nationalist leaders initially decide to. support the British in their war effort and later launch the anti-British Home Rule League Movement ? 
(b) Name the two founders of the Home Rule League in India. What was the contribution of this League in the freedom movement ? 
(c) Discuss the events that led to the Lucknow session of the Congress and the signing of the Congress League Pact in 1916. Explain the significance of the Lucknow Pact. 
(a) Explain the circumstances that led to the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement under Gandhiji’s leadership in 1920. Why was the Movement suspended ? 
(b) How did the Swaraj Party carry on the anti- British struggle after the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement ? 
(a) Why was Lord Mountbatten sent to India ? What were the main features of the Mountbatten Plan ? 
(b) Why did the Congress agree to the proposal for partition of the country ? 
(a) In 1945, the Labour Party, under Clement Atlee, came to power in England. Lord Wavell was summoned to England and informed that Britain had made up its mind to quit India. The British Government sent a Cabinet Mission to India with the intention to solve the Indian angle. No agreement could be reached as the differences between the Congress and the Muslim League were found to be irreconciliable. Since no agreement appeared in sight between the two parties, the Mission put forward its own plan.
An Interim Government was proposed. This Government was not functioning well due to non-cooperation of the Muslim League. The country was passing through communal riots at different places. The situation suddenly changed when Clement Atlee announced in the British Parliament on 20 February, 1947 that the Government would transfer power to the Indians not later than June 1948. Lord Mountbatten now came to India to take charge as Viceroy and Governor-General from Lord Wavell.
It is in this background that Lord Mountbatten took charge as Viceroy in March 1947. Main features of his plan which was announced on June 3,1947 :
Creation of a separate state of Pakistan was conceded. Congress’ concerns for the unity were to be given paramount importance. A seperate constituent assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution was to be made.
An early transfer of power to two Dominion states of India and Pakistan was to be done. Early transfer of power was sought to ensure Congress agreement for Dominion status as also to escape responsibility for escalating communal situation.
The fate of NWFP was to be decided through a referendum. If was left to the princely states to decide as to which Dominion they would like to join or to remain independent. A boundary commission were to determine the boundaries of Punjab, Bengal and Assam which were slated to be divided between the two Dominions.
(b) Why Congress accepted the Partition :
The partition of India was a part of the Mountbatten Plan, which was announced on June 3, 1947. The plan was accepted by both Congress and Muslim League for different reasons.
The Congress accepted the plan of partition due to following reasons :
Due to communal riots the situation was taking a worst turn. In order to avoid further bloodshed among Hindus and Muslims, Congress accepted the partition of India.
The experience of working with the Muslim League had convinced the Congress that the League had aimed at the Interim Government to obstruct and not to cooperate and that having a joint administration with the League was not feasible.
The only alternative of partition was a federation with a weak center which could not face disruptive forces. After Partition, a smaller India with a strong center was more desirable.
The Congress leaders felt that the partition would remove separate electorate and many undemocratic procedures which were implemented due to the demand of the Muslim League.
If the Congress would have not accepted the Partition, the transfer of power would have been delayed, which may have plugged India into another civil war and disintegration of country.
(a) Explain the contribution of Sardar Patel in the reorganization and integration of the princely states with special reference to Hyderabad and Junagarh. 
(b) What is the full form of NAM ? Explain the main principles of the Panchsheel which was adopted at the Bandung Conference ? 
(a) Sardar Patel handled effectively the integration of the princely states with his diplomatic skills and foresightedness.
Sardar Patel took charge of the states department in July 1947. He sensed the urgent and imperative need of the integration of princely states. He followed an iron-handed policy. He made it clear that he did not recognize the right of any state to remain independent and in isolation, within India.
He handled the Junagarh and Hyderabad crisis as a seasoned statesman. Nawab of Junagarh wanted to accede to Pakistan. When the people revolted, Patel intervened. Indian Government took over the administration. Patel merged it with India by holding a plebiscite.
