ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2011
ICSE Paper 2011
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Name the main constituents of the Indian Parliament. 
(b) Elections in India are held by secret ballot. Give a reason for the same. 
(c) Mention any one circumstance when the Parliament can make laws on a state subject. 
(d) A Legislative Assembly has 230 members. How many members need to be present in order to enable the House to transact its business ? 
(e) Mention one circumstance when the President can appoint the Prime Minister using his discretionary power. 
(f) Why is an ordinance issued by a Governor regarded as a temporary measure even though it has the same force as an Act of the State Legislature ? 
(g) Who can increase the number of Judges of the Supreme Court ? 
(h) What is meant by the original Jurisdiction of the High Court ? 
(i) Who administers the oath of office to the High Court Judges ? 
(j) Mention one reason why the system of Lok Adalat has become popular. 
(a) The Indian Parliament comprises the President and the two Houses of Parliament; the House of the People (the Lok Sabha) and the Council of States (the Rajya Sabha).
(b) The secret ballot system has been devised so that the voters may cast their votes freely in favour of a candidate of their choice without any fear.
(c) The Parliament can make laws on a-state subject during the proclamation of Emergency.
(d) The quorum of the Legislative Assembly is one-tenth of its total members i.e.,
1/10 × 230 = 23 members.
The Speaker may adjourn the House or suspend the meeting if there is no requisite quorum.
(e) If no political party gets a clear majority in Lok Sabha, the President can appoint such a person as the Prime Minister who, he feels, can provide a stable government to country.
(f) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(h) Original jurisdiction means the court has the power to hear a case and decide it before any review is made by another court. Trail courts have the original jurisdiction in the cases brought before them, However, the Supreme Court also has original jurisdiction at the same time with some lower courts. This means a case can be brought directly to the Supreme Court for resolution.
(j) (1) The Lok Adalats work in the spirit of compromise and understanding. As a result, both the parties feel satisfied.
(2) Lok Adalats deliver fast and inexpensive justice.
(a) There were various factors that promoted the growth of Nationalism in India in the 19th century. Give the meaning of ‘Nationalism’ in this context. 
(b) Mention any two factors that helped in the growth of nationalism. 
(c) Mention two objectives of the Congress as enumerated by W.C. Bonnerjee. 
(d) Mention the popular ‘watchwords’ during the French Revolution which influenced us Indians due to the introduction of Western Education in India. 
(e) Mention any two achievements of the Moderates. 
(f) When was Bengal partitioned ? Name the viceroy responsible for it. 
(g) Mention two contributions of Subhash Chandra Bose to India’s freedom struggle. 
(h) State two underlying Principles of Fascism. 
(i) What is meant by the term ‘Veto Power’ which is enjoyed by the permanent members of the Security Council ? 
(j) What are the basic principles of Non Alignment or Panchsheel ? 
(a) It is a feeling of oneness which the people feel about a nation. Nationalism is a phenomenon which appeared in the world history after the close of the middle age. Nationalism was a result of new social and economic forces which had put an end to feudalism.
(b) 1. Introduction of western education.
2. Development of transport and communication.
(c) The objectives of the Indian National Congress were as follows:
- To promote close relations among the Nationalist workers of the country.
- To develop and consolidate the feelings of national unity among the people without any consideration of caste, religion or region.
(d) Liberty, Equality and Freternity.
(e) (i) They popularised the ideas pf democracy and civil liberty among the people,
(ii) They exposed the true nature of the British rule in India.
(f) Lord Curzon announced the Partition of Bengal on July 20, 1905 and divided Bengal into two parts : Eastern Bengal and Assam and the rest of Bengal.
(g) Contributions of Subhash Chandra Bose: Subhash Chandra Bose was a diehard Freedom fighter and a Nationalist.
- He started a new party called Forward Bloc by bringing all the left wing parties under one roof.
- He gave the call to his countrymen “You give me blood and I will give you Freedom”. He gave the clarion call to INA soldiers ‘Delhi Chalo’ as their ultimate destination.
(h) (1) The interests of the State were superior to the rights of the citizen.
(2) Aggressive Nationalism (State worship, leader worship, war worship.)
(i) If one of the five permanent members of the security council cast a negative vote on any proposal then the proposal is dropped or nullified. This power is called as Veto or rejecting power.
(j) The principles of Panchsheel are:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality for mutual benefit and
- Peaceful co-existence.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any five questions from this Part.
Keeping in view the powers of the Union Parliament, answer the following questions:
(a) Mention three of its Legislative Powers. 
