ICSE Solutions for Class 9 History and Civics – Local Self-Government: Rural Local Institutions
What is meant by Local Self-Government?
The local Self-Government stands for an Elected body enjoying certain degree of autonomy and serving as an administrative unit for local affairs.
What is the main difference between Local Self Government and Local Government ?
Local Self-Government refers to “management of local affairs by the natives of the area itself or their representatives.” Local Self-Government is a “democratic government”. Local Government means, “administration of a locality by officials appointed by the government.
Mention the need (any two advantages) of Local Self Government.
Two advantage of Local Self-Government are:
(a) Effective Management of the Local Affairs.
(b) Good Training for running the Central and State Governments.
What is meant by Three-tier system of Panchayati Raj?
Three-tier system of Panchayati Raj : Gram Panchayat at village level—Panchayat Samiti at the Block level— Zilla Parishad at the district level.
What is meant by the term ‘Gram Sabha’.
‘Gram Sabha’ is a body of all the adult members registered as voters in the Panchayat area.
Mention any two functions of a Gram Sabha.
Two functions of a Gram Sabha are:
(a) To approve the budget for the year.
(b) To review the audit report of the last year’s accounts of the Panchayat.
What is meant by Gram Panchayat ? Who elects the members of a Gram Panchayat?
Gram Panchayat is an ‘Executive Wing’ of the Gram Sabha. It ensures that Constitution makers’ dream of ‘Gram Swaraj’ is realised. The members of a Gram Panchayat are elected by the Gram Sabha.
What is the Head of a Village Panchayat called?
The Head of a Village Panchayat is called the Sarpanch.
Mention any two Civic functions of a Gram Panchayat.
Two Civic functions of a Gram Panchayat are:
- Provision of safe drinking-water which involves construction and maintenance of public wells and tanks.
- Health care facilities for which the Panchayats set up dispensaries and health centers.
Mention any two Developmental functions of a Gram Panchayat.
Two Development functions of a Gram Panchayat are
- Minor irrigation schemes.
- Preparation and execution of agricultural plans.
Mention any two Regulatory or General Administrative functions of a Village Panchayat.
Two Regulatory or General Administrative-functions of a Village Panchayat are:
- Registration of births, deaths and marriages.
- Maintenance of watch and ward service (Chowkidars etc.).
What is the function of a Nyaya Panchayat?
The function of a Nyaya Panchayat is to secure speedy and inexpensive justice to the villagers.
Why are lawyers not allowed to appear before a Nyaya Panchayat to plead any body’s case ?
Lawyers are not allowed to appear before a Nyaya Panchayat to plead any body’s case, because, this ensure inexpensive justice to village folks.
Name the intermediate level institution of the Panchayati Raj.
The intermediate level institution of the Panchayati Raj is Panchayat Samiti.
What is meant by the Panchayat Samiti ?
A Panchayat Samiti is an intermediate body which coordinates the activities of all the Village Panchayats in each Block.
Mention any two Civic and Developmental functions of a Panchayat Samiti.
Two Civic and Development functions of a Panchayat Samiti are:
- Development of Cottage Industries.
- Functions relating to Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries.
Mention any two Supervisory functions of a Panchayat Samiti.
Two Supervisory functions of a Panchayat Samiti are:
- The Panchayat Samiti supervises the work of the Gram Panchayats.
- The Samiti examines the Budget of the Panchayats and may make suitable modifications in it.
Name the highest organ of the Pahchayati Raj institutions at the district level.
The highest organ of the Panchayati Raj institutions at the district level is Zila Parishad (Top District Level).
Mention any two Civic and Welfare functions of a Zila Parishad.
Two Civic and Welfare functions of a Zila Parishad are:
- Construction and maintenance of public roads, bridges and culverts.
- Construction of parks.
Mention any two Supervisory functions of a Zila Parishad.
Two Supervisory-functions of a Zila Parishad are:
- The Zila Parishad supervises the activities of a Panchayat Samitis and Gram Panchayats.
- It co-ordinates the developmental plans prepared by the Panchayat Samitis in the District.
