ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2010
ICSE Paper 2010
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Mention any one situation when both the houses of Parliament meet for a joint session. 
(b) How can the Vidhan Parishad be created ? 
(c) Mr. Gurudev was nominated by the President to the Rajya Sabha. Mention any one criterion on which the President would have nominated him. How many such members can the President nominated to the Rajya Sabha ? 
(d) Mention one difference between the election of the President and the Vice President of India. 
(e) State one point of difference between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers with reference to their responsibilities in the Government. 
(f) Who give assent to a bill that is passed by the state legislature for it to become an Act ? 
(g) What happens to the ruling government when a vote of no-confidence is passed against it ? 
(h) What is meant by Judicial Review ? 
(i) Why is the Supreme Court said to be the guardian of the Constitution ? 
(j) Mention the three types of courts that a district usually has. 
(a) If there is deadlock between the two houses while passing an Ordinary bill in the parliament, the President calls for joint session of both the houses.
(b) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(c) Mr. Gurudev must be from among, the persons having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, art, science and social service. 12 Members can the President nominated to the Rajya Sabha.
|(1) President is elected by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the Parliament and the elected members of the state legislative assemblies too.||(1) Vice President is elected by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the Parliament only.|
|(2) Name to be proposed by 50 members and seconded by another 50.||(2) Name to be proposed by 20 members and seconded by another 20.|
(e) (i) In day to day functioning of the government the cabinet advises the president and not the council.
(ii) Cabinet meets regularly for the policies and programmes of the government while council meets rarely. (any one)
(f) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(g) When a vote of no-confidence is passed against it such a government has lost the confidence of the house then it has to resign.
(h) Judicial Review: The Supreme Court has the power to review any judgement pronounced or order made by it. It is not bound by its own decisions and orders. It possesses the rights to review the judgement and, if found necessary, it reverses the earlier decisions. Both the Supreme Court and the High Courts are empowered to declare any law or act of any body or individual ultra vires if it violates the spirit of the constitution.
(i) Supreme Court is the protector and the final interpreter of the constitution. Any citizen whose fundamental rights are violated may move to the Supreme Court for the enforcement of his rights. That is why it is said to be the guardian of the constitution.
(j) Civil Courts, Criminal Courts and Court of revenue.
(a) Why did the Doctrine of Lapse become a political cause for the result of 1857 ? 
(b) Mention the regional association that each nationalist was associated with :
(i) Surendranath Banerji
(ii) Dadabhai Naoroji 
(c) What were the two methods adopted by the radical nationalists in the freedom struggle ? 
(d) How did Lord Curzon justify the Partition of Bengal ? 
(e) How did the Hindu-Urdu controversy become an important factor in the formation of the Muslim League ? 
(f) Mention two contributions of INA (Indian National Army) to the Indian freedom movement. 
(g) How much did Germany have to pay as war reparation charges according to the Treaty of Versailles ? 
(h) Mention the Big Five countries that constitute the permanent members of the Security Council. 
(i) Mention two underlying similarities between Fascism and Nazism. 
(j) Mention two rival military alliances that were formed as an impact of the Cold War. Name the respective blocs they belonged to. 
(a) According to Doctrine, if a ruler died without an heir to succeed him his adopted son neither inherit the throne nor the title, and in such cases, the state was to be annexed to the British empire in India. This caused a lot of discontent among Indians. States which became victims to this doctrine are Jhansi, Satara, Jaitpur, Sambalpur, Udaipur and Nagpur.
(b) (i) Indian Association 1876—In Bengal.
(ii) East India Association 1866—In London.
(c) Swadeshi and Boycott, national education and passive resistance.
(d) Lord Curzons Argument: The area of Bengal was too large and it was difficult for the British to administer efficiently. Hence according to Lord Curzon, Partition of Bengal was a administrative necessity.
(e) Urdu was used as a court language in the United Province (U.P.). On a demand in 1900, all petitions were allowed to be submitted in Hindi, this caused resentment among Muslims leading to formation of the league.
(f) Contributions of INA:
- The INA uprisings inspired the Naval revolts in Bombay in February 1946.
- Trial of INA officers attracted sympathy and British had to set them free though they were found to be guilty.
(g) 33 billion dollars.
(h) Britain, China, France, Russia and USA.
(i) The two similarities between Fascism and Nazism are:
- Both Mussolini and Hitler aimed at restoring the status and dignity of their nations by making them strong powers.
- Both aimed at providing strong, stable and efficient Governments.
