ISC Geography Previous Year Question Paper 2014 Solved for Class 12
PART-I (30 Marks)
Answer all questions.
Question 1. 
(i) Mention the latitudinal and the longitudinal extent of India.
(ii) What is a subcontinent? Why is India referred to as an Indian subcontinent?
(iii) Explain the term braided river. Give an example.
(iv) What is meant by Break in Monsoons? Why does it occur?
(v) Mention any two problems caused due to the growth of large cities.
(vi) Why is watershed management important? Name the water harvesting programme implemented in Andhra Pradesh.
(vii) Name any two narrow gauge railway lines present in the Himalayan region.
(viii) Name any two important means of mass communication.
(ix) Name the largest coalfield of Chhattisgarh. State its importance.
(x) Study the Temperature-Rainfall graph of station X below and answer the questions that follow :
(a) Is the location of station X Inland or coastal ? Give a reason for your answer.
(b) Which branch of the South West Monsoon brings, rain from the month of June to September ?
(i) 6° 45′ North – 37° 6′ North Latitude.
68° 7′ East to 97° 25′ East Longitude.
(ii) A landmass which is separated from the rest of the continent by water bodies or mountains is called a subcontinent.
India is called a subcontinent because of its : (a) Vast size, (b) diversity, (c) the ice covered lofty Himalayas in the North, (d) the vast Indo-Ganga plain to its south, (e) the Thar desert, (f) the uneven Deccan plateau, (g) the high temperature and heavy rainfall . from the tropical monsoon climate.
(iii) The river carries a heavy load some of which is deposited on its bed. This may produce mounds which divide the river into several channels. When this happens, the river is said to be braided, e.g., the river Kosi or the lower course of river Ganga.
(iv) When the south-west monsoon fails to bring rainfall for two or more weeks and there is a dry spell in the rainy season, it is called the break in the monsoon. This break is caused due to :
1. Failure of the tropical depressions,
2. Continuous rainfall L.P. trough changes to H.P. monsoon trough is dislocated and rain becoming winds change their direction.
(v) The essential problems caused due to the growth of large cities are :
Unemployment: When people migrate to the cities, they do not find appropriate jobs and add to the problems of unemployment in the cities. The rural folks are generally unskilled, illiterate, hardly willing to work in the agricultural fields. They are often thrown out . of the villages as surplus labour force due to mechanisation of agriculture.
Pollution : The haphazard and uncontrolled growth of cities had led to the unprecedented environmental pollution including pollution of air, water and land within the cities and in areas surrounding them.
Growth of Slums and Squatter Settlement: Unplanned and haphazard growth of urban areas is the cause of spread of slums and squatter settlements.
Urban Sprawl : As the cities grow in size, they encroach upon the surrounding areas and areal expansion takes place. Almost all the cities are grown at the expense of surrounding agricultural land thus reducing the scope of agricultural activities.
(vi) Watershed management is a very important means to conserve water resources which help to increase agricultural production and stop ecological degradation. The scheme also helps the rural people to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation and allied activities like horticultural, agroforestry and silviculture. The name of the water harvesting program implemented in Andhra Pradesh is Neeru Meeru (Water and You).
(vii) Two narrow gauge railway lines present in the Himalayan region are :
- Kalka to Simla
- Siliguri to Darjeeling.
(viii) Two important means of mass communication are:
- radio and television
- print media like newspaper and periodicals.
(ix) Korba Coal-field: It supplies coal to Korba thermal power station and Bhilai steel plant.
(x) (a) Yes, it is Coastal: The annual range of temperature is only 6°C. The area is influe- need by the moderating influence of the sea.
(b) The Arabian sea branch of south-west monsoon.
Question 2. 
On the outline map of India provided :
(a) Mark the Cardamom Hills.
(b) Mark the Bomdi La Pass.
(c) Shade a drought-prone area in Western India.
(d) Shade a region along the Eastern coast where deltaic forests are found.
(e) Mark and name a coalfield in Jharkhand.
(f) Mark and name the city where Hindalco is located.
(g) Trace the course and name the river on which Bhakra-Nangal Hydroelectric power station is set up.
(h) Shade and name the state where Tank irrigation is mainly practised.
(i) Mark the port ofMarmagao.
(j) Trace the route of National Highway 2. Name any one of its terminal towns.
