ICSE History and Civics Previous Year Question Paper 2012 Solved for Class 10
ICSE Paper 2012
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Name the law making body of the Union Government. 
(b) What is the difference in the term of office between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha ? 
(c) Name the bill which cannot originate in the Rajya Sabha. 
(d) What is a bicameral legislature ? Name any one state that has a bicameral legislature. 
(e) Who settles disputes arising in connection with the election of the President of India ? 
(f) Which body formulates the foreign policy of India ? 
(g) Mr. Ajayveer Singh is a member of the Lok Sabha. Can he be appointed as a Governor of a State ? If so, under what criterion ? 
(h) Who presides over the meetings of the state cabinet ? 
(i) What is the tenure of a Judge of the Supreme Court ? 
(j) How does the High Court protect the Fundamental Rights of individuals ? 
(b) The term of office of Lok Sabha is five years whereas of Rajya Sabha is six years.
(c) Money Bill
(d) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(e) Supreme Court
(f) The Cabinet or council of minister, along with the Prime Minister.
(g) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(h) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(i) 65 years.
(j) High Court protect the fundamental rights of individuals under Appellate Jurisdiction.
(a) What was Nana Saheb’s grievance against the British ? 
(b) State any two repressive policies of Lord Curzon. 
(c) Mention two reasons for the Moderates’ faith in the British sense of justice. 
(d) When was the Muslim League formally founded ? Who presided over its session at Dhaka ? 
(e) Name the party formed by Subhash Chandra Bose. What was its immediate objective? 
(f) What was mentioned in the Cabinet Mission Plan regarding Provincial Autonomy ? 
(g) Give two similarities in the foreign policies of Mussolini and Hitler. 
(h) Name the signatory countries of the Triple Alliance (1882). State the rival bloc that was formed. 
(i) Who appoints the Secretary General of the United Nations ? 
(j) What do you understand by the term ‘Human Rights’ ? When is Human Rights Day celebrated each year ? 
(a) British refused to accept Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II as the ruler of the Marathas.
(b) (i) Seditions Meetings Act, 1907.
(ii) Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1908.
(c) Two reasons for the Moderates’ faith in the British sense of justice:
- The congress in those days was a band of loyalists who were proud of their British connections.
- They think that english rule had conferred benefits upon them, especially the english language and the modem means of communication and transport.
(d) Muslim League was formally founded on December 30, 1906. Nawab Salimullah presided over its session at Dhaka.
(e) Forward Bloc. Its immediate objective was to liberate India from the British rule and to develop a socialist order in India.
(f) Cabinet Mission plan, proposed that provinces would be divided into three groups and each group would draft a constitution for a regional union if so desired, and also for the constituent provinces. Thus, it envisaged a three-tier system of government, for the provinces, for the groups and for the union of India.
(g) Two similarities in the foreign policies of Mussolini and Hitler:
- Both aimed at restoring the status and dignity of their nations amongst the community of nations by making them strong powers.
- Both aimed at providing strong, stable and efficient governments.
(h) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(i) The General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
(j) Human Right refer to those freedom which should be available to all person, irrespective of their religion race, caste, sex, nationality or any of them.
Human Rights Day: 10th December.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
With reference to the Union Parliament, answer the following questions:
(a) What is the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha provided by the constitution? How many members does the President nominate to the Lok Sabha ? How are members to the Lok Sabha elected ? 
(b) The two Houses of the Parliament enjoy-co-equal powers in many spheres-explain it by giving any three examples. 
(c) Explain any four of the Rajya Sabha’s powers in India’s federal set up. 
(a) The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552, which is made up by election of upto 530 members to represent the States, upto 20 members to represent the Union Territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the President.
Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of the adult suffrage.
(b) The Union Parliament has co-equal powers with the State Legislatures over the 47 subjects mentioned in the concurrent list.
- If there is a conflict between the laws passed by the Union Parliament and a State Legislature on the subject mentioned in the concurrent list, the law passed by the Union Government prevails.
- In all the matters of the legislation including the constitutional amendment, the extent of the Rajya Sabha’s power is same as that of the Lok Sabha.
- All bills other than the money bills may be introduced in either house and follow the same procedure.
(c) Rajya Sabha’s Powers in India’s federal set up:
- According to Article 249, the Parliament will be able to make law in relation to a subject in the State List if the Rajya Sabha, with the support of at least two-thirds of its members present and voting, adopts a proposal to the effect that the Parliament, in national interest, should make law in relation to that subject in the State List.
- If the Central Government wants to create or abolish any all-India service like Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service etc., it has to obtain the approval of the Rajya Sabha.
- The resolution for removal of the Vice-President of India has to be first moved in the Rajya Sabha.
- Rajya Sabha can exercise control over the executives by means of questions, discussion and debates.
The President of India is the Head of the Indian Republic while the Governor is the Head of the State Government. In this context, answer the following questions :
(a) Besides being a citizen of India, state three other qualifications required by a person to be eligible to be the Governor of a state. 
(b) Enumerate three similar features in the legislative powers of the President and the Governor. 
(c) Under what circumstances can the President of India declare an emergency in the country ? 