- Both uphold one party and one man rule, to believe in aggression, to glorify war, anti-democracy. (any two)
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
The Legislative Council in the States and the Rajya Sabha are Permanent Houses. With reference to the two Houses answer the following questions :
(a) Mention two ways in which Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Council can control the Executive. Explain one of its limitations in this regard. 
(b) How many members constitute the Rajya Sabha ? How many members does the Governor nominate to the Vidhan Parishad ? How are the members elected to the Rajya Sabha. 
(c) Mention four special powers of the Rajya Sabha. 
(a) They control through the means of
(i) interpellation question hours
(ii) debates and moving adjournment motion.
Limitation: They can not pass a motion such as the no-confidence and bring down the government.
(b) Rajya Sabha has 250 members 238 members are elected by the states and the union territories and 12 of them arg nominated by the President of India.
One sixth members of the house are nominated by the Governor to the Vidhan Parishad.
The members in Rajya Sabha are elected by the state legislative assemblies in accordance with the single transferable vote. Representation of UTs depends on parliament.
(c) Four special powers of the Rajya Sabha:
- Rajya Sabha may declare the creation of a new All India service.
- No laws on any subject list can be made by Lok Sabha without a 2/3rd majority of the Rajya Sabha.
- In case of an emergency it shoulders all the responsibilities.
- It may declare that Parliament should make laws with respect to a matter in the state list.
The President of India is a nominal and constitutional head of the nation. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) Why is the President of India referred to as a nominal head of the State ? State two examples of his legislative powers that suggest his nominal status. 
(b) Mention the circumstances when the President can declare a national emergency. 
(c) Explain two Discretionary powers of the President. 
(a) President of India is referred to as a nominal head of the state because he exercises most of his powers on the advice given to him by the Prime minister and his council. Legislative Powers :
- Assenting a bill passed by the houses.
- Ordinances need to be passed by the houses or else will become null and void.
- Declaration of emergency must be approved by the houses.
(b) A proclamation of emergency can be made by the President at any time if he is satisfied that the security of India or any part is in danger, or is likely to be in danger either due to war or external aggression or armed rebellion.
(c) Two Discretionary powers of the President:
- He has a very important role to play in the actual working of the Parliamentary system in our country. The oath of office which the President takes in the name of God on assuming his office puts upon him a sacred obligation to be the guardian of the constitution and law. His oath binds him to render service for the well being of the people of India.
- In the case of no single party getting a clear majority, a coalition of parties makes its claim to form the Government. The President has to use his discretionary judgement and invite such a leader to head the Government as Prime Minister who can provide a stable Government to the country. His judgement and decision are of crucial importance.
The Supreme Court is the apex court in the entire judicial set up in India. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) What is meant by the term Single-integrated judicial system ? 
(b) Explain the impeachment procedure for the removal of judges. 
(c) In the extensive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court state the difference between the original jurisdiction and the appellate jurisdiction. Mention two functions that come under Original jurisdiction. 
(a) Single-integrated Judicial System: The parts of the system are :
- Supreme Court is the head of the entire system, supervises and exercises control over the Subordinate courts.
- There are same set of laws and a single civil and criminal system throughout the country.
- All cases can be taken from lower to high court and then to the Supreme Court.
(b) A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office only on the ground of proved misbehaviour or ‘incapacity’. Procedure for the removal has been prescribed in the Constitution itself. In order to remove a Judge of the Supreme Court, each House of Parliament will have to pass a resolution supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a 2/3 majority of the members of that House present and voting. Such a resolution passed by the both the Houses will be addressed to the President, who will then pass the order of removal of the Judge.
|Original Jurisdiction||Appellate Jurisdiction|
|Original jurisdiction means power to hear and determine cases in first instances.||It means the court has a power to grant special leave to appeal against the judgement delivered by any court in the country. Such cases brought before the supreme court only through an appeal.|
Functions that comes under Original Jurisdiction:
- A dispute between the Government of India and one or more states.
- Disputes between two or more states.
- A Dispute between the Union and any state on the one side and other states on the other.
- The Supreme Court entertains suits for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights also. Such suits can be brought by private individuals against the Union Government or a State Government.
- Original Jurisdiction extends to such other cases in which an Interpretation of the Constitution is involved. (any two)
Attempt any three questions from this Section.
From 1905 to 1918, there emerged a new and a younger group of leaders within the Congress who did not agree with the old leadership. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Differentiate between the Moderates and the Radical nationalists in their objectives and achievements, stating one objective and two achievements of each wing of the Congress. 
