ISC Geography Previous Year Question Paper 2010 Solved for Class 12
Answer all questions.
Question 1. 
(i) Give two reasons to explain why India is called a subcontinent.
(ii) The figure given below represents a section through the Himalayas, from the Kunlun Mountains to the Ganga Plains.
Identify the four relief features marked.
(iii) (a) Mention one difference between the Konkan and the Malabar coast.
(b) Why are there more ports along the Western coast than along the Eastern coast ?
(iv) Mention two reasons to explain why there is a higher percentage of forest cover in Northeast India.
(v) What is the difference between metro cities and mega cities ? Give one example of each type of city.
(vi) Explain the difference between crop rotation and double cropping.
(vii) Why are synthetic fibers widely used for manufacturing a large variety of fabrics ?
(viii) Explain how industrial inertia is a factor affecting the location of industries. Give two examples.
(ix) What was the need for the construction of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port ? Mention an important characteristic of this port.
(x) Mention two detrimental effects of tourism on the surrounding environment.
(i) India is separated from the rest of Asia in the north by a chain of lofty mountains, oceans and season all the three sides. The entire region comes under the influence of the tropical monsoons giving it a distinctive climatic pattern. Due to the vastness and diversities, India is considered to be a sub-continent.
(ii) A – Outer Himalayas as Shiwalik range.
B – Duns or Duars.
C – Middle or Lesser Himalayas or Himanchal.
D – Inner Himalayas or Himadri.
E – Tibetian Plateau.
(iii) (a) Konkan Coast is characterized with estuaries while the Malabar Coast is characterized with lagoons and backwaters,
(b) The Eastern coastal plains have more or less a straight coast where good ports are lacking while the Western coastal plains have indented coast which supports many ports.
(iv) The forests in Northeast India are found in hot humid areas with an average annual rainfall of above 200 cm and the relative humidity is more than 70%. The average temperature is 24°C. Hilly topography, favourable climate specially rainfall and temperature are responsible for the high concentration of forests. Moreover, NE India is relatively undeveloped and lack industrialisation and population density is also low. As a result, mass falling or cutting down of trees has not taken place.
(v) Metro cities have the population of about 1 million, e.g. Kanpur, Pune. Megacities have the population of about 5 million, e.g. Kolkata, Mumbai.
(vi) Crop Rotation: Crops are grown in rotation one after the other to maintain fertility of the soil. Pulses or leguminous crops are grown after cereal crops or cotton or sugarcane.
Double Cropping : Growing of two or more crops in the same land in one year. It requires the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and a steady water supply.
(vii) Synthetic fibers are widely used for manufacturing a large variety of fabrics because of their special qualities like strength, durability, liability, workability, washability and resistant to wrinkles and shrinkage.
(viii) Industries tend to develop at the place of their original establishment though the original cause has already disappeared. A good example the Lock industry at Aligarh and Bidi industry at Jabalpur.
(ix) The main purpose of Jawaharlal Nehru Port is to relieve pressure on Mumbai Port. The main characteristics of this port are :
- Most of the operations are conducted with the help of computers. It has a container terminal also.
- The sea is quite deep near the port and there will be no need for dredging in this port.
(x) The unplanned and unchecked growth of tourist centers deprive them of their original charm and beauty and prove detrimental for places like Shimla, Darjeeling and Mussoorie. Even drinking water is not available to cater for the tourists.
The areas around the tourist spots are covered by commercial constructions and industries. Such unplanned growth tarnishes the image of the concerned spot, e.g. Taj Mahal, Meenakshi Temple.
Question 2. 
On the outline map of India provided :
(a) Shade and name one area prone to floods.
(b) Shade and name the hinterland of Kolkata port.
(c) Locate and name the thermal power station in Orissa f*
(d) Mark and name the largest center of electronic goods.
(e) Locate and name the diesel locomotive manufacturing center in central India.
(f) Locate and name a tea exporting port in South India.
(g) Trace the course of an east flowing river in South India.
(h) Shade and name the state which is the first to experience the southwest monsoon.
(i) Draw the railway route between Chennai and Kolkata.
(j) Locate and name of oli refinery belonging to the private sector
Answer any four questions.
(a) With reference to the Western Ghats, answer the following questions : 
(i) What is another name for them ?
