ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2014
ICSE Paper 2014
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Who administers the oath of office to the Council of Ministers ? 
(b) Why is the Rajya Sabha called a ‘Permanent house’ ? 
(c) State the minimum number of times the Lok Sabha must meet in a year. 
(d) State the composition of the Electoral College in the election of the President of India. 
(e) What is an ‘Ordinance’ ? When can it be passed ? 
(f) Mention one way by which the authority of the Prime Minister can be checked ? 
(g) What is understood by the term ‘Individual Responsibility’ in a Parliamentary Democracy ? 
(h) What is meant by a ‘Single Integrated Judicial System’ as provided in the Indian Constitution ? 
(i) What is the ‘Appellate Jurisdiction’ of the High Court ? 
(j) State one point of distinction between the Disctrict Judge and the Sessions Judge. 
(a) The President.
(b) The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved. Each member of Rajya Sabha is elected for a term six years. l/3rd of its total member retire at every two years and there are new entrants. Thus the House is never empty. It is a permanent body. It has to play the major role during the periods when Lok Sabha is dissolved.
(c) Lok Sabha must atleast meet two times in a year. Normally three sessions are held in a year.
(d) The President is elected by the members of an Electoral College consisting of :
- the elected members of both the houses of the Parliament and
- the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
(e) An ordinance is a direction or command of an authoritative nature. It has the same force and effect of an Act of Parliament. The ordinance is passed at a time when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session.
(f) The press and public opinion act as effective checks on Prime Minister’s authority.
(g) Though the Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, they shall be individually responsible to the Head of the State. It implies that the Minister shall be liable to be dismissed by the President for their undesirable activities.
(h) We have a Single Unified Judiciary which means all the courts interpret and enforce the State Laws as well as the Laws made by the Union Parliament. The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India.
(i) Appellate jurisdiction of the High Court is both civil and criminal cases. In civil cases the High Court hear the appeals against the decision of District judges. In criminal cases appeals against the judgement of a Session judge where sentence of imprisonment exceeds 7 years and in certain other cases.
(j) The Sessions or Additional Sessions judge can alone award death sentences or life imprisonment. The District judge exercises administrative control over the Civil Courts of the District.
(a) State any two political causes responsible for the First War of Independence. 
(b) What was the role of the press in promoting nationalistic sentiments amongst Indians ? 
(c) Mention two important contributions of Lala Lajpat Rai. 
(d) What were the two basic reasons responsible for the Surat Split in 1907 between the Early Nationalists and the Assertive Nationalists ? 
(e) Mention any one provision each of the Gandhi-lrwin Pact signed in 1931. 
(f) State two important objectives of the Indian National Army. 
(g) Name the three members of the Cabinet Mission. 
(h) Mention any two terms of the Treaty of Versailles signed on June 28, 1919. 
(i) State two factors which were responsible for the failure of the League of Nations. 
(j) Mention two functions of the General Assembly. 
(a) The two political causes responsible for the First War of Independence were :
- The Doctrine of Lapse.
- Discourtesy to the Mughal Emperor.
(b) The printing press played a big role in carrying ideas to the people. Many nationalist journals were published which aroused the sentiments of the Indian public against the British rule. Many papers fostered patriotism and ideas of liberty and justice in our country. People became aware of rapid political development in the Country.
(c) During the anti-partition agitation he called upon men and women to fight repression with full strength.
He was the first Indian leader to have written about the problems of socialism and labour organization.
(d) The moderates wanted to achieve Swaraj through constitution means and Assertives believed that unless they put stronger pressure on the government they would never achieve their object.
The moderates believed in only resolutions and petitions. After the Partition of Bengal the assertive came to believe that it was impossible to gain any concession by petitions and prayers.
(e) Gandhi-lrwin signed a Pact on 5th March, 1931. One of the. provision was to release all political prisoners except those guilty of violence.
(f) Two important objectives of the INA were :
- To mobilize all their forces effectively to lead Indian people to regain their lost freedom.
- To prepare the Indian people inside and outside India for an armed struggle.
(g) Lord Patrick-Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and Mr. Alexander.