Patel with an iron-fisted hand subdued the Nizam. When the Nizam boasted anti-India feelings and let loose a blood bath by the Razakars, Patel decided upon police action. He ordered the army to March into Hyderabad. The Nizam surrendered and Hyderabad was acceded to India.
Thus, Sardar Patel ensured, by his calculated methods, the absorption of a multitude of princely states into the Indian Union. Without a civil war, he secured the solidarity of the nation.
(b) NAM stands for Non-Aligned Movement. The term “non-alignment” was coined by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth by Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai called Panchsheel (five restraints). These principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement.
A significant milestone in the development of this movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian President, Sukarno. Sukarno has given a significant contribution to promote this movement. The attending nations declared their desire not to become involved in the Cold War and adopted a “declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation”, which included Nehru’s five principles :
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefit.
- Peaceful co-existence.
Six years after Bandung conference an initiative of Yugoslav president Tito led to the first official Non-Aligned Movement Summit, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade.
(a) Explain how Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922 with reference to :
(i) The march on Rome (Oct. 1922).
(ii) The role of the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III. 
(b) Discuss any five important features of the Italian Fascist State under Mussolini. 
(a) State the main aims of Hitler’s foreign policy. 
(b) Discuss the various successful events of Hitler’s foreign policy between 1933 and 1938. 
(a) The main aims of the Hitler’s policy were :
(i) To destroy the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany after her defeat in World War One. Hitler felt the Treaty was unfair and most Germans supported this view.
(ii) To unite all German speakers together in one country. After World War One there were Germans living in many countries in Europe e.g., Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Hitler hoped that by uniting them together in one country he would create a powerful Germany or Grossdeutschland.
(iii) To expand eastwards into the East (Poland, Russia) to gain land for Germany.
(iv) Hitler protested at the fact that the Allies had not disarmed after World War and he left the disarmament conference and the League of Nations in 1933. He intensified the programme of secret rearmament.
(v) To exalt nationalism.
(vi) To advocate the rule by a great leader from a single party.
(vii) To uphold the racial supremacy of the Germans and to have hatred for the Jews.
(b) In 1934, Germany and Poland concluded an alliance, the first of his infamous ten year non aggression pacts. This caused a surprise in Europe at the time. The alliance broke Germany’s diplomatic isolation while also weakening France’s series of anti-German alliances in Eastern Europe. For the next five years Poland and Germany were to enjoy cordial relations. However, like many of his agreements, this was a tactical move and Hitler had no intention of honoring the agreement in the long term. In January 1935, the Saar voted to return to Germany.
This region had been placed under the control of the League of Nations by the Treaty of Versailles. This allowed the French to exploit its coalfields for 15 years. The vote to return to Germany was supported by over 90%. It was a major propaganda boost for Hitler who could claim that his policies had the backing of the German people.
Under the Treaty of Versailles the Germans were forbidden to erect fortifications or station troops in the Rhineland or within 50 kilometers of the right bank of the river. In 1935 when Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, Hitler ignored international protests and supported Mussolini. This ended Germany’s international isolation and the Italians signaled their acceptance of German influence in Austria and the eventual remilitarization of the Rhineland.
In June 1936, the Spanish Civil War broke out. Both Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to General Franco who was fighting against the popularly elected Government of Spain. This closer co¬operation between the two Fascist dictators led to an alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis. It was an agreement to pursue a joint foreign policy. Both agreed to stop the spread of communism in Europe. This relationship became closer in 1939 with the signing of “The Pact of Steel”.
In February 1938, the Austrian Prime Minister, Schuschnigg met Hitler at Berchtesgaden in the Alps. At the meeting the Austrian chancellor was threatened and was forced to place leading Austrian Nazis in his Government.
