ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2015
ICSE Paper 2015
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Name the two houses of the Union Parliament. 
(b) How many members are nominated by the President to the Lok Sabha ? Which community do they represent ? 
(c) What is the required quorum to hold the meetings of the Lok Sabha ? 
(d) Mention one provision of the Constitution which clearly establishes the supremacy of the Lok Sabha with regard to money-bills. 
(e) Who has the power to promulgate an Ordinance at the Centre ? When can it be promulgated ? 
(f) Mention any one discretionary power of the President. 
(g) State any one qualification necessary for the election of the President of India. 
(h) Who is the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha ? 
(i) What happens if a Vote of No-Confidence is passed against a Minister in the Lok Sabha ? 
(j) State one advantage of a Lok Adalat. 
(a) The two houses of the union parliament are the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
(b) Two members are nominated by the President from the Anglo Indian community.
(c) The quorum to constitute a meeting of the Lok Sabha is 55 members or one tenth of total strength of the house.
(d) The money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. It is up to Lok Sabha to accept or reject all or any recommendations of the Rajya Sabha.
(e) President has the power to promulgate an ordinance at the Center. Ordinances are issued when both houses of parliament are not in session.
(f) When no political party or no leader seems to enjoy majority support in the Lok Sabha, the President shall have freedom to decide who should be appointed as Prime Minister.
(g) The citizen of India who has completed the age of thirty five years.
(h) The Vice President is the chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
(i) The whole government has to resign.
(j) Lok Adalat work in the spirit of compromise. Lok adalats deliver speedy and inexpensive justice hence help in reducing the workload of other courts.
(a) Mention two administrative changes that the British Government brought about regarding the East India Company’s rule in India. 
(b) Mention any two contributions of Jyotiba Phule in preparing the ground for the National Movement. 
(c) Who founded the Home Rule Leagues in India ? What was its objective ? 
(d) Who is regarded as the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi ? Give a reason for him being considered as the Mahatma’s Guru. 
(e) Mention any two causes for the rise of Assertive Nationalism. 
(f) Why was the Simon Commission rejected by the Congress ? 
(g) Who founded the Forward Bloc ? Mention any one of its objectives. 
(h) What is the meaning of ‘Fascism’ ? 
(i) Name the two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I. 
(j) What is meant by the term ‘Non-Aligned Movement’ ? 
(a) (i) Company’s board of control and Court of Directors were abolished. All their power was transferred to a cabinet minister, known as the secretary of state for India.
(ii) Appointments to the civil service were to be made by open competition under rules made by the secretary of the state in council.
(b) He worked for the upliftment of lower class and education of woman. He founded Satyashodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste.
(c) In 1916, two Home Rule Movements were launched in the country : one under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the other under Annie Besant. The objectives of the Home Rule League were : Establishment of self-government for India in British Empire. Working for national education and social and political reforms.
(d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale is regarded as the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi, after returning from South Africa and he received personal guidance from Gokhale, including a knowledge and understanding of India and the issues confronting common Indians.
(e) The famine and plague, worsening of the Economic Conditions, Partition of Bengal, ill treatment of Indians in South Africa. (any two)
(f) All the parties in India protested against the all British composition of the commission and there was no Indian member. It was rejected by the congress because its report was partial and inadequate.
(g) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose founded the Forward Bloc. Establishment of class less society and socialism was its main objective.
(h) Fascism is derived from the word fasces which mean “a bundle of rods” which signifies Unity, Authority and strength. It was an intensely nationalistic, anti communistic and anti democratic movement.
(i) Two rival blocks formed in Europe were Triple alliance (Germany Austria Hungary and Italy) and Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia).
(j) The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. Non aligned nations judge an issue on its merit.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
The Rajya Sabha is the second chamber of the Indian Parliament and represents the interest of the States. In this context explain the following:
(a) Its composition. 
(b) Qualifications for membership. 
(c) Terms of the House and any two of its legislative powers. 
(a) Composition: The Rajya Sabha consists of not more than 250 members. The members fall into two categories—nominated and elected. The nominated are 12 in number. They are nominated by the President from among persons having special knowledge or practical experience in matters such as theses, literature, science, art and social service. The remainders are the representatives of the States and Union Territories. The seats have been allocated to the States and Union Territories on the population basis.
(b) Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament. Members of the Rajya Sabha must :
- Be the citizens of India.
- Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution.
- Be not less than 30 years of age.
- Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
- Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union Territories by means of single transferable vote through proportional representation.