(h) (i) The Treaty declared Germany guilty of aggression. She had to pay a very heavy war indemnity of 33 billion dollars.
(ii) The area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarized Germany could not maintain or construct any fortification on either bank of the Rhine.
(i) Failure of the League of Nations:
- All the great powers were not its members. The United States was not a member at all. In 1925, Germany joined the organization while Russia was allowed entry in 1934. Later, both Germany and Japan left the League. The League, therefore, lacked universal representation.
- The permanent members always opposed decisions which went against their own interests.
(j) (i) To promote international co-operation in political, economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields.
(ii) To discuss matters relating to international peace and security.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
With reference to the Indian Parliament, explain the following:
(a) The tenure of the members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. 
(b) The composition of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. 
(c) It powers to make laws on subjects mentioned in the
(i) Union List
(ii) Concurrent List. 
(a) The tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent body. The members of the Rajya Sabha have a six year term. 1/3 of its members retire at the end of every second year and the equal member of new members are elected to fill the vacancies.
(b) Composition of Lok Sabha—The maximum strength of Lok Sabha provided by constitution is 552. 530 members of Lok Sabha are elected by direct election on basis on universal adult franchise and 20 represent Union territories. President nominates 2 members from the Anglo Indian Community.
Rajya Sabha has 250 members. Out of these 238 members are elected by the states and the union territories and 12 members are nominated by the President of India.
(c) Powers to make laws on subjects mentioned in:
(i) Union List: The Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws with respect to matters mentioned in the 98 subjects. Union List like Defence, Finance, Communications, Foreign Policy etc.
(ii) Concurrent List: Both the Parliament have the right to make laws on 47 subjects mentioned in the Concurrent list. In the case of conflict between a central and the state law, the laws made by the state shall prevail.
The Cabinet holds a pivotal position in the working of the Indian Parliamentary Government. In this context discuss the following :
(a) The formation of the Cabinet. 
(b) Any two administrative powers of the Cabinet. 
(c) Any two legislative powers of the Cabinet. 
(a) The formation of the Cabinet: The Cabinet means the Council consisting of the Prime Minister and other ministers of Cabinet rank. These ministers are important party leaders and trusted men of the Prime Ministers. The Cabinet consists of some 25 senior ministers. All cabinet ministers are ministers but all ministers are not cabinet members.
(b) Administrative powers of the Cabinet:
- The cabinet is a policy making body. It formulates the external and domestic policies of the government.
- It takes decision in problems of defence and security needs.
(c) Legislative powers:
- The Cabinet is instrumental in planning and moving the Amendment to the constitution.
- The Cabinet initiates more than 95% of the bills. These bills are given priority and preference over private bills. The Cabinet explains the merits of the Bill.
With reference to the Supreme Court, explain its functions stated below:
(a) Original Jurisdiction. 
(b) Advisory Function. 
(c) As a guardian of Fundamental Rights. 
(a) Original Jurisdiction: The Original Jurisdiction extends to those cases which Supreme Court has authority to hear and decide in the first instance. The Supreme Court in its original jurisdiction in following cases—
- Dispute between Govt, of India and/or more states.
- Dispute between two or more states.
- Dispute between Union and any state on one side and other states on the other.
- The Supreme Court entertains suits for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
- Original Jurisdiction extends to such cases in which interpretation of constitution is involved.
(b) Advisory Function: The President may obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court on a question of Law or fact which is of public importance. The Supreme Court may report its opinion after such hearing as it thinks fit. The advisory opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President or on other courts because it is not a judicial decision.
(c) Guardian of Fundamental Rights—The Supreme Court is the Guardian and protector of Fundamental Rights. Any citizen whose rights have been violated may move to the Supreme Court for enforcement of Rights. The Supreme Court has the power to issue orders or writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and quo warranto and certiorari for the enforcement of the Fundamental Laws.
The Union and the State governments are prohibited from making laws which takes away the Fundamental Rights. If they do so, the law shall be declared null and void by the Supreme Court.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
The establishment of the Indian National Congress led to the development of the National Movement in India. In this context answer the following:
(a) When was the Indian National Congress established ? Who presided over its first session ? 