Mention two major problems which hamper the effective working of Village Panchayats. OR
Mention any two limitations (weaknesses) in efficient working of the Panchayati Raj system.
Two major problems which hamper the effective working of Village Panchayats are as follows:
- Domination of Upper Caste Landed Aristocracy.
- Ignorance, Illiteracy and Poverty of the People.
Mention any two features of the new Panchayati Raj Act. OR Mention any two features of the Constitution Seventy third Amendment Act.
Two features of the new Panchayati Raj Act are:
- There shall be three-tier system of Panchayats at village, intermediate and district level.
- In the event of dissolution, elections will be compulsorily held within six months.
A free people are a people who participate in decisions affecting their lives and destinies. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) What is meant by Local Self-Government?
(b) What is the need and importance of Local Self Government?
A free people are a people who participate in decisions affecting their lives and destinies, with reference to this statement the given questions are answered as follows:
The Local Self-Government and its affairs are managed by the natives of the area itself or their representatives. Thus, Local Self-Government is a “democratic government” in a very real sense.This type of government is formed by the people who are right-conscious, they freely commit to undertake all such works that go in favor and welfare of society. Their way of thinking is constructive and broad that they efficiently participate in decisions that may affect their lives and destinies.
The Local Self-Government has multi-dimensional significance. Local people can effectively manage the local affairs like sanitation, electricity, water supply, education, public works and other utilities. Local Self-Government provides opportunity to the people to govern themselves. Local bodies provide a good training to manage national or State affairs later on in life. Most people who reached great heights, began their public career as a member of local bodies. Local Institutions relieve State Administration of some of its burden. Hence, it can concentrate better on matters like—public order, criminal law, police, prisons and trade and commerce within the State. This ensures efficiency at all levels—national, regional and local. Moreover, this system is extremely Economical. These bodies consist of honorary members, serving without pay or very little emoluments.
Freedom becomes meaningful in the right sense of the word only when there are Gram-Panchayats in India. In this context describe the following functions of a Gram Panchayat.
(a) Welfare Functions,
(b) Developmental Functions and
(c) Regulatory and General Administrative Functions.
Gram Panchayat is an ‘Executive Wing’ of the Gram Sabha. It ensures that Constitution makers’ dream of ‘Gram Swaraj’ is realised. Freedom becomes meaningful in the right sense of the word only when there are Gram-Panchayats in India.
In this context the given headlines are described below:
(a) Welfare Functions — Welfare functions include
- Arrangements for primary and secondary education,
- Welfare of expectant mothers and their babies, and ;
- Launching welfare programmes for women, youth and children.
(b) Developmental Functions — The developmental functions include
- Minor irrigation schemes,
- Rural electrification,
- Vocational education,
- Cottage and small-scale industries including food processing industries,
- Rural housing, especially for the poor and deprived sections of society.
(c) Regulatory and General Administrative Functions —
The Regulatory and General administrative functions are
- Registration of births, deaths and marriages,
- Maintenance of watch and ward services (Chowkidars, ),
- Maintenance of the common property of the village,
- Helping the government in maintaining law and order.
With regard to the Panchayat Samiti answer the following questions:
(a) What are the Civic and Developmental functions of a Panchyat Samiti?
(b) What are the supervisory functions of a Panchayat Samiti?
In context of the mentioned questions with regard to the Panchayat Samiti the answers are given below:
(a) The Civic and Development functions of a Panchayat Samiti are as follows:
- Rural Health Programme: By 31 March, 2001, some 23,000 Primary Health centres and 3,043 Community Health centres had been set-up to provide medical care to the villagers.
- Rural water supply, Rural Roads and Regulation of Markets: It is the responsibility of a Panchayat Samiti to meet the fundamental needs like—drinking-water. Further, it gets built and maintain the rural roads and regulates the markets.
- Functions relating to Agricuture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries: These comprise the provision of improved variety of seeds and chemical fertilizers, distribution of pesticides and improved variety of agricultural implements.
- Development of cottage Industries: To augment job opportunities, hand looms, handicrafts and village industries have been promoted.