(a) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(b) Similarities of Legislative Powers of President and Governor:
|(1) A Bill passed by the state Legislature requires Governor’s Assent to become a law.||A Bill passed by the Parliament requires President’s Assent to become a law.|
|(2) Governor can issue an ordinance when the state Legislature is not in session.||President can issue an ordinance when the Parliament is not in session.|
|(3) Governor summons the sessions of both the houses of State Legislature and prorogues them.||The President summons the sessions of both the Houses of Parliament and prorogues them.|
|(4) Governor has the power to dissolve the state Assembly.||The President has the Power to dissolve the Lok Sabha.|
- General emergency: If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists where by the Security of India is threatened , either by war or by external aggression or armed rebellion, the President can proclaim this emergency. The President can do this only after getting the approval in writing of the union cabinet.
- State emergency: If the President on receipt of a report from the governor or otherwise, is satisfied that a governance of a state cannot be carried on accordance with the provision of the constitution he may be declare an emergency in the state.
- Financial emergency: If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of the nation is threatened, he can declare financial emergency.
The High Court is the apex of the judiciary in the state. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) State the composition of the High Court. State the qualifications required to become a High Court Judge. 
(b) Why is the High Court also known as a Court of Record ? 
(c) (i) What is the meaning of Lock Adalat ? 
(ii) State any three advantages of the Lok Adalat. 
(a) Each high court consist of a Chief Justice and such other judges as the President of India may appoint from time to time. Beside the President has the power to appoint:
- Additional Judges for a temporary period not exceeding two years for clearance of arrears of work in a high court.
- An acting Judge is appointed when a permanent Judge is temporarily absent or unable to attend his office.
The qualifications required to become a Judge in the High Court are :
- He should be a citizen of India.
- Has held a judicial office in the territory of India for at least 10 years. or Has been an advocate of a high court for at least 10 years.
(b) Because :
- Its judgements and orders are preserved as record.
- If a person commits a contempt of High Court, the court has the authority to punish him.
(c) (i) Lok Adalat means The People Court. These courts were set up to provide legal aid and quick justice to those who are not in a position to engage lawyers or bear the expenses of the legal proceeding. This eliminated high costs and delay in imparting Justice.
(ii) Advantages of Lok Adalat are:
- A Lok Adalat delivers speedy and inexpensive Justice.
- Different Lok Adalats have relieved the lower courts of much of their heavy load of work.
- The decision passed by a Lok Adalat are final and binding on the parties. No appeal before any court against its decision.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
With reference to Nationalism and the birth of the Indian National Congress, explain each of the following :
(a) Vernacular Press Act, 1878. 
(b) Role of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the formation of the Muslim League. 
(c) State any four immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress. 
(a) The Vernacular Press Act, 1878 was passed by Lord Lytton. The Act, which was not applicable to the English newspapers, forbade the Vernacular Papers to publish anything that might excite feelings of dissatisfaction against the government. In 1882, this Act was repealed by Lord Ripon.
(b) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a loyal supporter of the British Empire and asked the Muslims to keep away from the Indian National Congress. He regarded the Congress as an unnecessary organisation and considered it harmful for the interests of the Muslims. He thought that the Congress was dominated by the Hindus, and Muslims had no place in it. He felt that the Muslims can protect their economic and political interests through exposure to western education and English language. In fact all the influential Government posts and business opportunities were linked with Western Education. Therefore he asked the Muslims to show loyalty to the British who would take care of Muslim interests. He founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh to popularize scientific and western learning among the Muslims. This college became the nucleus of a Movement popularly known as the Aligarh Movement. Thus Sir Syed Ahmed played a key role in the formation of Muslim League to nurture the political, social, economic and other interests of the Muslims.
(c) The objectives of the Indian National Congress were as follows:
- To promote close relations among the Nationalist workers of the country.
- To develop and consolidate the feelings of unity among the people without any consideration of caste, religion or region.
- To spell out popular demands of the people and present them before the government.
- To train and organize public opinion of Indians on various important issues.
One of Lord Curzon’s administrative measures that resulted in a strong resentment from the masses was the Partition of Bengal in 1905. In this context, answer the fouowing questions:
(a) What was Lord Curzon’s argument in favour of the Partition of Bengal ? How did the nationalists interpret Lord Curzon’s motives ? 
(b) How did the people react to the Partition of Bengal ? 
(c) What was the impact of the Swadeshi Movement on Indian Industries ? 
(a) Lord Curzon’s Argument: The area of Bengal was too large and it was difficult for the British to administer efficiently. Hence according to Lord Curzon, Partition of Bengal was a administrative necessity.
Nationalists Interpretation : The nationalist thought that this was done in order to break or divide the Hindu-Muslim Unity, To stop the tide of Nationalism, to curb Bengali influence by not only placing Bengalies under the administration but by reducing them to a minority in Bengal.
(b) The people had come to know about the British Government’s move to divide the Bengal province. So they had started protesting against the proposals. As many as 70,000 petitions were submitted to the government for stopping the partition. A large number of protest meetings were held in different towns of Bengal. The formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made on 7 August 1905.