(b) Mention three of its Financial Powers. 
(c) Mention four of its Administrative or Executive Powers. 
(a) Legislative Powers:
The Parliament is competent to make laws on:
- Matters in the Union List: The Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws on all the 97 subjects mentioned in the Union List, including important subjects like Defence, Communications, Foreign Policy, etc.
- Matters in the Concurrent List: Along with the State Legislative Assemblies, the Parliament can make laws on the 47 subjects listed in the Concurrent List. If there is a conflict between the Union Parliament and the State Legislature on any law on this list, the Union Law will prevail.
- Residuary Powers: The Parliament possesses residuary powers. It means that it can make laws with respect to all those matters which are not mentioned in any of union list, the state list and even in the concurrent list.
(b) Financial Powers:
- The Budget: The Parliament passes the Union budget containing the estimates of receipts and expenditure of the Government for a financial year. The budget is presented in two parts—the Railway budget and the General budget.
- Supplementary grants: If the amount authorized for the current financial year is not sufficient the Government may make a fresh demand known as the supplementary grants.
- Votes of Account: This authorized the executive to draw funds from the consolidated fund until the budget is passed by the parliament.
(c) Administrative or Executive Powers:
- Interpolation: In Question Hour, the first hour of a sitting in both Houses is allotted for asking questions from the government. The questions are asked to obtain information on a matter of public importance or to highlight a grievance. It is a valuable device against injustice and slackness of the government.
- Vote of No-Confidence: If a Government acts against the Constitutional provision, it can be voted out of office by passing a vote of no-confidence against the Prime Minister, or the Ministry as a whole or any of its members. In such a case, the whole Ministry has to resign.
- Other Motions of Censure: The Parliament exercises its control over the Government by other motions which, if passed, amount to no-confidence. They include: motions of censure against a minister/ ministers, rejection of a Government Bill, passing of a private member’s bill against the wishes of the Government, etc.
- Monetary Controls: During the budget session a cut motion may be moved. Parliamentary Committee on Public Accounts ensures that public money is spent in accordance with Parliament’s decision. It examines reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
The Governor is a constitutional head of a state. In this context, explain:
(a) The manner of appointment and term of office of the Governor. 
(b) The ‘Governor’s Address’. 
(c) The Executive powers of the Governor with reference to:
(ii) Right to be informed. 
Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
The Supreme Court is the apex court of our country. In this context, explain the following:
(a) The composition of the Supreme Court of India. 
(b) The meaning of independence of the judiciary and the need to do so. 
(c) The manner in which the constitution seeks to maintain the independence of the judiciary. 
(a) Composition: The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice of India and not more than twenty five other judges, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number. The chief justice of the supreme court with the prior consent of the President may appoint some judges to the supreme court on an adhoc (temporary) basis.
(b) An independent judiciary means a justice system that is not influenced by either the legislative or executive branch. It is free to make decisions based upon law, not upon men or pressure from other groups. An independent judiciary is created to guarantee equal justice to all. Judges and juries are free from influence and can make fair and honest decisions about cases.
(c) Independence of Judiciary:
The Constitution of India ensures the independence of the Judiciary through the following measures:
(i) appointment of judges;
(ii) removal of judges;
(iii) security of tenure of the judges;
(iv) security of salaries and service conditions;
(v) freedom to announce decisions and decrees in the court;
(vi) punishment for contempt of court;
(vii) no discussion in the legislature on the conduct of judges; and
(viii) prohibition of practice after retirement.
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
The First War of Independence of 1857 was a culmination of people’s dissatisfaction with the British rule. In this context enumerate the following causes :
(a) Military causes 
(b) Economic causes 
(c) Political causes. 
(a) Military Causes:
- Low salary and poor prospects of promotion.
- Disproportion between Indian and British troops.
- Social distance between officers and Indian soldiers.
- Loss of British prestige in Afghan War.
- General Service Enlistment Act by which Indians enlisted in British Army could be sent overseas.
(b) Economic Causes:
- The British Government restrictions on the import of Indian textiles besides imposing heavy import duties on such goods.
- India was forced to export raw materials like raw cotton and raw silk at cheaper rates that the British industries needed urgently; plantation products (like indigo, tea); and food grains which were in short supply in Britain.
- The British Company confiscated the jagirs of many landlords and taluqars.
(c) Political Causes:
- The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large number of rulers and chiefs. The vigorous application of the policies of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse angered the ruling sections of the society. Rani Lakshmi Bai and Nana Sahib became bitter enemies of the British and led to the revolt in their respective territories.