(c) The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved by the President of India. It is a permanent body like the American Senate. One third of its members retire at the end of every second year. It means that member of the Rajya Sabha have a six year term.
Legislative Power: All bills, other than Money bills, can originate in the Rajya Sabha. No bill can become a law unless agreed to by both the house. In case of disagreement, the President may summon both the houses in a joint meeting. At the joint meeting questions are decided by a majority of the members of both Houses present and voting.
The makers of our constitution adopted the Parliamentary and the Cabinet form of Government. With reference to this, answer the following questions :
(a) (i) Who is the Constitutional Head of the Union Government ?
(ii) What is meant by the Collective and Individual Responsibility of the members of the Cabinet ? 
(b) Explain briefly the position and powers of the Prime Minister in relation to the Cabinet. 
(c) Distinguish between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers. 
(a) (i) The President is the constitutional head of the Union Government.
(ii) Collective Responsibility: Under Article 75(3) of the Constitution the Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People. Members of Cabinet swim and sink together when a decision has been taken by the Cabinet; every Minister has to stand by it without hesitation.
Individual Responsibility: Though the ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, they shall be individually responsible to the head of the State. He hold the office during the pleasure of the President. He shall be liable to be dismissed by the President for their undesirable activities. However the President acts on the advice of Prime Minister in these matters.
(b) (i) The Prime Minister is the key stone of the cabinet arch. He is the recognized leader of the cabinet. The portfolios are given to the cabinet ministers by the President on his advice. He has a power to remove any cabinet minister.
(ii) He is the link between the President and the cabinet ministers. The constitution imposes a duty on the Prime Minister to keep the President informed regarding the affairs of the union.
(iii) He directs and co-ordinates policy. The Prime Minister co-ordinates the working of the various departments. Even at cabinet meeting when ministers put forth their views. He would listen to them and then give his own conclusion, which is normally considered as the decision of the cabinet.
(c) The Council of Ministers consists of all categories of Ministers—cabinet ministers, ministers of State and Deputy Ministers. The cabinet on the other hand is a smaller group consisting of some 25 senior members (cabinet ministers). All cabinet members are ministers, but all ministers are not cabinet members. The cabinet ministers together meet as frequently as possible and determine the policy and program of the Government though Council of Ministers as whole rarely meet. The Constitution says that there shall be Council of Ministers to aid and advice the President in exercise of his functions. In fact he is to act on the advice of the cabinet in all matters. While cabinet ministers attend the meeting of the cabinet in their own right, ministers of the state can only attend it on invitation.
With reference to our Judiciary, discuss the following:
(a) Why is the Judiciary kept independent of the control of the Executive and the Legislature ? 
(b) What do we mean when we refer to the Supreme Court and the High Court as a ‘Court of Record’ ? 
(c) Name the Writs that the High Courts are empowered to issue. What is meant by the Advisory Jurisdiction of the High Court ? 
(a) The Supreme Court and the High Court administer justice not only between the citizen and citizen but also between ‘State’ and a ‘Citizen’. Judges’ independence is essential for the functioning of a democratic Constitution. An independent judiciary is said to be the first condition of liberty. The independence of the judges of the Supreme Court is ensured by the following provisions :
- Appointment of Judges: In appointing the judges the President shall consult the Chief Justice of India. The Chief Justice should take into account the view of four of his senior most colleagues. Thus-neither the Executive (Ministry of Law and Justice) nor the Chief Justice of India acting on his own can have full control over judges’ appointment.
- Security of Tenure: A judge can remain in office till he has attained the age of 65 years. He can only be removed by the President on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
- Salaries of judges etc. are charged on the consolidated funds of the India hence it cannot be varied to their disadvantage neither subjected to vote in the parliament.
- Punishment for the Contempt of Court: Genuine criticism of judgement is allowed, but nothing should be done to lower the dignity of court.
- Prohibition of Practice after Retirement: A retire judge of the Supreme Court cannot plead any case in any court or tribunal in India.
- No discussion with respect to the conduct of any judge.
(b) Supreme Court is a Court of Record. A Court of Record is one whose judgments are recorded for evidence and testimony. They are not be questioned when they are produced before any court. The judgments are in the nature of precedents i.e., the high court and other courts are bound to give similar decision in the similar cases.
(c) All high courts have the power to issue writs to a person or an official. The writs comprise the Writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari. These writs are issued to protect the fundamental rights. Advisory jurisdiction of high court can provide advice to President, to other ministers or to other courts on a question of law or fact which is of public importance. The advisory opinion of high court is not binding on the President or other courts.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
With reference to the growth of national consciousness in India explain each of the following :
(a) The immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress. 