Note: All the map work, including legend (Index) should be done on the map sheet only.
PART-II (40 Marks)
Answer any four questions.
(a) Explain the formation of Himalayas with reference to the theory of Plate Tectonics. 
(b) State two differences between Himalayan and Peninsular river systems. 
(c) List three measures undertaken by the . government to conserve and develop forestry in India. 
(d) Write any two objectives of urban forestry. 
(a) According to the plate tectonic theory, the Himalayan ranges were formed when the Indian plate was driven northwards and pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. With the advance of the Indian plate towards the north, the Tethys started contracting about 65 to 70 million years ago. About 30 to 60 million years ago, the two plates came closer and Tethys sea crust began to fracture into thrust edges. About 20 to 30 million years ago, the Himalayan ranges started emerging.
|Rivers of Peninsular Region||Himalayan Rivers|
|1. The rivers depend entirely upon rain water and are seasonal.||The rivers originate from the glaciers and receive water from the rainfall.|
(c) The measures undertaken by the Govt, to conserve and develop forestry in India are :
- The Govt, has allocated funds in the Five Years Plans to enhance forest conservation and its sustain ability. These investment ensures sustainable supply of goods and services for the huge sector of population dependent on the forest.
- The Govt, has enacted a Forest Conservation Act to check indiscriminate deforestation. The Act has been amended to make it more stringent by prescribing punishment for violation.
- The Govt, has also adopted an integrated forest protection scheme to control forest fire, strengthening of infrastructure, protection and conservation of sacred groves and conservation and restoration of unique vegetation.
(d) The two objectives of Urban Forestry are :
- Reduction of environmental pollution;
- Recreation and improving aesthetic values.
(a) State any two factors responsible for isolated settlement in the Northeastern States of India. 
(b) Give three reasons for the large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. 
(c) Define the term sex ratio. Mention any two reasons for the low sex ratio in India. 
(d) What are the two negative impacts of the high percentage of non-working population on the Indian economy ? 
(a) The two factors are :
- The rugged and inaccessible mountain in the north restrict the availability of land for agriculture, development of transport, industries and other economic activities.
- The excessive heavy rainfall followed by soil erosion tend to discourage concentration of population in the northeastern region of India.
(b) Three reasons for largescale migration are:
- Employment – people migrate in large number from rural to urban areas as the urban areas provide vast scope of employment in industries, trade, transport and other services.
- Education – rural areas lack educational facilities especially higher education so the rural people have to migrate to the urban centres for this purpose. Many of them settle down in the cities for earning their livelihood.
- Marriage – every girl has to move to her in-laws place of residence once married. A large number of girls move to the cities as well.
(c) The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males in the population. Male child receives a preferential treatment while the female child is neglected. With small family norms, many young couples do not go in for a second child if the first child happens to be a male.
(d) The two negative impacts are :
- Low Economic Progress: Due to a large number of people being unemployed, there is poverty and low standard of living.
- Poor Social Welfare: It corresponds to a high burden of youth dependency on Indian economy.
(a) (i) State two reasons for the rapid reduction in area irrigated by tanks in India. 
(ii) Mention any two geographical conditions required for the setting up of tanks.
(b) (i) What is meant by Net sown area? 
(ii) State the significance of Net sown area in India.
(iii) What are the two adverse effects of small and fragmented farm holdings on the agricultural productivity ?
(c) Enumerate any two important aspects of environmental management. 
(a) (i) The first reason is that the tanks cover large areas of cultivable land which could be used for cultivation. The second reason is that the tanks dry up during the dry seasons and fail to provide irrigation when it is needed the most.
(ii) The two geographical conditions are :
- The region must have impermeable hard rocks which will not allow percolation of water easily.
- The region must receive sufficient rainfall.
(b) (i) The total area of land used for cultivation at least once in a year.
(ii) The net sown area is the means to meet the food and other requirements of the rapidly increasing population in India.
(iii) The two adverse effects are :
- Low agricultural productivity and backward state of our agriculture.
- A lot of time and labour is wasted in moving seeds, manure, implements and cattle from one piece of land to another.
(c) The important aspects are :
- Encouraging watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in the long run.
- To analyse the impact of developmental plans on environment and to formulate national and regional environmental policies.
(a) What are the two climatic conditions required for the cultivation of ground-nuts in India? 