(ii) Give two characteristic features of this relief division.
(b) (i) What is the El Nino? 
(ii) How does it affect the climate of India ?
(c) (i) What is meant by the variability of rainfall ? 
(ii) How does this variability affect agriculture?
(d) Give a reason for each of the following : 
(i) Delhi has rain in December-January.
(ii) Kolkata has a little rain in April.
(e) Mention any four aims of the revised Forest Policy of 1988. 
(a) (i) Another name for Western Ghats is Sahyadris.
(ii) 1. It stands like a continuous wall and can be crossed through passes only.
2. The western slope of this range is step¬like.
(b) (i) El Nino is a narrow warm current which sometimes appears off the coast of Peru in South America during December. It is a temporary replacement of the cold Peru current which normally flows along this coast.
(ii) This warm current can increase the surface water temperature of the sea by 10°C. Warming of tropical pacific waters affects the global pattern of pressure and wind system including the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean.
(c) (i) There are large variations in the amount of rainfall received in different parts of India. The highest amounts is received by the Northeastern states and Western Ghats and the rainfall is below 20 cm in Western Rajasthan. These large variations in actual amount of rainfall from year to year is known as variability of rainfall.
(ii) Agriculture is not possible without water. Large parts of India suffer from high rainfall variability. Without sufficient rainfall, agriculture in India is reduced to a gamble in the hands of monsoon. Kharif crops like rice and jute cannot be grown without sufficient rainfall. Productivity of agriculture is high with less variability of rainfall and vice versa.
(d) (i) Delhi experiences rain in December- January due to western disturbances which originate in areas near the Mediterranean Sea. The western disturbances move under the influence of westerly jet stream and bring rain in northern and northwestern parts of India during this time.
(ii) Kolkata has little rain in April due to Norwesters thunderstorms. The sudden contact between dry and moist air causes this storm condition also known as Kalbaisakhi in the month of April-May.
(e) 1. To maintain environmental stability though massive afforestation and social forestry programmes.
2. To check on soil erosion in the catchment areas of the rivers, lakes and reservoirs and also check on extension of sand dunes in the desert areas.
3. Steps to meet requirement of fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produce and soil timber of rural and tribal population.
4. Steps to create massive people movement with involvement of women to achieve the objectives and minimize pressure on the existing forest.
(a) (i) Name two cities in India which have grown rapidly due to migration. 
(ii) What are the two factors that led to the decreasing growth rate of population from 1981 to 2001?
(b) Mention four effects of a rapidly growing population on development. 
(c) Give reasons for the low sex ratio in India. 
(d) The dependency ratio is higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Give two reasons to explain why. 
(a) (i) Mumbai and Delhi.
(ii) Two factors that led to decline in population growth:
- Population stabilization programmes of the government which includes family planning and inverted red triangle policy.
- Increasing consciousness among people about the ill-effects of population growth.
(b) 1. Fast growing population has its own implications because it nullifies all achievements in economic and social spheres and is largely responsible for environmental degradation.
2. It is a Herculean task to provide food, clothing, shelter, health, education and other facilities to a population which grows at a rapid pace.
3. More than one fourth of our population is living below poverty line. There are 179 million houses for 192 million families. Over 5 million families still depend on rivers and ponds for drinking water.
4. A large percentage of population suffers from hunger, starvation and malnutrition and does not have access to proper healthcare.
(c) The sex ratio means “The number of females per 1,000 males in the popula-tion. According to the census of 2001, India has 933 females per 1,000 males in the population. Thus, the sex ratio is 933.
The reasons for the low sex ratio in India are :
- The male child receives a preferential treatment while the female child is neglected.
- Many women die at delivery time because of the lack of medical facilities.
- There has been a steady rise in women’s suicide rate due to the social evils like dowry.
- Abortion of female child is also a major reason for the low sex ratio in India.
(d) The following are the reasons for higher dependency ratio in the rural areas as compared to urban areas:
- Birth rates are higher in the rural areas as compared to those in the urban areas.
- Large number of adults migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of jobs and better facilities of life. Adults who migrate to urban areas in search of jobs come back to their rural homes in old age.
(a) Explain how the type of crops grown determines the need for irrigation. 