People on the day of partition (16 Oct., 1905) marched through the streets of Calcutta shouting slogans of “Bande Mataram”. They tied rakhis to each other’s hands to show their bonds of love and unity. People showed their anger by boycotting foreign goods. They observed fasts and pledged support to the Nationalists for forcing the Government to cancel partition.
(c) The Swadeshi movement gave a great stimulus to the Indian industries, particularly the weaving industries. Textiles mills, match and soap factories came up quickly all over the country. The leather and tanning industry also made a significant advance. Swadeshi movement led to the establishment of first steel company of India ‘Tata Steel’ in Bihar in 1911.
Gandhiji introduced new ideas in politics and adopted new methods to give a new direction to the political movement. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Gandhiji doctrine of Satyagraha. 
(b) Gandhiji’s Social Ideals. 
(c) Which mass struggle was launched by him on non-violent lines in 1920 ? Explain in brief the programmes of such a campaign. 
(a) Satyagraha: The doctrine of Satyagraha was developed by Gandhiji during his stay in South Africa and the racial discrimination suffered by him and other Asians and Blacks. The term Satyagraha means to fight against the social and political injustice through truth, non-violence and love. The principle of Satyagraha is based on self-control, self-suffering and non-violence to win over the hatred and violence of the wrongdoer.
The Satyagraha aims at reforming a wrongdoer by appealing to his conscience and reason. It believes in capacity to bear suffering without showing any retaliation to the wrongdoer. In developing the principle of Satyagraha Gandhiji was greatly influenced by Hindu and Christian scriptures and devotional poetry of Gujarati poet Narsimh Mehta and teachings of Russian writer Leo Tolstoy.
(b) Gandhiji’s whole philosophy was based on non-violence. According to Gandhiji, it is the weapon of strong, mighty and powerful individuals. He was of the opinion that neither an individual nor a country could gain anything by using violent methods. He launched many movements for gaining freedom but none of them was violent. During the non-cooperation movement, he suspended the movement when it was as its zenith just because of Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were burnt alive.
(c) Gandhiji realised the importance and power of the organised masses. He was of the opinion that a few leaders or individuals would not be able to win freedom. It is the power of the masses which will force the Britishers to leave the country. In 1920, he launched Non-Co-operation Movement, in which workers, women, students, farmers all participated.
Non-Cooperation Movement has two kinds of programme i.e. negative and positive.
Negative aspects includes :
- The boycott of legislative Councils.
- The boycott of the law-courts by the lawyers.
- The boycott of government schools & colleges.
- The boycott of British goods.
Positive aspects includes :
- Hindu Muslim Unity.
- Removal of Untouchability.
- Promotion of Swadeshi products.
- Prohibition of Intoxicating drinks.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow :
(a) Identify the organization associated with the above emblem. Mention any three principles of this organization. 
(b) Where is the headquarters of this organization located ? Who can become its member ? 
(c) Name the principal judicial organ of this organization and explain its composition. 
(a) The United Nation Organization (UNO).
The Principals of the organization are as follows :
- To save succeeding generations from the “Scourge of War’.
- To maintain international peace and security and to take effective measures for removal of threats to the peace.
- To promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.
(b) (i) New York City, USA.
(ii) All peace loving states which accept the obligations contained in the U.N. Charter can become the member of UNO. Admissions are made by the General Assembly on the recommendation of security council.
(c) International court of justice is the principal judicial organ of UNO.
Its Composition :
- It is composed of 15 judges elected for a 9 year term.
- The judges are elected by both security council and General Assembly by a majority vote.
- To maintain the continuity, one-third of the court i.e. five judges, are elected every three years.
- The court elects its President and Vice-President for three years. It also has power to appoint its Registrar.
With reference to the Cold War and the Non-Aligned Movement, answer the following questions :
(a) Explain Truman’s Doctrine. 
(b) State any three consequences of the Cold War. 
(c) Mention four major objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement. 
(a) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(b) Three Consequences of the Cold War:
- Formation of Military Alliances: The cold war led to the formation of various alliances—NATO, (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization), CENTO (Central Treaty Organization), Warsaw Pact etc.
- Arms race and Militarization: The cold war set in motion a mad race for armaments. Both the blocs spent huge sums on arms and amassed deadly weapons.
- Rapid Decolonization: An impact of East-West rivarly was rapid decolonization of many countries. The Eastern Bloc attacked Western powers for not liberating their colonies. It also rendered military and Moral support to wars of national liberation.
(c) Objectives of NAM:
- To preserve the freedom of the new nations from colonial and alien dominations.
- To protect human rights and to protect the environment.
- To eliminate all causes leading to war and in particular to eliminate nuclear weapons.
- To promote freedom to pursue a free domestic and foreign policy.
- To settle international disputes in a peaceful manner.
- To promote equality among individuals as well as among nations and to condemn all forms of discrimination especially the racial discrimination.
- To ensure a safer and peaceful world and to afford new opportunities in the development of one’s own country without endangering world peace. .
- To help the United Nations to be strong and effective.
- To save the new nations from falling by preying to the supremacy of the Super Powers.
- To establish a just economic order in order to bridge the gulf between the poor and the rich. (any four)