(b) Name the radical leader known as the forerunner of Gandhiji. Why is the person known as the forerunner of Gandhiji ? 
(c) Explain how the Repressive policies of Lord Curzon and influence of International events led to Radical nationalism. 
(a) Objectives of Moderates: The ultimate objective of the Moderates was to bring constitutional and other reforms in India by presenting their demands before the British in peaceful way.
Achievements of Moderates:
- The moderates saved the Indian masses from being misled. They succeeded in creating national awakening by arousing among people the feeling that they belonged to one common nation India.
- They popularized the idea of democracy and civil liberties and representative institution. The efforts of the moderates led to the following reforms :
The appointment of Public Service Commission in 1886, Simultaneous ICS Examination in London and India, Appointment of 10 to 16 Additional members which were nominated to the G.Gs Council for Law making, The Government come out with the Indian Council Act in 1892 which was an improvement of the Act of 1861 due to the pressure put by the moderates.
Objectives of Radical nationalists: They believed in the ultimate objective of Swaraj or self-rule. They wanted to put pressure on England through revolutionary methods and political agitation.
Achievements of Radicals :
(i) They specified the goal of the national struggle for achieving total independence.
(ii) They tried to cripple the administration by using methods of non-cooperation and boycott.
(b) Forerunner—Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Tilak is known as the forerunner of Mahatma Gandhi because the plank of Swadeshi and Boycott used by Gandhiji decades later had been introduced by Tilak. Like Gandhiji he too believed in the strength of the masses and wanted to include all classes of the society to make the National movement strong.
Although Tilak was the forerunner of Gandhi yet he differed in respect of methods in achieving goal. While Tilak wanted to use all means to achieve his goal but Gandhiji did not advocate the use of force or violence to achieve the goals.
(c) Repressive Policies of Lord Curzon:
(i) The Act of 1898 made it an offence to provoke people against imperial riders.
(ii) In 1899, Lord Curzon passed the Calcutta Corporation Act by which he increased the number of Englishmen on the list of official members of the corporation.
International Events : The feelings of nationalism were reinforced by certain events in the international sphere. In 1896, the Italian forces which tried to establish their military control over the freedom loving Abyssinians of Ethiopia were defeated. Japan successfully resisted the Russian onslaught in 1904-1905. This showed that Asians could defeat the European powers. In Russia, revolutionaries challenged the Czarist autocracy in 1905, thereby demonstrating the potential of peoples unity. The Boxer Rising in China against imperialist domination was another example of the courage of subjugated people. The revolutionary movements in Egypt, Turkey and Ireland were also followed with deep interest by the radical section in India. All these events made them realise that imperialism could be crushed, provided the people were united.
The Simon Commission was appointed in November 1927 by the British Government. Subsequently the Civil Disobedience Movement began. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) Why was the Simon Commission appointed by the British Government ? Why did the Congress boycott the Commission ? 
(b) The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji with his famous Dandi March on 12th March 1930. Mention the significance of this historic event. 
(c) Why did Gandhiji call off the Civil Disobedience Movement and later renew it? 
(a) In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, known popularly (after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon) as the Simon Commission, to investigate the need of further constitutional reform. The Congress boycott the commission because :
- It was an all-white commission and no Indian was associated with it.
- The self-respect of the Indian was hurt. Indians throught that its composition was a deliberate attempt to insult Indians.
(b) Significance of the Dandi March:
- The British Government was put out of gear in many places. For example, Midnapore in Bengal, went out of control of the Government.
- Peasents in the United Provinces refused to pay taxes.
- It abolish the monopoly of the British over salt.
(c) The movement was suspended by Gandhiji as per the Gandhi-Irwin pact signed between the Viceroy and Gandhiji. In this pact with Irwin agreed to some of the demands of Gandhiji e.g., abolition of salt tax, release political prisoners etc. Therefore Gandhiji agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and attend the Second Round Table Conference in London.
When Gandhiji returned from London, Gandhiji renewed the movement because of the failure of the 2nd Round table conference, he also sought an interview with viceroy Willington in India on his return and was refused, so he renewed the movement.
In the above historic photograph, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, is seen giving his famous speech in the Constituent Assembly on August 14, 1947. In this context, answer the following:
(a) Mention the Provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947 regarding the Constituent Assemblies. 
(b) Discuss three basic reasons why the Cabinet Mission Plan rejected the demand for Pakistan. 
(c) Mention four important reasons for the All-Indian Congress Committee accepting the Mountbatten Plan. 