- The annexation of Awadh, on grounds of misgovernment, was greatly resented. The Nawabs of Awadh had always been loyal to the British. The annexation was widely seen as a blatant act of back-stabbing by the British. It deeply hurt the sentiments of the Company’s sepoys because most of them came from Awadh.
- Moreover, even under the new regime, the people of Awadh got no relief from oppression. Peasants had to pay even higher revenue and additional taxes were imposed.
- The British provided no alternative source of employment to the people who lost their jobs due to the dissolution of the Nawab’s administration.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was significant in the History of the National Movement. In this context write briefly on the following points:
(a) The circumstances leading to the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
(b) The Second Round Table Conference. 
(c) The Gandhi-Irwin Pact. 
(a) The Indian National Congress in its Lahore session had declared “Poorna Swaraj” or Complete Independence as its ultimate goal. Earlier the Indian demand of Dominion status was rejected by Lord Irwin. The British rulers were in no mood to relent. Against this background, Gandhiji had written a letter to Viceroy Irwin urging him to implement eleven point programme for fulfilling people’s welfare. On receiving a negative response from the Viceroy, the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji. It aimed at forcing the government to meet the Indian demands.
(b) The Second Round Table Conference of 1931: Gandhiji was chosen as the sole representative of the Congress for the Second Round Table Conference. The Conference devoted most of its time to the communal question and the representation of minorities—the Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians and Anglo Indians—in legislatures, both at the centre and in the provinces. Gandhiji was disgusted to find that most leaders seemed concerned only about seats in legislature for their respective communities. The question of Independence or of setting up a responsible government receded into background. Gandhiji returned “empty handed” to India.
(c) Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931: The repressive and harsh measures used by the British to crush the Civil Disobedience Movement could not suppress the spirit of the people. The government released Gandhiji for negotiating with Viceroy Lord Irwin. After long discussions Gandhiji and Lord Irwin signed a pact on 5 March 1931, popularly called as Gandhiji-Irwin pact. According to it, Lord Irwin agreed:
- To release all the political prisoners except those convicted for violence and killing.
- To permit peaceful picketing of the shops selling foreign goods.
- To permit Indians living near sea shore to manufacture salt without paying duty.
- To withdraw the ordinances promulgated during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
On the other hand, Gandhiji agreed :
- To suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- To stop boycott of British goods.
- To attend Second Round Table conference for resolving Indian Political Problem.
(a) Identify the event in the below picture. Name the Lady seen in the given picture. Mention the year when the event took place. 
(b) What were the main provisions of the Indian Independence Act ? 
(c) Mention the reasons that made the Congress accept the Partition Proposals. 
(a) The event is the swearing in ceremony of Jawahar Lal Nehru as the Prime Minister of Independent India. The Lady is Lady Mountbatten the wife of the first Governer General of India Lord Mountbatten. The year is 1947.
- Two New Dominions
India would be partitioned and two independent Dominions—India and Pakistan—would be created from August 15, 1947. The Act provided legislative supremacy of both the Dominions. The territories of the two Dominions were divided in such terms that Pakistan would comprise Sindh, British Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province, the West Punjab and East Bengal. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in British India. The exact boundaries of the Dominions would be determined by a Boundary Commission.
- Provisions of Partition
(a) Both Bengal and Punjab would be divided if so desired by the people. The Provincial Assemblies of the two parts would meet separately representing Hindu majority districts and Muslim majority districts and would decide through majority vote whether they wanted the division of the province or not.
(b) A plebiscite would be held in NWFP as well as in Sylhet distict (Muslim majority area) in East Bengal to determine whether they would like to join Pakistan or India. (Both these provinces joined West and East Pakistan respectively.)
- Governor-General for Each Dominion
There would be a Governor-General who would be appointed by the British King on the advice of the Cabinet of the concerned Dominion. This arrangement would work till the framing of the Constitutions.
- Constituent Assemblies to Serve as Central Legislatures
The Constituent Assemblies of both the dominions were to act as the Central Legislatures and would have full powers to make laws for their respective Dominion. They would act. as sovereign bodies for legislative purposes.
(c) Acceptance by the Congress : The Congress accepted the plan on the following grounds :
- The delay of British rule was harmful for India. The British incited the native rulers to remain independent. The Congress realized that it would be better to accept partition of the country.
- It thought that united India was better than a bigger disorganized country.
- The Congress thought it would not be possible to run the administration jointly because of the interference by the Leagues.