- Social Welfare: Panchayat Samiti have to endeavour to promote the welfare of SCs and STs and other backward classes. Various programmes were implemented to bring about improvement in status of women and children. ‘Anganwadis’ were set up in rural areas.
- Rural Employment: A new self-employment programme, namely Swcirna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSR) was launched in 1999. It aims at establishing a large number of small enterprises in the rural areas.
(b) The Panchayat Samiti supervises the work of the Gram Panchayats. The Samiti examines the budget of the Panchayats. It exercises control over the functioning of Block Development officer and his assistants.
At the top level in the Panchayati Raj system, there stands the Zila Parishad. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) What are the Civic and Welfare functions of a Zila Parishad ?
(b) What are Supervisory functions of a Zila Parishad?
With regard to the Zila Parishad, the given questions are answer as under:
The civic and the welfare functions of Zila Parishad are
- construction and maintenance of public roads, bridges and culverts,
- to develop the land, water and human resources of the area,
- to establish libraries, educational institutions and dispensaries,
- to promote the welfare of weaker sections of society, and
- to provide relief in times of distress, drought and scarcity.
- Construction of parks
- To implement programmes concerning agriculture.
The Zila Parishad supervises the activities of the Panchayat Samitis.and the Gram Panchayats. The Zila Parishad examines and approves the budgets of the Panchayat Samities. The government promoted e-govemance in order to monitor Panchayat Samiti’s functioning, including budgeting and accounting, etc.
Describe the shortcomings (limitations in efficient working) of the Panchayati Raj System with reference to the following:
(a) Unethical Means adopted in elections
(b) Poverty and Illiteracy in the country
(c) Communal trends in voting.
Unethical means adopted in elections, such as
- Money game in elections,
- Connection between criminals and some powerful persons in rural areas, and
- An appeal to voters caste feelings.
The illiterate and poor masses do not understand what their rights are. Ignorance and poverty contribute to public apathy and lack of enthusiasm about Panchayati Raj.
The voters are not above communal or religious prejudices. Very often the Muslims, the Sikhs, the Christians and other communities vote along communal lines. The Hindus are divided into numerous caste groupings. Unfortunately, caste has become a significant factor in electoral politics. The rural India needs forward-looking leaders to take the reins of Panchayati Raj institutions in their hands.
With reference to the Constitution, Seventy-third Amendment Act, answer the following questions:
(a) What does the Act lay down about the reservation of seats for SCs, STs and women?
(b) What specific responsibilities have been entrusted to the Panchayats under Schedule XI of the Constitution?
The questions given above with reference to the Constitution, 73rd Amendment Act are answered below:
The 73rd Amendment Act has prudently sympathised with the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by seeking reservation of the seats in all the Panchayati Raj bodies in proportion to their population. l/3rd of the total number of seats have been reserved for women.Offices of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at all levels shall be reserved for SCs and STs in proportion to their population in the State. l/3rd offices of the Chairpersons shall also be reserved for women.
Specific responsibilities have been entrusted to the Panchayats in respect of matters listed in Schedule XI of the Constitution. The Schedule confers 29 items such as agriculture and allied activities, minor irrigation schemes, land-reforms, small industries, rural housing, drinking- water, rural electrification, primary and secondary education, public distribution system and welfare schemes for weaker sections of society.
I. Short Answer Questions.
Name one difference between local government and local self-government unit.
The administration of a locality is looked after by the officials appointed by the state.
It is an institution of locally elected representatives managing the affairs of the locality and providing them with basic amenities.
Give two advantage of having the local self-government.
The local self-government play an important role in the functioning of democracy at grass roots level, because it makes possible for local people to take interest in their own affairs.
Name the three tier institutions of the Panchayati Raj.
The three-tier system comprises the following:
- Gram Panchayats at Village level.
- Panchayat Samiti at block level or middle level.
- Zila Parishad at District level.
What is a Gram Sabha ?
The members of the Gram Panchayat are elected by the Gram Sabha. In essence Gram Sabha (the group of the village people) functions as the general body of the Gram Panchayat.
What did the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act 1992 provide for in respect pf organisation of Panchayats ?
