ISC Geography Previous Year Question Paper 2016 Solved for Class 12
(Maximum Marks: 70)
(Time allowed: Three hours)
(Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper.They must NOT start writing during this time.)
- Answer Section A and B from Part I which are compulsory.
- Answer any four questions from Part II.
- Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawn wherever they serve to illustrate your answer.
- The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART – I (30 Marks)
Answer all questions.
SECTION – A
Question 1. [10 x 2]
(i) State the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India.
(ii) Mention any two characteristic features of the Peninsular Plateau of India.
(iii) The diagram given below represents the Punjab Plain. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow :
(a) Name any two of the rivers numbered 1, 2,3 and 4.
(b) Name any two of the five doabs marked A, B, C, D and E.
(iv) Differentiate between inter-state migration and intra-state migration.
(v) Explain the following :
(a) Inshore fishing
(b) Deep sea fishing
(vi) Mention the two environmental concerns with regard to the use of conventional energy resources.
(vii) What is Geographic Information System (GIS) ? How is it useful ?
(viii) Name any two minor industrial regions of India.
(ix) (a) Define industrial clusters.
(b) State any two indices used to identify industrial clusters.
(x) State the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of Chhattisgarh.
(i) 8°4′ North to 37°6′ North latitude and 68°7′ East to 97°25′ East longitude.
(ii) Peninsular Plateau is the oldest landmass of India. General elevation is 600-1000 metres and slopes down to 500 metres in the north. The general slope of this plateau is from west to east. It consists of Igneous and
(iii) (a) Jhelum , Chenab, Ravi & Beas
(b) A. Sind Sagar Doab
B. Chaj Doab
C. Rechna Doab
D. Bari Doab
E. Bist or Jullundur Doab
When people migrate from one state to another. e.g., W.B. to Maharashtra, UP to Tamil Nadu, etc.
When people migrate within the same state. e.g., Kanpur to Varanasi, Ahmedabad to Vadodara , etc.
(v) Inshore Fishing : Fisherman fishes only five to eight kms from Shore. Fishing is done by small boats which run on petrol shellfish and seaweed are also caught.
Deep Sea Fishing : It is done far from the shore in the deep sea. Fishing is done in large vessels. The trawlers and junks are diesel powered with on-board refrigerating plants.
(vi) (a) Burning of coal leaves a large residue of ash which is a cause of environmental concern if disposal is not done properly.
(b) The use of petroleum fuel causes pollution to the atmosphere.
(c) The use of nuclear minerals may cause harmful radiation to environment if safe waste disposal is not done.
(vii) GIS is a system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data, which are spatially in reference to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially reference computer database and appropriate application software.
(viii) Mumbai – Pune Industrial Region.
Bengaluru – Tamil Nadu Industrial Region.
(ix) (a) Industrial clusters are groups of interrelated industries that drive wealth creation in a region, primarily through export of goods and services.
(b) The two indices are :
1. Quantum of power used for
2. Total Industrial Output.
(x) 17° 46′ N to 24°05′ N latitude.
80° 15′ E to 84° 20′ E longitude.
SECTION – B
Question 2. 
On the outline map of India provided :
(a) Mark and name the major river which flows
(b) Mark and label the Thal Ghat gap in Western Ghats.
(c) Shade and label the 68°7’E longitude.
(d) Mark the Khasi hills. industrial purposes.
(e) Shade and name the main area of Arid forests.
(f) Mark the capital city of Bihar.
(g) Shade and name the main state for the cultivation of jute.
(h) Mark the Kalpakkam Nuclear Power station.
(i) Mark and name the first oil refinery of India.
(j) Trade the North-South Corridor and name any one terminal city. through Assam.
Note : All the map work, including legend (Index) should be done on the map sheet only.
PART-II (40 Marks)
Answer any four questions.
(a) Give any three differences between Eastern Coastal lowland and Western Coastal lowland. 
(b) Study the climatic data provided in the table below for a city A in India and answer the questions that follow : 
T = Mean monthly temperature in degree Celsius (°C).
R = Average monthly rainfall in millimetres (mm).
(i) Account for the maximum rainfall in the months of October-November.
(ii) Account for the low rainfall in city A during the months of June to September.
(c) In the Brahmaputra river basin, floods are almost an annual feature. Give two reasons to explain why. 
(d) With reference to Forest Conservation Movement, explain the Chipko Movement. Give the reason for its success. 
Western Coastal Lowland
- Placed between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea.
- Narrow lowland 64 averaging km.
- Many small and quick streams run off the plain and cannot form deltas.
- Presence of considerable number of lagoons at the end part of this plain.
- The plain passes through many coasts resulting in formation of many ports.
Eastern Coastal Lowland
- Placed between the Eastern Ghats and Bay of Bengal.
- Comparatively broader lowland averaging 80-100 km.
- Big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery run off this plain and form deltas.
- In comparison few number of lagoons are present.
- Does not pass through coasts and hence not many ports are found.
(b) (i) Retreating Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon.
(ii) As the city is located in the eastern coast it receives very low rainfall from the Bay of Bengal Branch of Southwest Monsoon as it runs parallel to the coast.
