ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2013
ICSE Paper 2013
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Name the two types of authority in a federal set up in India. 
(b) What is meant by the term Universal Adult Franchise ? 
(c) How is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha elected ? 
(d) When can the Vice-President cast a vote in the Rajya Sabha ? 
(e) State one reason why the President is elected indirectly. 
(f) Who is the Executive head of State ? 
(g) Mention the different categories of ministers in the Union Council of ministers. 
(h) Explain the term Collective Responsibility. 
(i) Name the courts that are empowered to issue writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights. 
(j) Which is the highest criminal courts in a district ? 
- Union Government.
- State Government.
(b) Universal adult franchise means that every person who has attained the age of 18 years is entitled to vote if he is not otherwise disqualified.
(c) The speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected from among its own members by majority vote soon after the newly elected house meets for the first time.
(d) The Vice-President has casting a vote in the case of an equality of votes i.e. dead lock.
(e) The President is elected indirectly because it would be difficult to arrange election in which millions of people were to participate.
(f) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
- Cabinet Ministers
- Ministers of state
- Deputy Ministers
(h) The term Collective Responsibility means that all the members of the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible for the decisions taken by them pertaining to the Government of the State.
(1) Supreme Court
(2) High Court
(j) Session Court.
(a) What was the General Service Enlistment Act ? 
(b) What was the influence of Western education on the minds of the educated Indians in the 19th Century ? 
(c) Who exposed the economic exploitation of India through his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’ ? 
(d) What was the importance of the Lucknow Pact of 1916 ? 
(e) Name the leaders of the Khilafat Movement that was launched in India to champion the cause of the Caliph of Turkey. 
(f) Why was the Simon Commission boycotted by the Indians ? 
(g) What were the two proposals related to the Princely States in the Mountbatten Plan ? 
(h) What was the immediate cause of the First World War ? 
(i) What is meant by the term Cold War ? 
(j) Name the two architects of NAM. 
(a) The General Service Enlistment Act of 1856 required all recruits to serve overseas. It ordered, a challenge to the castes who composed so much of the Bengal Army.
(b) Western education widened the horizon of Indians.
- It gave them a rational, secular, democratic and national outlook.
- They learnt about the national movements in European Countries.
- The slogan “Equality, Liberty and Fraternity”, of the American and French Revolutions, impressed them.
- Revolutionary ideas of liberal thinks like Rousseau, Mazzini and Thomas Paine brought about social awareness and national consciousness among Indians. (any Two)
(c) Dadabhai Naoroji.
(d) Importance of Lucknow Pact of 1916:
- It brought about unity between Hindu and Muslim.
- It also brought Aggressive and Moderate leaders at the same platform.
(e) Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali.
(f) (i) It was boycotted everywhere because all its memers were Englishmen.
(ii) The government showed no inclination towards accepting the demand for Swaraj.
(g) (i) The treaties with the princely States would come to end.
(ii) They would be free to associate themselves with either of the Dominions or to remain independent.
(h) (i) The Sarajevo incident is the immediate cause of the First World War. It is related to the assassination of Austrain Archduke Francies Ferdinand and his wife on June 28, 1914 iff Sarajevo where they were shot dead.
(ii) Austria saw the hand of Serbia behind the assassination of the Prince and served Serbia with an ultimation. Due to the support of Russia, Serbia refused to accept the demands. So Austria declared a war on Serbia.
(i) Cold War means a situation when there is no actual fighting but a tense atmosphere prevailes. After the Second World War, World was divided into two blocks and there was tension between two blocs (Soviet Bloc and USA Bloc). This tension was termed as Cold War.
(j) Two architects of NAM:
- President Sukarno of Indonesia
- Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
Discuss the relationship between the two houses of a State Legislature with reference to the following :
(a) Money Bills. 
(b) Non-Money Bills. 
(c) Control over the Executive. 
Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
At the head of the Council of Ministers in a state is the Chief Ministers, who is the real executive Head of the State. In this context explain the following :
(a) The appointment of the Chief Minister. 
(b) His relationship with the Council of Ministers. 
(c) His relations with the Governor. 
Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
The country’s Judicial System has a Supreme Court at its apex. In this context discuss the following :
(a) Manner of appointment of judges. 
(b) Term of office and removal of judges. 
(c) Its power of Judicial Review. 
(a) Every judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice and such other Judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts as he may deem necessary for this purpose.
(b) A Judge of Supreme Court, including the Chief Justice, remains in office until he attains the age of sixty-five years.
The procedure for impeachment or removal of Judges is as under :
- The resolution to impeach the President may be moved in either House of the Parliament after a notice of 14 days has been given. A list of charges must be supported by one-fourth of the total members of the House.
- Such a resolution must be passed by a 2/3rd of the total majority of the members of that House.
- Then the charges levelled against the President are investigated by the other House. The President can appear in person or through a counsel to defend himself.
- If the charges are approved by 2/3rd of the total majority, the impeachment is finalised and the President is removed from the day the impeachment resolution is passed.