(b) Two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji. 
(c) The impact of the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement. 
(a) W.C. Bonneijea cited the principal objectives of the congress in its first session as under:
- To enable national workers from all parts of India to become personally , known to each other.
- To end all racial, religious and provincial prejudice and promote a feeling of national unity among all the lovers of the country.
- To train and organize public opinion in the country.
- The formulation of popular demands on vital Indian problems.
(b) Two contributions of Dadabhi Naoriji are:
- He founded the East India Association in 1866, with the objective to inform the British the true state of affairs in India. Due to his efforts the British House of Commons passed a resolution recommending that ICS examinations should be held both in England and India. However it could not become act.
- He explained the economic exploitation of India through his famous ‘Drain Theory’ enunciated in the book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’. He explained how India’s wealth is draining to England in the form of salaries and pensions given to the British officers.
(c) The impact of Swadeshi and Boycott movement:
- Stimulus to Indian Industries: The Swadeshi movement gave a great stimulus to the Indian Industries, particularly the weaving industry. Swadeshi textile mills, match and soap factories came up quickly all over the country. Swadeshi stores sold fabrics, shoes, salt, hosiery and a lot other goods.
- Decline in the Import of British Goods: The Boycott affected the sale of British clothes, salt and shoes. According to the Report of Collector of Customs, Kolkata, in a report dated 8 September, 1906, the value of import of cotton twist and yarn had fallen by nearly a crore of rupees.
- An Outburst of Literary and Cultural Activity: The Swadeshi spirit was sustained by literary activity in the form of songs, poems, dramas, novels and short stories. Tagore, Ravi Kant and Mukund Das composed short verses emphasizing the unity of two Bengals. Aurobindo Ghose kept alive the national spirit through his fearless writings. Bankimchandra’s novel ‘Anand Math’ was in demand because of the song Bande Mataram. The folk theatres called ‘Yatras’ gave a great publicity to the Swadeshi campaign.
- An Urge for National Education: Penal action against the students created an urge to open more and more educational institutions. The number of national schools grew quickly. The national college was opened in Kolkata. These institutions provide secular, moral, political and industrial education.
In 1930 Mahatma Gandhi’s demands were rejected by the British, as a result of which he launched the Civil Disobedience Movement. In this context explain the following:
(a) Name the famous march undertaken by Gandhiji. Where did he begin this march ? State two of its features. 
(b) The Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a consequence of this Movement. 
(c) Significance of the Second Round Table Conference. 
(a) Dandi March was the famous march undertaken by Gandhji. He began this historic march on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujrat coast. He along with 78 followers reached Dandi on 6th April where he defied the salt law by making salt from sea water. It marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Its features are: It involved defiance of salt laws, boycott of liquor, boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kinds.
It also involved non-payment of taxes and land revenue and violation of laws of different kinds.
(b) Gandhi-Irwin Pact: Gandhiji wanted peace but with honour. The government also wanted peace, but without trouble.
Under such circumstances, the famous Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 5th March, 1931. The Governor-General agreed.
(i) To release all political prisoners except those guity of violence.
(ii) To permit peaceful picketing of liquors and foreign cloth shops and to permit such people as lived near sea-shores to manufacture salt. Gandhiji agreed to suspend the civil disobedience movement and also agreed to take part in the Second Round Table Conference.
(c) Second Round Table Conference: Gandhiji was chosen as the sole representative of the Congress for the Second Round Table Conference. The conference devoted most of its time to the communal question and the representation of minorities—Muslim, Sikhs, etc. in legislature both at centre and provinces. Gandhiji was disgusted to find that most leaders seemed concerned only about seats in legislatures for their respective communities. The question of Independence or of setting up a Responsible Government receded into background and Gandhiji returned empty handed to India. After returning to India Gandhiji was arrested but Congress decided to renew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
With reference to the transfer of power to India, answer the following :
(a) Explain the Cabinet Mission’s proposals regarding the setting up of a Constitution making body. 
(b) Mention any two clauses of the India Independence Act 1947. 
(c) Why did the Congress accept the Mountabatten Plan ? 
(a) A constituent assembly would frame the Union Constitution. It was to consist of 385 members, the provinces were to elect 292 members, whereas princely states were allocated 93 seats. After a preliminary meeting the Constituent Assembly was to split into three sections. Members of all the three groups would frame provincial constitutions for the provinces included in each group. They would also decide whether any Regional constitution should be set up for those provinces. Finally the Constituent Assembly would meet again jointly and frame the Union Constitution. Thus the Cabinet mission proposed a federal union with three tiers: the provinces, the regional groups of provinces and a union centre.