(c) The cause of floods in this river basin is heavy rainfall of around 250 cms at the time of rainy season. Besides, due to formation of silt by the river Brahmaputra along with its tributaries, the water cannot pass through and thus floods take place. Along with this, due to earthquakes the water level varies and due to this hindrance in the level of water inundation takes in a lot of areas. Also, landslides occur frequently and the big rock mass which falls, creates a temporary dam. The adjoining areas are covered under water and in course of time it vents due to water pressure resulting in a lot of areas getting flooded.
(d) Chipko movement means people sticking to the tree. Chipko movement was a movement that took place to save trees by the people living in the Garhwal Himalaya. Chipko, literally means to stick with their arms spread around the trees trunks in the Garhwal Himalayas. Reasons for Success are : Hundreds of men, women and children clung to the trees when the loggers came to cut the trees. The loggers were challenged to first kill the people and then cut the trees. So, the loggers had to withdraw themselves without cutting the trees.
(a) Explain the meaning of the following terms : (2]
(i) Birth rate
(ii) Migratory growth of population
(b) Discuss one positive and one negative social consequence of migration. 
(c) Study the streams of migration from the given diagram and answer the questions that follow : 
(i) In which stream of migration is the number of female migrants the highest ? What is the reason for the high rate of migration amongst females, in the stream mentioned by you?
(ii) Give a reason for the high rate of migration amongst males, from rural to urban areas.
(d) (i) What is Star shaped pattern of settlement ? Name a state in India where this pattern of settlement is generally found. 
(ii) What are slums ? What is the reason for their growth ?
(a) (i) Birth Rate : Birth rate is the number of live births in a year per thousand of mid-year population.
(ii) Migratory Growth of Population : The growth of population caused by migration of people is known as migratory growth of population.
(b) Positive Consequence : People migrate to other city or state or to overseas to earn, send remittance to their families at home, resulting in economic prosperity. Negative Consequence: Uncontrolled migration causes, overpopulation and hence growth of slums in cities. It puts tremendous pressure on the infrastructures.
(c) (i) Rural to Rural : Girls marry and migrate to their in law’s house after marriage. The whole female population migrate to short and long distances.
(ii) Migration amongst males from rural to city is due to very limited employment and educational opportunities at rural areas.
(d) (i) When streets emerge from a common centre, a Star shaped pattern of settlement takes place. Tamil Nadu is an example of this type of settlement.
(ii) The Slum Act of 1956 defines slums as substandard structure of housing, overcrowding, lack of ventilation, poor sanitary facilities, all conspiring to promote slum life which defies health and morals.
(a) (i) Define sustainable development. 
(ii) Mention any two reasons for low percentage of area sown more than once in India.
(b) State any two advantages of using sprinkler irrigation.
(c) State two geographical conditions essential for the construction of canal irrigation. 
(d) Explain any three reasons why irrigation is necessary for profitable farming in India. 
(a) (i) Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
(ii) Low percentage of area sown more than once is due to infertile soils, lack of moisture and not much use of fertilizers and manures.
(b) In Sprinkler Irrigation as water is supplied by means of pipes no water is lost by seepage and also there is no scope for loss of water by evaporation due to direct watering on the fields.
(c) Canal Irrigation can be done in areas of low level relief, deep fertile soils, perennial source of water and extensive command area.
(d) Three reasons of necessity of Irrigation :
(i) Due to irrigation high yielding crops are grown even when there is low and uncertain rainfall.
(ii) Irrigation enhances agricultural productivity and it also promotes stability in production of crops.
(iii) The nature of certain crops (Rice, Sugarcane, Jute) is such that they require large quantities of water for their growth. Irrigation fulfills the water requirement of such crops.
(a) Explain the following types of farming : 
(i) Crop rotation
(ii) Crop combination
(b) (i) What are the climatic conditions required for wheat cultivation in India ? 
(ii) Name the two main wheat growing areas of China.
(c) Explain any two reasons for the underdevelopment of fishing industry in India. 
(d) (i) Differentiate between metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals. Give an example of each.
(ii) Which is the leading state for iron ore production in India ?
(a) (i) Crop Rotation : The growing of one variety of crop after the other. Pulses or any leguminous crop is grown after cereal crops. High fertilizer intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops.
(ii) Crop Combination : Growing of different crops in the same field at the same time is known as crop combination.
(b) (i) Climate Conditions required for Wheat Cultivation in India : For wheat cultivation, a temperature of 10°C at the time of sowing and 15°C – 20°C at the time of ripening. Also, annual rainfall of 50 – 70 cm is required for wheat cultivation. Fertile alluvial soil or mixed soil in plains land or gentle slope is ideal for wheat cultivation. Isohyets of 100 cm is the limit of wheat production.
(ii) The two main wheat growing areas of China are the Great Plain including Wei Ho Valley and the Shantung Peninsula.
(c) India has tropical climate wherein the fish cannot be preserved for a long period. Huge expenses are incurred on refrigeration and deep freezing as a result the price of the fish in the market increases. There are not many gulfs, bays, estuaries and backwaters unlike Norway as such there is scarcity of fishing grounds.