(b) Give three reasons for the high Jute production in India and Bangladesh. 
(c) Discuss any three problems associated with the use of thermal power. 
(d) Name any two river valleys responsible for the bulk production of coal in India. 
(a) Two climatic conditions are :
- Temperature 20° C to 30° C.
- Rainfall 50 to 70 cm, groundnut is highly susceptible to frost, prolong draught, continuous rain and stagnant water. Dry winter is needed at the time of ripening.
(b) 1. Jute requires hot and humid climate with temperature between 24°C and 35° C, rainfall over 150 cm.
2. The relative humidity should be nearly 90%.
3. Well-drained alluvial soil, which are frequently renewed by foods are best suited for the cultivation of jute. Since India and Bangladesh provide these ideal conditions, jute is best grown in these regions.
(c) The three problems are :
- Thermal electricity is produced from coal, petroleum and natural gas which are exhaustible and non-renewable. It involves recurring cost.
- The process of generating electricity involves burning of fuel. This causes water pollution.
- Burning of coal leaves a lot of waste in the form of fly ash, disposal of which adds to the cost of production.
(d) The river valleys are :
- Godavari, and
(a) Briefly explain the three advantages of using roadways in comparison to railways. 
(b) Mention any two products which are transported through a pipeline. State any one advantage of this method of transportation. 
(c) Name any two major ports located on the Western Coast of India. 
(d) Discuss the role of communication as an infrastructural resource in the country’s development. 
(a) 1. Road transport is more flexible than rail as buses, trucks and cars may be stopped anywhere and at any time for passengers and goods whereas trains stop at stations only.
2. Roads can negotiate high gradients and sharp turns to reach at almost all areas whereas trains cannot do the same. Roads can be constructed at hilly areas also.
3. Road transport provides door to door service, can connect farms, fields, factories and market very easily.
(b) Petroleum/milk /water /gas /petroleum products, etc.
Advantage —can be constructed even across water or difficult terrains and needs very little maintenance.
(c) Mumbai, Marmagao, Mangalore, /Kochi, etc.
(d) The communication system contributes to the development of the economy, social relationship and also helps in promoting cultural unity. In the event of any calamity, accident or emergency, instant means of communication flash the news across the globe so that relief can be rushed to the spot immediately.
(a) Discuss the two ways in which cement industry is important for the growth of a country. 
(b) State any two factors that determine the location of the readymade garment industry in India. 
(c) State any three advantages of setting up Mini steel plants. 
(d) Name the following : 
(i) A pilgrimage centre in Himachal Pradesh.
(ii) A historic place in Rajasthan.
(iii) An important hill resort of West Bengal.
(a) (i) Cement is indispensable for building and construction works and hence cement industry is considered to be an important infrastructure core industry.
(ii) It can play a significant role in the overall economic growth as India has emerged as a major exporter of cement.
(b) (i) Presence of market for ethnic designs and colors combinations.
(c) The three advantages are :
- It is easy to construct such a plant as its gestation period is short.
- It needs less capital investment.
- It uses electric furnace for processing which is eco-friendly.
(d) (i) Shimla / Kangra /Kullu /Manikaran.
(ii) Bikaner /Jaipur /Jodhpur /Udaipur.
(iii) Darjeeling /Kalimpong.
(a) With reference to Haldia Port, answer the following questions : 
(i) At the confluence of which two rivers is it located ?
(ii) Why was the port developed ?
(b) What is a micro region ? Give an example of it. 
(c) Which river drains into the Chhattisgarh basin ? What is the predominant crop of this region ? 
(d) Why does the need for the development of a region arise ? Give any three points in support of your answer. 
(a) (i) Haldia port is located at the confluence of Hugh and Haldia.
(ii) Haldia port was developed to release congestion at the Kolkata port and to enable docking of larger vessels which cannot enter Kolkata port.
(b) The micro regions are the smallest of all planning regions and have the potential for development of at least one specialisation of production cycle of great significance. Example: agriculture in Punjab, tourism in Jammu and Kashmir.
(c) Mahanadi, Godavari and Indrawati. The predominant crop is rice.
(d) The development of a region is required to improve economic, social, political and environmental conditions of the society present in the region. The development helps to increase general productivity level, per capita income, efficiency of a worker, elimination of poverty and improvement in quality of life.