(b) Mention two different ways by which modern methods of irrigation are an improvement over the primitive methods. 
(c) (i) Name two canal systems in Uttar Pradesh. 
(ii) Give three reasons to explain why canal irrigation is a popular form of irrigation in Uttar Pradesh.
(d) Well irrigation is still practiced in many parts of the country. Give two reasons to explain why. 
(a) Rainfall in India is confined to a short duration of three to four months in the rainy season. India has a long growing period which extends throughout the year. Provision of irrigation can make multicropping possible. However, Kharif crops like rice, jute, etc. need more than 150 cm of regular moisture and can hence be grown in areas of low rainfall with the help of irrigation. Multiple crops of rice can be grown within the duration of one year only with the help of appropriate irrigation. Crops such as Sugarcane require 100-150 cm and are grown in large quantities in Deccan India in areas of low rainfall with the help of irrigation. Cotton is another example of a crop which requires plenty of water during its growth period and hence this crop is largely grown in western and northwestern parts of India with the help of irrigation.
(b) Modern methods of irrigation are an improvement over the primitive methods. The following two points will highlight the same :
- They are perennial and provide regular irrigation.
- They are easier to operate.
(c) (i) 1.Upper Ganga Canal
2. Lower Ganga Canal
(ii) Canals can be an effective source of irrigation of low relief, deep fertile soil.
Canal irrigation is a popular form of irrigation in Uttar Pradesh because :
- The topography consists of low level deep fertile plains.
- Large number of perennial rivers provide constant water supply.
- Extensive command area.
(d) 1. A well is by far the simplest and cheapest source of irrigation and the poor Indian farmers can afford it.
2. A well is an independent source of irrigation and can be used as and when the necessity arises. Canal irrigation is controlled by other agencies and cannot be used at will. The farmer has to pay no tax for well irrigation unlike canal irrigation.
(a) (i) With reference to the Kharif crops, name the months when they are : 
(ii) Give an example of one cereal crop and one cash crop.
(b) Give three reasons to explain why Japan occupies a leading position among the fishing nations of the world. 
(c) (i) Which sector is a major consumer of coal as a source of power? 
(ii) Mention two problems faced by the coal mining industry.
(d) (i) With which crop is ratooning associated? 
(ii) What are the types of soil that suit the cultivation of this crop?
(iii) Why is ratooning practiced?
(a) (i) 1. Sown-June -July
(ii) One cereal crop – Rice, One cash crop – Cotton, Groundnuts
(b) Japan is a country of islands whose coast is dotted with four thousand villages of fishermen with several safe ports which help in fishing.
Japan has large continental shelf which is ideal for the growth and reproduction of fish. Warm Kuroshio current from the South meets the cold Oyashio current from the north near the coast of Honshu. It provides favourable conditions for the growth of plankton which is the ideal food for the fish.
There are big corporations with modernized ships and equipments which organize the fishing. The big ships go in the open oceans and send back their catch to the large ships. These big ships are floating factories as the fish is packed and exported from the ship itself.
(c) (i) Power generation or thermal power stations.
(ii) Coal mining industries face a number of problems:
- Collapse of the roof of the mines and flooding;
- Occurrence of poisonous gases, lack of oxygen and light.
(d) (i) Sugarcane.
(ii) Sugarcane grows well on the loams and clayey loams and also on black cotton soil.
(iii) Ratoon crops have the advantage of maturing earlier. Ratoon crop is the second crop which is attained from the roots left on. So, it saves time and labour of fresh sowing and it cuts the cost of cultivation.
(a) (i) Mention three factors that affect water transport. 
(ii) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of water transport.
(b) (i) Give one disadvantage of air transport. Why is it still a popular means of transportation in India ? 
(ii) Name the international airlines carrier of India. What is the name of the international airport of Mumbai ?
(c) How does the Golden Quadrilateral differ from National Highways ? 
(a) (i) The rivers and canals should have a regular flow of sufficient water. Diversion of water for irrigation purposes reduces the quantity of water.
The presence of waterfalls or cataracts and sharp bends in the course of the river hinder the development of waterways.
Silting of the river bed reduces the depth of the water and creates problems for navigation. De- silting of river beds is a costly affair.