(b) The two clauses of India Independence Act 1947 were as follows :
- The act provided for the creation of two independent dominions from 15 August, 1947 to be known as India and Pakistan. Princely states would become independent.
- Each dominion would have a Governor-general. He would function as a constitutional head. He would work on the advice of their ministers.
- Constituent assemblies would serve as central legislatures.
(c) Reasons for finally accepting Mountbatten Plan may be summarized as follows :
- Communal riots had taken a serious turn as a result of the ‘Direct Action Day’ of Muslim League hence partition of the country seemed to offer a way out of chaos and anarchy.
- Congress had bitter experience of working with the League when the League had joined the Interim Government. That bitter experience forced the Congress to opt for partition.
- The only alternative to partition was a federation with a weak centre therefore the Congress decided to have a smaller India with a strong central authority than a bigger state with weak centre.
- The Congress leaders felt that further delay in the transfer of power could find India in the midst of civil war.
The War that broke out in 1914 was different from the previous wars in many ways. In this context discuss the following points briefly :
(a) Militant Nationalism as a cause of the war. 
(b) How did the Treaty of Versailles seek to cripple Germany’s military strength ? 
(c) What was the territorial re-arrangement of Europe as a result of this war ? 
(a) Militant Nationalism: An important cause of the war was militant nationalism or competitive patriotism. Germany had Kaiser William II as her new Emperor. He went about proclaiming that Germany was going to be the leader of the world. He wanted to establish as vast German Empire and gain important position in international sphere. France and Germany were old rivals. After defeating France in Franco-Prussian war Germany had seized the province of Alsace and most part of Lorraine, which were rich in minerals and industrial products. The French dreamed of revenge and of taking back their lost provinces. The Italians also looked discontented. Then there was the unsatisfied national spirit of the Balkan states—Serbia Bulgaria of Poland and the people of Austria-Hungry. The political leaders and rulers succeeded in fanning hatred and passion under the cover of nationalism.
(b) The Treaty of Versailles was made in a spirit of revenge. The victorious powers had deprived Germany of huge tracts of its territory and its colonies in the regions of East Africa and South, West Africa. The Rhine valley was demilitarized.
- Her military strength was completely crushed. The German army was restricted to a force of 1000000 soldiers and navy was limited to 15000 men. The air force was totally banned. Germany was neither to make nor to purchase from outside tanks and armored cars.
- Germany was burdened with an immense war indemnity. She had to pay a heavy sum estimated at 33 billion dollars to the allies.
- Germany had to supply huge quantities of coal to France, Belgium and Italy for 10 years.
(c) Territorial rearrangements have changed the political map of the world. The political map of Europe in particular was transformed after the peace treaties. It ended the autocratic monarchies in Germany, Russia and Austria, Hungary. It led to the birth of new states such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, Finland and Yugoslavia in Europe. After outbreak of Russian Revolution in 1917 the Czarist dictatorship in Russia came to and end.
The United Nations was established to be an effective peace keeping international organization. In this context explain the following :
(a) Its objectives and purposes. 
(b) The meaning of Human Rights as incorporated in the Human Charter. 
(c) Name the agency that the UN set up to deliver relief to children and mothers after World War II. State any three of its functions. 
(a) The objectives and purpose of United Nations are as follows:
- Saving succeeding generations from the “scourge of war”.
- Maintaining international peace and security.
- Development of friendly relations among the nations.
- Establishing conditions under which respect for international law can be maintained.
- To create faith in human rights.
- To provide social progress and better standards of life.
(b) The UN charter declared that the objective of United Nations was to promote special progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. It further reaffirmed its faith in fundamental human rights. On 10th December 1948 UN General Assembly adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Human Rights refer to those freedoms which should be available to all persons, irrespective of their religion, race, caste, sex, nationality or any of them. These rights include the right to life, right to education, right to own property, right to equality before law and many other rights. The World Conference on Human Rights said “the universal nature of human rights and freedoms is beyond the question.”
(c) The UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund) was established in 1946 (after second world war) to deliver relief to war torn children and their mother.
Its functions are as follows :
- To render assistance in providing protective food like milk, meat, fish and fats to the children.
- It also takes care of pregnant mothers.
- To provide funds for the training of health and sanitation workers, nutritionists and creche workers.
- Universal child immunization against preventable diseases by 1990 was one of the leading goals of UNICEF.
- To extend support to programs such as suppression of traffic in women and children.
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