On his return to Austria, Schuschnigg tried to stop spreading German influence by calling a referendum. This enraged Hitler and Schuschnigg was forced to resign. German troops “were invited in” by the new Nazi Prime Minister, Seyss-Inquart.
(a) Explain how the following events led to the collapse of international order in 1930’s :
(i) The Japanese conquest of Manchuria. 
(ii) The Italian conquest of Abyssinia. 
(b) Why did Britain and France choose to follow the Appeasement Policy that hastened the outbreak of the Second World War ? 
(a) (ii) In 1896 Italian army was defeated in the battle of Adowa while Italy tried to conquer the region. Italy wanted to wipe out the humiliation of defeat at Adowa.
Italy’s existing colonies Eritrea and Somaliland were not very rewarding. Italy thus needed colonies for more space, more food for her growing population and more markets for Italy’s exports.
Italy and Germany equally suffered from the great depression. The League of Nations declared Italy as aggressor and applied economic embargo, but Mussolini defied the league and declared king victor Emmanuel as the emperor of Abyssinia in 1936.
Taking advantage of Italy’s Abyssinia attack, Germany sent troops to the demilitarized zone of Rhineland and violated the treaty of Versailles.
Italy now realized the helpless condition of Britain and France in international politics.
The period after the Second World War was marked by tension and cooperation. In this context, discuss the following :
(a) The Berlin Blockade. 
(b) The Cuban Missile Crisis. 
(c) The role of the UN in the Korean War. 
(a) The Berlin Blockade (June 1948 to May 1949) by Russia brought the cold war to its climax. At the Yalta and Potsdam, it was agreed by the Allied Powers that Germany and Berlin would be divided into four zones, each under America, Britain, France and Russia. First three powers did their best to organise the economic and political recovery of their respective zones. But Russia treated the zone its satellite and drained its resources towards Russian development.
In 1948, the three zones merged together and formed a single economic unit. With the help of the Marshall Plan, the three zones had developed economically in contrast to the poverty of the Russian zone. The Western Powers wanted four zones to be reunited again. But the State wanted to keep the Russian zone separate, because the reunited three zones would be a part of the Western Bloc thus, threatening Russia to a great extend.
In June 1948, the Western Powers introduced a new currency and ended price control in their respective zones and in West Berlin. But the Russian authority was not in a position to have two different currencies in the same city. Actually Berlin city was situated within East Germany. Moreover, they were embarrassed by
the central between the prosperity of West Berlin and the poverty of the surrounding areas. Russia then closed all roads, rail and canal links between West Berlin and West Germany. In this situation, the Western Powers decided to send food supply through aeroplanes to the blocked area for the next ten months. In May 1949, Russia was compelled to withdraw the blockade. The result was not be relation of the Western Powers with Russia reached the worst ever. The West Bloc then decided to form the NATO in April 1949, for the coordination of their defence. It thus, became clear that Germany would remain divided in future
(c) While the UN did not participate in the decision making process of the military campaign carried out in its name, it played a role then and continues to play a role by allowing the US Government to appropriate the United Nations name as a camouflage cover for the actions of the US Government. The UN authorized Member States to intervene in the Korean War, to form the “Unified Command”, to use the UN flag along with the flags of the member states participating in the “Unified Command”, and it authorized the US to appoint a Commander in Chief for the “Unified Command”.
Under pressure from the US, the UN failed to exercise its obligation to supervise the actions of the “Unified Command”. Subsequently, the UN continues to evade fulfilling its obligations by continuing to allow the US to claim that it is the “United Nations Command” in Korea and in failing to provide its political supervision over what the US has done and continues to do in Korea in the name of the UN.
(a) Give a brief account of the conflict in Palestine after the First World War and explain how it led to the outbreak of the Arab- Israel War in 1948. 
(b) Discuss the causes and results of the Yom Kippur War (1973). 
(c) Why did the Egyptians and Israelis agree to start negotiations in 1978 to resolve their differences ? Who acted as the mediator ? 