(b) What were the four aims of the Congress ? 
(c) Mention four basic beliefs of the Early Nationalists. 
(a) 1885 at Mumbai Presided by W.C. Baneijee.
- To enable national workers from all parts of India to become personally known to each other.
- To end all racial, religious and provincial prejudices and to promote a feeling of national unity among all lovers of the country.
- The formulation of popular demands on vital problems and their presentation before the government.
- To train and organise public opinion in the country.
(c) Beliefs of Early Nationalists:
- The early nationalists had unlimited faith in the British justice and fair play.
- They believed that Indian’s connection with England was a boon rather than curse.
- They looked to England for inspiration and guidance.
- They recognised the benefits the British rule has conferred to them especially the English language and modem means of communications and transport.
In the Nagpur session, 1920 the Congress ratified the resolution to launch the Non-Cooperation movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. In this context:
(a) What do you understand by the term Non-Cooperation ? 
(b) What were the objectives which the movement sought to achieve ? 
(c) Explain the impact of the Non-Cooperation movement in India’s struggle for freedom. 
(a) Non-cooperation is a way of protesting in which you do not co-operate with the evil doer. Gandhi asked-his countrymen not to assist the foreign government to rule over them.
(b) Objectives of the Non-Cooperation movement:
- Restoring the old status of the Sultan of Turkey.
- Punishing those quilty of atrocities in Punjab.
- Attaining Swaraj for India.
(c) Impact of the Movement:
- The movement provided a base to the Congress Gandhi mobilised masses in this movement. All sections of society—peasants, workers, lawyers, students, moneyed classes, women and oppressed people participated in their struggle for freedom.
- The movement undermined the power and prestige of the British Government. It created an anti British feeling in the country.
- Repression failed to crush the spirit of the people. The movement made the people bold and patriotic.
- Gandhi was determined to emancipate the poor and the oppressed. Removal of untouchability and promotion of Khadi became essential tool in Gandhi’s struggle against British rule. Message of Swadeshi was spread.
- Another positive achievement was that the movement set the scene of Hindu Muslim unity. Never before any movement received the willing support of Hindus and Muslims alike.
With reference to the picture given above answer the following:
(a) Identify the Viceroy in the picture. 
(b) Why was he sent to India ? 
(c) How did he plan to solve, the communal problem existing in India ? 
(d) Why did the Congress accept the Plan ? State three reasons to justify its acceptance. 
(a) Lord Mountbatten.
(b) Prime. Minister Attlee announced that British would quit India by 30th June, 1948. If the Muslim League did not join the Constituent Assembly the government would have to consider to whom the power of the Central Government should be handed. He replaced Lord Wavell, by Lord Mountbatten to solve the dispute of the Muslim League and the Congress as Muslim League demanded Pakistan.
(c) In the struggle for India’s partition riots broke out in Kolkata, Punjab, Assam and North-West Frontier province. After many consultations with Nehru, Patel, Azad, Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Mountbatten came to the conclusion that the sooner power was transferred the better for all. He was convinced that India was to be partitioned. Transfer of power to Indians could only be on the basis of partition of the country.
(d) The Congress accepted the Mountbatten plan because :
- The Communal riots had taken a serious turn as a result of the direct action of the Muslim League. Partition of the country seemed to offer a new way out of chaos and anarchy.
- The League had joined the Interim Government to obstruct and not co-operate Experience of working with the League had convinced Patel and others that it was not possible to carry on and there must either be partition or open war with League,
- The only alternative to Partition was a Federation with a weak centre. The disruptive forces—dynastic, communal and regional could be kept under control only by a strong centre. A smaller India with a strong central authority was better than a bigger state with a weak centre.
With reference to the causes of the Second World War answer the following:
(a) (i) Explain how the ideologies of Fascism and Nazism led to the Second World War. 
(ii) How did the Japanese invasion of China create conditions for the outbreak of the war ? 
(b) Explain the consequences of the war with reference to the formation of the United Nations. 