(d) (i) Metallic Minerals
- Metallic minerals are those which upon melting become metals and are ductile & malleable.
- These metals are with igneous associated with rocks and are sedimentary rocks usually hard. and are not usually hard.
- Non-metallic minerals are those which do not contain metals and hence are non ductile and non malleable.
- Non metallic minerals are associated
(ii) Leading state for Iron ore production in India is Odisha.
(a) Mention any three factors that affect inland water transport in India. 
(b) Explain why : 
(i) Large area of Western Rajasthan lacks rail transport.
(ii) Northern Plains have a dense network of road and rail transport.
(ii) Pipelines are more suitable for the transportation of petroleum.
(c) (i) Where is the New Mangalore Port located ? 
(ii) What is the chief importance of this port ?
(d) State two ways in which cellular phones are an important means of communication. 
(a) Three factors affecting inland water transport are :
- The rivers and canals should have regular flow of sufficient water.
- Due to silting of river bed, the depth of water is reduced and hence creates problem for navigation. Also, desilting of river bed is costly.
- If in the river course there are waterfalls and sharp bends there is obstruction in the development of waterways.
(b) (i) Economically backward areas like Western Rajasthan lacks railways transport due to sandy tracks where construction is difficult and expensive.
(ii) Northern plains have dense network of roads and railway because of high population density and the plain leveled lands.
(iii) Pipelines are the most convenient, economical mode of transporting petroleum as it can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under water. It involves low energy consumption and is eco-friendly.
(c) (i) New Mangalore Port is located in the southern end of Karnataka coast.
(ii) The chief importance of this port is the export of iron ore from Kundremukh mines.
(d) Due to cellular phones all types of mobile services like voice & non-voice messages, data services and PCOs use all types of network equipment inclusive of circuit and/or packet switches which meet the required standard.
(a) Discuss the two factors which influence the location of Sugar industry in Maharashtra. 
(b) Enumerate three factors favouring the location and growth of Hindustan Steel Plant at Durgapur. 
(c) (i) Which is the first fertilizer plant that was set up in India after independence ? 
(ii) Why are the fertilizer industries located near the oil refineries ?
(d) (i) Define Tourism.
(ii) Give two reasons as to why domestic tourism is an important segment of the tourism industry. 
(a) Two factors influencing the location of Sugar industry in Maharashtra are :
(i) Maharashtra has 162 days of crushing period, longer than other states.
(ii) Sugar mills are integrated in a cooperative system and use bagasse as fuel instead of coal. This state has the advantage of higher recovery rate of 11.6%.
(b) Three factors favouring location and growth of Hindustan Steel Plant are :
(i) The Hydroelectricity required for the plant is readily available from DVC.
(ii) Iron ore is available from Bolani and Mayurbhanj mines.
(iii) Water is available from Durgapur Barrage across the Damodar river.
(c) (i) The Fertilizer Corporation of India was the first fertilizer plant set up in India after Independence.
(ii) About 70% of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizer use naphtha of the oil refineries as their basic raw material. This is why fertilizer plants are located near the oil refineries.
(d) (i) Travelling to less disturbed or polluted natural areas with a view to study, admire and enjoy the beautiful aspects of a place along with the flora and fauna and the cultural beauty (past and present) located in these areas is called tourism.
(ii) Domestic tourism contributes to national integration and creates employment opportunities.
(a) Explain the following terms briefly : 
(i) Regional development
(ii) Multi-level planning
(iii) A Planning region
(b) Give a reason for the following : 
(i) Bengaluru is known as the Electronic Capital of India.
(ii) Chhattisgarh is the ‘Rice Bowl of India.
(iii) Haldia Port was developed to support Kalkzata Port
(c) (i) Name the two main districts for silk production in Chhattisgarh. 
(ii) State two characteristic features of the silk industry in Chhattisgarh.
(a) (i) Regional development means economic, social and political development of a region of the country or a large area in a state which is less developed.
(ii) Multi-level planning is planning for a diverse number of regions which group to form a system and subsystems. There are several layers of planning providing the structure for higher level planning and a hierarchy for lower planning also.
(iii) A planning region is a self-made living organism having a lifetime which helps in promoting life in that region and creates a unifying force that helps the region to be a unified regional space and fosters regional planning.
(b) (i) Bengaluru is the biggest centre of production of electronic goods. It has factories for TV, Radio, Mobile and Computer sets and also makes items for P&T, defence, railway and metrological department.
(ii) Chhattisgarh basin is the main rice producing region in the state of Chhattisgarh. It accounts for 8.5% of rice producing area of India.
(iii) Haldia port has been developed on the confluence of rivers Hugli and Haldi about 105 km downstream from Kolkata. Its main purpose is to release congestion at Kolkata. It receives larger vessels which otherwise would have to go to Kolkata.
(c) (i) Silk in Chhattisgarh comes from Bastar and Bilaspur districts.
(ii) 1. Sericulture is a labour intensive industry and therefore provides employment to many people in Chhattisgarh.
2. In Chhattisgarh, silk is produced by small units, individual farm families in regions of rural population.