The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act. 1992 relating to Panchayats and Part IX A relating to Municipalities provide for among other things a uniform and fixed term of 5 years for both the rural and urban local bodies. .
What was the view of Gandhiji on Panchayats ?
Gandhiji gave stress on the composition of Panchayats for the welfare of the villages. India’s larger part lives in the villages Gandhiji’s dream of a village-republic has become true.
Who is the head of the Village Panchayat ?
‘Sarpanch’ is the head of the Village Panchayat.
Under the system of local self-government which local body discharges judicial functions in a rural area?
Nyaya Panchayats also called Panchayati Adalats. There is usually one such body for every three or four Gram Panchayats. These Panchayats exist only in some states and perform only judicial functions.
What is known as the Panchayat Samiti ?
PanchayatiRaj System at block ormiddle level is called Panchayat Samiti.
Who is the head of the Panchayat Samiti ? How is he appointed ?
The head of the Panchayat Samiti is called Chairman. He is appointed by his own members.
Who is the head of local government at the district level?
Chairperson is the head of local government at the district level.
What is Nyaya Panchayat ? Give two functions.
Nyaya Panchayat also called Panchayati Adalat is set up for every three or four Gram Panchayats. These Panchayats exist only in some States and perform judicial functions.
The chief functions-of Nyaya Panchayats are the following:
- They ensure quick and inexpensive justice to villagers.
- They can impose a fine of up to Rs. 100.
State two points of importance of having local-self government.
Local self-government in villages as Panchayat and in urban areas as Municipal Board, provides basic leadership qualities promotion and direct and easy solutions of the local problems.
Point out two differences between Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat.
Both are complementary, as Gram Panchayat is selected by Gram Sabha which functions as the general body of Gram Panchayat. Gram Panchayat is a body of a few selected member for the j udgement of the local people, while Gram Sabha is a larger body including eminent persons of the villagers.
What are the functions of the Panchayat Samiti ?
Panchayat Samiti does coordination of the working Panchayats under it, management of schools and colleges, maintenance of hospitals and health services and development of agriculture.
Briefly state the composition of Zila Parishad.
Zila Parishad is composed of Deputy Commissioner, BDOs and Chairmen of Deputy Commissioner, MLAs, belonging to the district, including 40-60 members
1. With reference to local self-government today, answer the following questions:
Name important local self-government institutions in rural areas.
In rural areas the local self government institutions is known as Panchayat. It consists of elected representatives. They receive government grants for their activities like sanitation, providing elementary education and settling elementary education and settling disputes.
What is the significance of self-government institution?
The Local Self-Government has multi-dimensional significance. Local people can effectively manage the local, affairs like sanitation, electricity, water supply, education, public works and other utilities. Local Self-Government provides opportunity to the people to govern themselves.Local bodies provide a good training to manage national or State affairs later on in life. Most people who reached great heights, began their public career as a member of local bodies. Local Institutions relive State Administration of some of its burden. Hence, it can concentrate better on matters like—public order, criminal law, police, prisons and trade and commerce within the State. This ensures efficiency at all levels—national, regional and local. Moreover, this system is extremely Economical. These bodies consist of honorary members, serving without pay or very little emoluments.
Mention any three salient features of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992.
Three salient features of the Constitution are as follows:
- To provide three-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all States having population of over 20 lakh.
- To hold Panchayat elections regularly every five years.
- To provide reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women.
- To appoint State Finance Commissions to make recommendations on financial powers of the Panchayats.
2. With respect to Panchayat Raj System answer the following questions:
How did the Panchayats come to be set up on a uniform basis all over the country ?
The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 relating to Panchayats provide for among other things a uniform and fixed term of 5 years. On the basis of Gandhiji’s dream and recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta Committee of 1956, a three-tier system of Local-self Government for rural areas came into effect in April 1993.
Describe the common features of the three-tier Panchayat Raj System.
Common features are:
- Member should be a citizen of India and atleast 21 years of age.
- He must be registered voter.
- He should not be a convict. .
- He should not hold any other government service.
Mention any two achievements of the Panchayati Raj System.