(ii) Advantage : Waterways are the cheapest means of transport and are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky materials having low specific cost.
Disadvantage : Water transport cannot compete with the speed of road and rail transport.
(b) (i) Disadvantage : Air transport is the costliest mode of transport, which many people cannot afford.
Air transport is very essential for a vast country like India where distances are large, and the terrain and the climatic conditions are so diverse. It is also important for our links with other countries. ‘
(ii) The Air India.
Sahara International Airport at Mumbai.
(c) The Golden Quadrilateral are roads like National Highways connecting Delhi – Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata-Delhi by a six lane highway while National Highways are roads connecting capitals, big cities and important ports.
Golden quadrilateral is maintained by NHDP whereas the National Highways are maintained by CPWD.
(a) What is an agro-based industry? 
(b) (i) Which is the largest agro-based industry in India? 
(ii) Give two reasons to explain why this industry is important to India.
(iii) Name one industry which is dependent on the industry that you have named.
(c) Explain how the following have played a part in the location of the Tata Iron and Steel Company: 
(i) Raw materials.
(d) Name two industrial products of the Gujarat Industrial Region. 
(a) Agro-based industries depend on the raw materials produced in the agricultural sector. These are mostly consumer goods industries. e.g, sugar, textiles, vegetables.
(b) (i) Cotton textile industry.
(ii) 1. About 16% of industrial capital and 20% of industrial labour in India is engaged in the cotton textile industry.
2. Nearly 10 lac industrial workers earn their livelihood from this industry. It contributes . substantially to the export trade of India.
(iii) Readymade garment industry.
(c) The Tata Iron and Steel Co. The Iron and Steel Industry is primarily a raw-material oriented industry using cheap and weight loosing raw materials.
(i) Raw Materials : High grade haematite iron ore is available from Badampahar and Noamundi mines of Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Gurumahisani mines of Mayurbhanj in Orissa. They are located at a distance of 75-100 kms from Jamshedpur.
Coal is available from Jharia and Raniganj.
Manganese comes from Joda mines of Keonjhar district in Orissa.
Dolomite and limestone comes from Sundergarh in Orissa.
(ii) Transport : Jamshedpur is well connected with Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai by road and rail and enjoys good transport facilities.
Kolkata located at a distance of 240 kms, provides port facilities.
(d) Textiles (cotton, silk and synthetic fibres) and petrochemicals are the most important industrial products of the Gujarat industrial region.
(a) Discuss the importance of the Haldia Planning Region under the following headings : 
(i) Location of the main centre.
(ii) Reason for construction.
(iii) Two important industries located in the region.
(iv) Extent of hinterland.
(b) (i) Name two important minerals forming the resource base of the Chhattisgarh region. 
(ii) What is sericulture ? Why is this important to the people of the above mentioned region ?
(iii) Name two varieties of silk produced in Chhattisgarh.
(c) What is the difference between a micro-planning region and a meso-planning region? 
(a) (i) Haldia is located at the confluence of rivers Hooghly and Haldia about 105 kms downstream from Kolkata.
(ii) Haldia port has been developed to release congestion at the Kolkata port.
(iii) Petrochemical industry and Fertilizer industry.
(iv) The hinterland of the Haldia port includes the whole of eastern and northeastern India. The main areas are West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, UP, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Northern parts of Chhattisgarh.
(b) (i) . Iron ore, bauxite, limestone and dolomite,
(ii) The technique of silk production is called sericulture. Sericulture is a labour intensive industry and provides employment to a large number of people. Silk is produced by small units usually by individual families. Chhattisgarh is a densely populated region with mainly rural population. Cheap skilled labour is easily available. So, sericulture has become an important industry to this region.
(iii) Tussar silk and Mulberry silk.
(c) Micro-planning regions are the smallest of all planning regions and have the potential for developing at least one specialization of production cycle of great significance. A region that possesses great potentialities for development and production of any single specialization can be treated as micro-region. e.g. agriculture in Punjab.
Meso-planning regions combine in themselves a few micro-regions and lie at the middle of the hierarchy of planning regions. The microregions which form the meso-regions must have something common in terms of their natural background, their problems and prospects or their socio-cultural bond. Unlike micro-regions, meso-regions are multipurpose regions, e.g., Damodar Valley Basin.