(a) (i) Fascism: Italy had to spend a lot of money during the First World War on her army and war equipments. She was under heavy debts. Italian government was faced with serious problems of poverty, hunger, disease and unemployment, Riots and strikes broke out all over the country. The government was not strong enough to maintain law and order in the state. In this situation of general lawlessness the Fascist seized the power in Italy. They had an imperialistic attitude. Italy turned towards Germany and Japan and concluded a treaty of friendship leading to Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis in opposition to Franco-British Alliance. In 1940, Italy entered the Second World War.
Nazism: Hitler preached the Gospel of Victorious sword. He broke the bonds of the Treaty of Versailles and began to build up Germany’s armed forces. In March 1938, he made his first move to occupy Rhineland that had be demilitarized by the Treaty of Varsailles. He then captured Vienna. Soon he turned his attention to Sudetarland. The Czech government accepted the Munich Pact in the interest of Peace and Hitler’s troops occupied Sudetarland. Soon in March 1939 Germany invaded rest of Czechosolvakia without any justification. Hitler wanted to occupy Darzig corridor because it was mostly occupied by Germans and also he could connect East Prussia with Germany. On 1st September, 1939 Germans stormed into Poland. On 3rd September Britain and France declared war on Germany. Thus the Second World War began.
(ii) Japan’s invasion of China: An important act of aggression after the First World War was the invasion of China by Japan in 1931. China appealed to the League of Nations to declare sanctions against Japan but Britain and France, the leading members of the League did not give any attention. Japan occupied Manchuria and set up a government there. In 1933 Japan left the League and started occupying British and American properties in China but Britain and France followed the policy of appeasement thinking Japanese could be used to – weaker China. On 7th December, 1941 Japan attached the US Fleet in Pearl Harbour in Hawai shocking the American. USA, declared war on the Axis power.
(b) Consequences of the War: Everyone looked for a better and happier world after the Second World War. The horrors of the Two World War and the failure of the League of Nations led to a meeting of the Big Three—Roosevelt (President of USA), Churchill (Prime Minister of Britain) and Stalin (Premier of USSR) at Yalta in February 1945. They resolved to convene a conference of the representatives of all nations to draw up the Charter of the United Nations. This led to the establishment of the United Nations on October 24, 1945. The Wars left a legacy of misery and depression in nearly every country and UNO was established to maintain world peace and secure the economic and social as well as political security to every nation.
With reference to the Non-Aligned Movement, explain the following:
(a) ‘Non-Alignment’. 
(b) Two factors responsible for its formation. 
(c) Role of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. 
(a) Non-Alignment: The term Non-alignment may be differently interpreted. Negatively a country that is non-aligned does not support or is not part of any Power Blocs.
Non-Alignment aimed at keeping away from the Cold War. It should not be considered isolationism. It means the nations which are non-aligned judge each issue on its own merits and do not toe the line of one or the other super power.
(b) Factors Responsible for its formation:
- Global tension caused by Cold War most newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realised the division of the world into Two Power Blocs was not in their larger interest and this might endanger World Peace. These nations felt that by maintaining distance from both the super powers they would put off the danger of another war or a nuclear holocaust.
- Need for Peace : Another factor was the need of peace without which there could be no development. Afro-Asian countries looked at arms race as dangerous for World Peace. At the same time they realised that they would be strengthening UNO by being non-aligned.
- The Asian Relations Conference took place in Delhi in 1947 in which he prompted the delegates not to joint any block and to get ready for the freedom of their countries. He prompted the new independent countries to remain united and maintain their separate identity.
- He along with the Chinese Premier Chou-En-Lai enunciated the five principles of peaceful co existence i.e. Panchsheel.
- The Bandung Conference of 1955 was a further step towards the formation of NAM. His principles of Panchsheel became the bedrock of NAM.
- Those were the efforts of Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru and other prominent leaders like President Sukarno, President Gamal Abdel Nasser. President Josip Broz Tito that first summit of NAM was held from September 1 to 6, 1961 at Belgrade. The summit adopted the documents called “statement on danger of war and Appeal for peace”.
- India under the leadership of Nehru played a leading role in various issues and problems of international politics, which strengthened the Non-aligned movement.
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