The achievements of the Panchayati Raj System are:
- Panchayati Raj system now ensures effective coordination between Government programmes and those of voluntary agencies.
- The District Rural Development Agencies in close cooperation with Zila Parishadas release funds to Gram Panchayats under the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna.
With reference to the Gram Panchayat, state the following.
(a) It composition
(b) Its Function
(c) Important office bearers.
(a) The composition of Gram Panchayat is as follows:
He is the head of the Gram Panchayat. In some states a Sarpanch is elected directly dnd in others indirectly by members of the Gram Panchayat. A Vice-Sarpanch from amongst its own members is also elected.
Number of members of the Panchayat is fixed by the State. The membership of a Village Panchayat is between 5 to 31. In most of the States a Village Panchayat has 5 to 9 members. One-third of the seats of the Panchayat are reserved for women. Seats are also reserved for Scheduled Castes/Tribes in proportion to their population in the village. The members are elected on the principle of Adult Franchise.
- Office Bearers:
The Sarpanch and Vice-Sarpanch are honorary members. They are not paid salary. A paid Secretary to the Panchayat and a Treasurer, if the Panchayat is large, are also appointed by the State Govemment through the district authorities.
(b) Function: The Gram Panchayat performs the following functions:
- All public works and public welfare functions like construction, repair and maintenance of village roads, cart tracks, bridges, drains,.tanks and wells.
- Upkeep of cremation and burial grounds.
- Sanitation, health, setting up of health centres and dispensaries.
- Providing primary education.
- Arranging irrigation facilities, seeds, fertilisers.
- Registration of births and deaths.
- Maintaining records of common village property, their sale and purchase and land grants.
Social and economic functions:
These functions are not obligatory and can be performed according to the availability of funds. These functions include:
- Construction of guest houses, libraries, marriage halls, etc.
- Organising regular village melas, fairsand exhibitions.
- Planting of trees, parks, gardens and playgrounds for recreation.
- Establishing fair price shops, Cooperative Credit Societies.
Judicial functions: These are discussed under Nyaya Panchayats.
Officer bearers: The Sarpanch and Vice-Sarpanch are honorary members. They are not paid salaiy. A paid Secretary to the Panchayat and a Treasurer, ifthe Panchayat is large, are also appointed by the State Government through the district authorities.
With reference to the Panchayat Samiti, write short notes on the following:
(a) Composition of the Panchayat Samiti.
(b) Its functions
Composition of the Panchayat Samiti:
It has the representatives of Panchayat and some others as its members as given below:
- Sarpanchs of all Panchayats concerned.
- Members of Legislative Assembly of the State from the area.
- Members of Parliament belonging to the area.
- Block Development Officers of the block or the area served by them.
Co-opted members (provisional) representing women, Scheduled Castes/Tribes.
- Representatives of Cooperative Societies (only in certain States).
The Samiti appoints various Standing Committees to undertake specialised works. These committees may have outside members as well.
- To supervise and coordinate the working of Gram Panchayats.
- To conduct higher education (higher secondary level and above) for a group of villages or at block level.
- To provide hospital and health services with various facilities at community block level.
- To pay special attention to development of agriculture through undertaking minor irrigation schemes, distribution of quality seeds and fertilisers.
- To approve buildingplans, undertake other development works including roads and bridges within the circle of Panchayats.
- To provide drinking water and execute other community development programmes/schemes.
- To act as a link between the Gram Panchayat and Zila Parishad.
Name the apex body of the Panchayat Raj System State its composition, functions and sources of income.
With regard to the Zila Parishad, the given questions are answer as under:
The Zila Parishad is an apex body under the Panchayati Raj. It co-ordinates the activities of the various Panchayat Samitis. It consists of
- Pradhans of the Panchayat Samitis of the District;
- Members of Parliament and Members of State Legislature from that district;
- One representative of each of the co-operative societies of the district;
- Representative of women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes;
- Chairpersons of the Municipalities in the district. In some states, the District Magistrate is empowered to attend the meetings of the Zila Parishad, but he does not have the right to vote. Zila Parishads shall have to uniform 5-year term as per the norms and conditions of the new Panchayati Raj Acts. Each Zila Parishad has a Chairperson who is elected by the members of the Parishad. In proportion to their population in the State, Chairpersons shall be reserved in favour of SCs and STs l/3rd of the offices are reserved for women.