- The communal riots that took place left the Congress with no alternative but to accept the partition of the country.
- The Congress leaders felt that partition would rid the constitution of separate electorates and India could then evolve a secular and democratic policy.
With reference to the First World War answer the following questions:
(a) Explain any three causes of the First World War. 
(b) Mention three points under the Treaty of Versailles, which affected Germany. 
(c) What were the objectives of the League of Nations ? Name the organization formed in October, 1945 with objectives similar to those of the League of Nations. 
(a) Three causes of the First World War (1914):
- Militant Nationalism and Mutual Rivalries: Each nation thought about her own national interest. Nationalism had become competitive and aggressive. The spirit of Nationalism was a strong driving force in European politics of the 19th century. Thus the whole atmosphere was charged with narrow militant nationalism and inter-state rivalries.
- Europe Divided into Power Blocs: In Europe, there existed single nation states like France, Holland, Germany. There also existed some imperial states like Austria Hungarians empire, which included nationalities like Serbs, Hungarians, Bosanions and the Croats. There was the Russia empire which included Polish Ukranian, Turkish and Mages people. Great Britain was also a colonial empire. The major European nation were divided into two Bloc’s. Germany, Austria, Hungary and Italy had made the Triple Alliance in 1882 A.D. and the Dual Alliance united France and Russia. At the dawn of the 20th Century Europe was divided into two hostile camps. Tension prevailed in their relations with each other, bloc-wise.
- The immediate cause: The Sarajevo Incident: In June 1914, The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, The Heir-Apparent to the throne of Austria went to Sarajevo, the Capital of Bosnia, on an official visit. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife were shot dead. The assassin, Gavrilo Princep, was a nineteen years old Bosnian student. This dual murder had been planned in Serbia by a secret society of patriotic terrorists called the “Black hand”. The Austrians blamed the Serbians for this crime, as the assassin and fellow conspirators had received their guns and bombs in Serbian Capital with the help of Serbian officials.
- The Treaty of Versailles declared Germany guilty of aggression.
- Germany was required to pay for the loss and damages suffered by the allies during the war. Germany had to cede her merchant ship to the allies as compensation. It had to supply huge quantities of coal to France, Italy and Belgium for 10 years.
- The area of Rhine Valley was to be demilitarized and German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the allied troops for 15 years.
- Germany lost Alsace Lorraine to France and Malmedy to Belgium, Schieswig to Denmark; Dazling become a free port in polish territory. (any three)
(c) All the States of the world were prohibited from entering into any Secret Treaties and alliances. The member states were not supposed to maintain huge army worship and destructive armament. All states were to respect each other’s independence. All states were to be refer their mutual disputes if any, to the league of nation for a peaceful settlement. The member states were to take necessary action as directed by the League against any state which tried to disturb world peace and order. Apart from the political function the League of Nation won supposed to promote cultural social and economic cooperation among the member states.
The United Nation organisation was formed on 24 October, 1945 with objectives similar to those of the League of Nation.
State how each of the following factors were the causes of the Second World War:
(a) The failure of the League of Nations. 
(b) The Aggressive Nationalism of Germany. 
(c) The Policy of Appeasement. 
(a) Failure of the League of Nations:
- All the great powers were not its members. The United States was not a member at all. In 1925, Germany joined the organization while Russia was allowed entry in 1934. Later, both Germany and Japan left the League. The League, therefore, lacked universal representation.
- The permanent members always opposed decisions which went against their own interests.
(b) Aggressive Nationalism of Germany: Germany’s desire to become a world power and the adoption of policy of militarisation greatly contributed to the Second World War. Hitler, after gaining power, embarked on the path of expansion of German Empire. He annexed Austria, occupied Rhineland and proceeded to occupy Czechoslovakia. Thereafter, he set his eyes on Danzia and Poland. It was the aggressive nationalism of Hitler which led to the Second World War.
(c) Policy of Appeasement: Appeasement meant a policy of conciliating an aggressive power at the expense of some other country. The Western Powers followed the policy of appeasement because they felt that the dictators had a real cause of grievance and if their grievances were removed they would leave others alone. The Western Powers wanted to check the rising tide of Communism and Russian Bolshevism. They, therefore allowed Germany to re-arm and to remilitarise the Rhineland and capture Austria and Czechoslovakia. But for the Western countries policy of appeasement, Fascism or Nazism could not have survived so long and would not have been able to unleash the Second World War. The League of Nations watched helplessly when Italy attacked and annexed Abyssinia.
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