(c) (i) Judicial Review is the power of the Supreme Court to examine laws passed by the independent and the executive orders of the Centre and State governments in order to find whether these are in accordance with the Constitution or not. This is called Judicial Review. If an order or a law is found to be contrary to the Constitution, the Supreme Court declares it null and void.
(ii) The Supreme Court has the power to review all laws, executive orders and ordinances.The Supreme Court has the power to declare them null and void, if these are found to be inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
The early Congressment were liberal in their views and programmes. This led to the rise of Assertive Nationalists who demanded more forceful action against the British. In this context discuss the following :
(a) Reasons why the early Congressmen were called Moderates. 
(b) How did Moderates differ from the Assertive Nationalists in realizing their objectives. 
(c) How did Tilak bring a new wave in Indian politics that was distinct from the early Congressmen ? 
(a) The early Congressmen were called Moderates because :
- They were in favour of British rule.
- There attitude was not anti-British. They had unlimited faith in the British sense of justice.
- Petitions, prayers and pleas were the method used by them.
(b) (i) The Moderates wanted to achieve self government, they did not aim for total independence. They demanded certain reforms and concessions from British government because they wanted to develop India under the guidance of benevolent British rule. On the other hand, Extremists wanted Swaraj i.e., complete independence.
(ii) Moderates were loyal to British rule and English crown. They considered British rule a gift for India. The Extremists were not loyal to British rule and they considered it as a curse and wanted to uproot it from India.
(iii) The moderates believed in adopting constitutional and peaceful method to achieve their objective. They had full faith in British sense of justice. Extremists believed in non co-operation and adopted method of boycott against foreign goods and propagation of swadeshi and national education. They believed in Indian culture, civilization, religion and tradition. Whereas Moderates believed in British culture.
(iv) Moderates believed that Indians were not fit to rule. Under the moderates, national movement was not a popular movement, it had no touch with people. While under extremists, people came under them.
(c) (i) Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a fearless fighter. He had no faith in the methods of prayers and petitions.
(ii) It was his firm conviction that independence would come to India only when the Indians were strong to snatch it from the British hands.
(iii) His weeklies, The Mahratta and The Kesari made bitter attacks on the Government. He used his newspapers as powerful weapons to spread discontent against British rule.
(iv) It was under his influence that the Congress in its annual Session in 1906 had to pass resolutions regarding Swaraj. He said Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it.
(v) Bal Gangadhar Tilak wanted to extend Swadeshi and Boycott movements as the normal methods of agitation.
The reasons for the formation of the Muslim leagre were many. In this context explain:
(a) Any three factors that led to the formation of the Muslim League in India. 
(b) Any three demands made by the Muslim Deputation in 1906 to the Viceroy Lord Minto. 
(c) What were the aims and objectives of the Muslim League ? 
(a) (i) After the revolt of 1857 and the partition of Bengal, the Britishers saw the unity between the Hindus and Muslims. To check the growth of nationalism, they encouraged the formation of Muslim League.
(ii) The working of Indian National Congress also gave a setback to the British government. They wanted to create an organisation which could check the popularity of the Congress.
(iii) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a great social reformer and an educationist. He worked as a guiding force for the Muslims to form a separate organisation.
(b) The Muslim leaders made the following demands:
- Separate Electorates: The Muslims should be given the right of sending their representatives to the Provincial Councils and Imperial Legislative Council through separate communal electorates.
- Weightage in Representation: The representation to the Muslim Community should be determined not by their numerical strength. It should be in accordance with the position they occupied in India about a hundred years ago.
- Greater Representation in Civil, Military and Judicial Services :
There should be greater representation of the Muslims in all services-civil and military. Further, there should be Muslim judges in every High Court.
- The Founding of a Muslim University: The Deputation asked for help in founding a Muslim University which would be a centre of religious, cultural and intellectual life.
The Address concluded with the words that the bond of loyalty united the Muslims and the British in India. The promotion of Muslim interests would further strengthen this bond. (any three)
(c) The aims of the Muslim league were :
- To promote feelings of loyalty among Indian Muslims towards the British Government.
- To protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and present them before the Government in mild language.
- To promote friendly feelings between Muslims and other communities of India without any harm to the objectives of the League.
- One of the main objectives of the Muslim League was to keep the Muslim intelligensia away from the mainstream of National Movement.
The Congress working committee passed the famous Quit India resolution at Wardha in July 1942. With reference to this answer the following questions :
(a) What were the reasons for the passing of this resolution ? 
(b) What was the British Government’s reaction to the Quit India Movement ? 
(c) What was the impact and significance of this movement ? 
- Failure of the Cripps Mission: The failure of the Cripps Mission left no meeting ground between the Congress and the government. It was clear from the proposals that the government was not willing to grant independence in the near future. The Indians were also not happy at the proposals of Cripps Mission because proposals contained within them provisions which could divide India into hundreds of independent provinces.
- War Situation: There was every possibility that India might be attacked by Japan and the Indians were helpless because they had no power or means to resist the attack. So, the Indian leaders felt that the situation called for complete independence. Gandhiji also felt that an orderly and peaceful withdrawal of the British could save India from internal anarchy and external aggression.
- Internal Anarchy: The communal situation was worsening day by day.