(a) The main functions of the Zila Parishad are:
Civic Facilities and Welfare Functions: These consist of
- Construction and maintenance of public roads, bridges . and culverts;
- Construction of parks;
- To implement programmes concerning agriculture;
- To develop the land, water and human resources of the area;
- To establish libraries, educational institutions and dispensaries;
- To promote the welfare of weaker sections of society;
- To provide relief in times of distress, drought and scarcity,
(b).Coordinating and Supervisory Functions: The Zila Parishad supervises the activities of the Panchayat Samitis and Gram Panchayats. It coordinates the developmental plans prepared by the Panchayat Samitis in the District. The Zila Parishad examines and approves the budgets of the Panchayat Samitis.
(c).Advisory and Financial Functions: The Zila Parishad renders advice of the State-Government regarding needs of the people in rural areas. It receives funds from the Union or State-Government, which it distributes among the Panchayat Samitis.
(d).Developmental functions: It undertakes developmental functions such as irrigation schemes, rural electrification, poverty alleviation programmes and public distribution system etc. The District Board is expected to strive for yet more efficiently for the development of its area and people.
The main sources of income of the Zila Parishad are:
- Share in the Land Revenue.
- Taxes and casses, licence fees and market fees.
- Grants from the the State Government.
- Income from the property of the Zila Parishad.
- Funds allotted by the Center under Centrally-sponsored Schemes.
Using the following points, explain the eactors (reasons) responsible for the emergence of Regional Parties:
(a) Ethnic and Cultural factors.
(b) Fear concerning North’s domination.
(c) Centre-State relations.
(d) Organisational weakness of the Congress.
Following are the factors responsible for the emergence of Regional Parties:
Ethnic and Cultural factors:
India is a country of enormous size and diversities—ethnic and linguistic. There are regions which are far away from the National Capital. People dominating some of the regions, blame the national parties for not knowing their problems. Consequently, their attachment to the regional parties is quite natural. They believe the regional parties like—Biju Janata Dal, Goa People’s Congress, Mizo National Front and Telugu Desam Party could voice their aspirations in a well to do manner.
Fear concerning North’s domination: Some of the leaders of the South India had been against the domination of North India. The DMK and All-India Anna DMK were the parties being fed on anti-North and anti-Hindi stance. But now, the two Southern parties are getting rid of their old prejudicies.
By 1970s the Centre-State relations began to attenuate. A movenlent for real State autonomy arose in Punjab, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Northeastern regions.
The main demands of the regional parties are:
- Regional imbalances should be done away with,
- President’s rule should not be imposed in State to promote partisan interests, and
- The States should have a better share in Central revenues.
Organisational weakness of the Congress:
When the Congress was strong in organisation, regional parties were practically non-existent. As the Congress weakened, regional parties gained the upper hand in some of the States.
Regional parties have captured governmental power in many States. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) What is the criteria for a party’s recognition as a Regional or State Party? ‘
(b) How are the Regional Parties different from All-India (National) Parties?
Regional parties have captured governmental power in many States in this context the given questions are answered below:
The criteria for a party’s recognition as a Regional or State Party: A minimum of 6 per cent of votes at an election either to the Lok Sabha or the Assembly of votes at an election either to the Lok Sabha or the Assembly of the concerned State and atleast two seats in the Assembly, Alternatively, 3 per cent of seats in Assembly or a minimum of three seats, whichever is more.
National parties have influence over the country or in many States of India. The influence of the Regional parties extends to one State or a few regions. National parties are more concerned with national interests, whereas regional parties protect and promote mainly regional interests. The Regional parties concern themselves with the local or regional matters. National parties have to harmonise many conflicting regional interests. The Regional parties usually stand for greater autonomy for States. An exclusive symbol is reserved for a national party throughout the country. In case of a Regional party a symbol is reserved for it in the State or the Union Territory in which it is recognised.