(a) (i) It made a provision for the creation of two Independent Dominions by 15th August, 1947 to be known as Indian and Pakistan. East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, North-West Frontier Province and the district of Sylhet (Assam) would be part of Pakistan. All the remaining territories included in British India would be part of India.
(ii) They would act as central legislatures and would have full power to make laws.
(iii)The present Constituent Assembly would continue to work and draft a Constitution for India, while Pakistan would have a separate Constituent Assembly.
(b) (i) The establishment of Pakistan would not solve the problem of communal minorities.
(ii) There was no justification for including within Pakistan, the non-Muslim districts of Bengal, Assam and the Punjab.
(iii) It would involve dislocation of communication network and division of armed forces.
(c) The Congress accepted the Mountbatten plan due to following reasons:
- The Muslim League had obstructed the smooth functioning of the Interim Government earlier so it was difficult for Congress to accept it as an ally in Government.
- A smaller united and strong India was better than a big but weak country.
- Large scale communal riots and loss of lives and property had clearly shown that much more bloodshed will occur if partition was done.
- Any further delay in the transfer of power could bring civil war in India as British were instigating the rulers of the native states for freedom.
- The Congress felt that partition would do away with communal electorates and other undemocratic procedures.
The United Nations apart from its main organs also work through its allied agencies. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Write the expanded form of UNESCO. Mention two of its functions in the field of education. 
(b) Explain three vital roles that the WHO plays in combating diseases. 
(c) Mention four functions of the Security Council in maintaining peace. 
(a) UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Functions of UNESCO in the field of Education:
- Removal of illiteracy by encouraging adult education, distance education and open school system.
- Emphasis on education of women and girls.
- Financial Assistance for the disable children.
- Grants and fellowship to teachers and scholars, organized library system and promote international understanding.
- Organizes book fairs and festivals. (any two)
(b) (i) It helps the countries to build up infrastructure in health.
(ii) It promotes research for developing new technologies in health, nutrition, maternal and child care etc.
(iii) It provides safe drinking water.
(iv) It organizes immunizations to prevent six major communicable diseases like Polio, Diphtheria, Measles, Tetanus, Tuberculosis and Whooping Cough.
(v) It prevents death among infants from diarrhoea.
(vi) It trains medical personnel to tackle emergency situations in relation to health.
(vii) It sets standards for many life saving drugs.
(viii)It provides information and consultation on health matters and health awareness. (any three)
(c) Functions of the Security Council:
- To investigate the dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.
- To recommend ways of adjusting, or settling such disputes according to the terms of the settlement.
- To make plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments. To determine the existence of a threat to peace, or an act of aggression and to suggest what remedial action should be taken.
- To make military action against an aggressor. (any three)
There were several far reaching consequences as a result of the First World War. In this context, answer the following:
(a) Explain how World War I brought about a changed political scenario of the world. 
(b) What did France gain from the Treaty of Versailles ? 
(c) How was the war responsible for the rise of Fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively ? 
(a) (i) Three ruling dynasties were destroyed Romonov, Hohenzollern and Hapsburg.
(ii) Rule of Ottomans came to an end.
(iii) Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yogoslavia became separate independent states.
(b) (i) It was given full control over the rich coal mines in the Saar basin although the area was governed by the League of Nations.
(ii) It was also given some regions of Togo and Cameroons (South East Africa).
(iii) Alsace-Lorraine captured from France in the France-Russian war (1871) was returned to France.
(c) Rise of Fascism:
- Discontentment after the treaty of Versailles: Italy had joined the Anglo- French alliance against Germany and her allies in the First World War as Britain had promised large chunks of territory after their victory. However the promise went unkempt to a certain extent. She had only two islands in the Adriatic and Aegean seas. Among Italians there was a feeling of being let down.
- Economics crises in Germany and Italy, heavy losses, unemployment, shortage of food grains at the end of the war, thousands of soldiers in Italy had become unemployed. Industrialisation had not progressed and unemployment was on the rise. Even the unemployed working class felt the pinnacle of inflation with low wages and poor working conditions. There were frequent strikes and agrarian riots.
Rise of Nazism :
- The Germans felt hurt, anger and humiliation by the terms of the treaty of Versailles. They blamed the leaders of the Wiener Republic for accepting the heavy penalties imposed on her. All her colonies were taken away. Many of her territories were shared by the European powers. She was militarily weak.
- The first World War had ruined German economy. The heavy burden of war penalties had made her recovery more difficult. She had to borrow heavily from other countries. Inflation and unemployment went hand in hand. Thus between 1924 and 1933 the Nazi party ranks were swelling with German youth.
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