(a) With the outbreak of World War I, the British Government decided to drive away the Turks from Arabia and the Middle-east. The Ottoman Sultan was an ally of Germany. The British agents contacted the Grand Sheriff King Hussain of Mecca to give a call to the faithful Muslims to wage a Jihad against the Turks. The British Government promised king Hussain independent Arabia after the end of the war. Consequently, the Arabs joined the British against the Turks.
Though Pan Arab nationalism swept the Arab World but, Hussain failed to get what he and his people wished.
On the other hand as the Jews were persecuted by the Christians in Europe, they were determined to protect their nationalism and regain their lost homeland in Palestine. With the outbreak of the First World War, the British Government faced severe economic crisis and approached great Jewish bankers for loan and subsidy. Under pressure from the Jewish Congress, in return for this loan, Lord Balfour made a public declaration in the Parliament, “His Majesty’s Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavour to facilitate the object.” The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was highly contradictory to the Hussain- Macmohan correspondence. This mutually contradictory diplomacy of the British lay at the root of the Palestine problem.
After the First World War, Arab territories were mostly divided between Britain and France as mandated territories under the nominal authority of the League of Nations. Palestine became a British mandate. Its administration fell upon Britain.
When the question of conflicting pledges was raised at the League of Nations, Britain cleverly pointed out that there was really no duplicity and conflict. If they promised Arabia to Hussain, Palestine was certainly not included in the pledge. The name of Palestine was not mentioned in the Hussain-Macmohan letters. If a homeland was assured to the Jews, it meant a part, not the whole of Palestine.
Due to the Arab-Jewish rift, the British Government began to seek ways and means to solve the Palestine problem. In 1936, a Royal Commission under Peel was appointed in Palestine, which reported that Palestine should ‘ be partitioned into two small Jewish states-the holy places were to be kept under British mandate and the rest was to be annexed to Jordan. This proposal was outrightly rejected by the Arab leaders and partly rejected by the Jews. Meanwhile, the Second World War broke out.
The clever Zionist leaders became aware that America had emerged as a centre of world politics after the war. They shifted the headquarters of the Zionist movement from London to New York. Five million Jewish Americans supported the claim for a Jewish homeland and no American politician could ignore 5 million votes. So, both the Democrat and Republican parties became sympathetic to the Jewish cause. In a Zionist Congress at New York, the Jews demanded :
- Declaration of a Jewish state in Palestine.
- Formation of a Jewish voluntary force.
- Free, unfettered entry of Jews in Palestine. After the New York Zionist Conference, Britain informed the U.N.O. that she would withdraw her troops and officials from Palestine by 1948.
To resolve this problem, an Anglo-American Commission was appointed. Its recommendations were rejected by both Arabs and Jews. At this point, the Jewish terrorism was intensified. On Nov. 19, 1947, the U.N.O. decided to partition Palestine on the lines laid down by the Royal Commission, the Zionist leaders accepted the proposal but the Arabs rejected it. The U.N.O. sent a commission to fix the boundary of the new Jewish state. On Aug. 1, 1948, the Zionists declared the birth of the state of Israel on the lines laid by the U.N. Commission with Dr. Chain Wise men as the President and David Ben Gurion as the Prime Minister. The United States granted recognition to the new state within a day and the Soviet Union followed it. Britain and other countries did not delay in granting recognition. Thus, the state of Israel was bom with violence and the Arab-Israeli conflict continues from 1948 to the present date.
(c) After the Yom Kippur war, the Egyptian president Sadat became convinced that Israel could not be destroyed by force and it was a foolish thought to keep on wasting the sources of Egypt in fruitless wars.
Israel also had a number of economic problems due to their enormous defense expenditure and world recession. America also pressed Israel to settle their disputes with at least some of the Arab states.
The US President Jimmy Carter took the initiative for a formal negotiation between the two countries at a place called Camp David near Washington. The treaty was finally signed in March 1979.