The Muslim League was demanding a separate state i.e., Pakistan. This had spoiled the communal situation.
(b) The government used police and army to suppress the movement. Hundreds of persons were killed and over 70,000 arrested in less than five months. Even armed aircrafts were used in Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar. Mobs were dispersed by lathi charge, rifle, pistol and occasionally by machine guns. Even women and children were not spared. The main objective of the government was to terrorize the people.
- It demonstrated the depth of the national feelings : The movement showed the depth of the national will and convinced the Britishers that the days of their domination in India were numbered. People from all parts of India fought together against the Britishers.
- Set back to the Britishers: Now the British officials had realized that the British would not be able to retain their hold on India.
- Parallel Government: A significant feature of the Quit India Movement was the emergence of parallel governments in Ballia in Uttar Pradesh, Midnapur in Bengal and Satara in Maharashtra.
- Strengthening of the Congress Socialist Party: The Quit India Movement helped in strengthening the Congress Socialist Party because of its magnificent and heroic role in the movement. Its socialist ideas had an impact on the Indian National Congress.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow :
(a) Identify the leader in the picture. 
(b) State any four factors that led to the rise of dictatorship in Germany and Italy. 
(c) Why did he invade Poland ? State two similarities between Fascism and Nazism. 
(a) Adolf Hitler.
(b) Rise of dictatorship in Germany and Italy:
Dictorial regimes in Italy and Germany arose due to the following factors:
- Dissatisfication with the Peace Treaties: Italy joined the War on the side of the Allies. Among Italians the feeling was that they had won the War but lost the Peace. Italy had much to contribute to the success of the Allies in the War. But when it came to dividing the spoils of War, her allies deserted her.
So far as Germany was concerned, defeat in the War and conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, made Germans feel ashamed and helpless. Germany was forced to cede large chunks of her territory to France, Belgium, Poland and Denmark. Her overseas possessions and colonies were divided among themselves by the Allies (Britain, France, Belgium and South Africa).
- Economic Factors: Economic conditions in Italy after the War were very bad. War debts and budget deficits caused lots of difficulty. The salaried employees, the farmers and the industrial workers felt the pinch of post-war inflation.
Germany had to pay a huge sum as War Indemnity. The financial crisis forced Germany to borrow recklessly. German economy combined a high rate of inflation with a high level of unemployment. It was owing to this factor that the Nazi party had its ranks swollen by new recruits, especially youths.
- Inefficient and Corrupt Democratic Governments: The post-war democratic governments were weak; they could not respond properly to the needs and aspirations of the people. The governments of Nitti and Giolitti were unable to control or influence things.
In Germany the Constituent Assembly, which met at Weimar in 1919, established a liberal democratic government. But from the very beginning Germany was faced with a problem of unstable government.
- Rise of Totalitarian Ideologies: The philosophy of Hegal had flourished in Italy for years before Fascism was thought of. His philosophy had a great intellectual depth. But his pupils used Hegelian arguments to justify an authoritarian regime.Infact, irrational and anti-intellectualist philosophy of Alfred Rocco had got the upper hand now. It appealed to the masses because it glorified power or even sheer force.
In Russia, after the Revolution of 1917, the government had been using terror to enforce obedience. Political power in Russia was now monopolised by one political party. Totalitarian ideas or principles apealed to the masses in Italy and Germany also.
(c) It was from Poland now that Hitler demanded the port of Danzig. Britain retaliated, followed by France, by extending guarantee of security of Poland, Greece, Romania and Turkey on March 31, 1939. After May 1939, Hitler knew any attack on Poland would involve the Germans in war with the Anglo-French powers. Britain stuck to Poland. Hitler was undounted. With the ‘Pact of Steel under his arm, Hitler was ready to invade Poland. On September 1,1939 German troops stormed Poland. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The two similarities between Fascism and Nazism are :
- Both Mussolini and Hitler aimed at restoring the status and dignity of their nations amongst the community of nations by making them strong powers.
- Both aimed at providing strong, stable and efficient Governments.
- Both uphold one party and one man rule, to believe in aggression, to glorify war, anti-democracy.
The United Nations Organization was established to maintain peace and promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. With reference to this, explain the following :
(a) The composition of the Security Council. 
(b) The functions of the Security Council related to maintaining World Peace. 
(c) The role of UNESCO in the development of Science and Technology. 
(a) The Security Council is the executive body of the UN. It is composed of fifteen member nations. The USA, Russia, England, France and China are its permanent members. The other ten non-permanent members are elected by General Assembly for two years term. Each member of the Council has one vote.
(b) Functions of the Security Council:
- To investigate the dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
- To recommend ways of adjusting, or settling such disputes according to the terms of the settlement.
- To make plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments. To determine the existence of a threat to peace, or an act of aggression and to suggest what remedial action should be taken.
- To make military action against an aggressor. (any three)
(c) (i) The UNESCO Seeks to promote international scientific co-operation and encourages scientific research designed to improve living conditions.
(ii) It has established many scientific co-operation offices to provide support to member states in the field of higher education, advanced training and research in natural and social sciences.
(iii) It organizes regional and world conferences to bring together scientists and technicians.
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