ICSE Previous Papers with Solutions for Class 10 History and Civics 2007
ICSE Paper 2007
HISTORY & CIVICS
Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately.
You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes.
This time is to be spent in reading the question paper.
The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers.
Attempt all questions from Part I (Compulsory). A total of five questions are to be attempted from Part II; two out of three questions from Section A and three out of five questions from Section B.
The intended marks for questions or parts of questions are given in brackets [ ].
PART I (30 Marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part.
(a) Name the body which elects the Rajya Sabha Members. 
(b) What is the maximum gap allowed between two parliamentary sessions ? 
(c) What is an ordinance ? 
(d) Mention two military powers of the President of India. 
(e) What is meant by the term Question hour in the context of parliamentary procedures in India ? 
(f) To whom is the Council of Ministers of a State responsible ? 
(g) How are the members of the State Legislative Assembly elected ? 
(h) Name the highest court dealing with civil cases at the District level. 
(i) What is meant by the term ‘every high court is a court of record’ ? 
(j) If the President of India considers that a question of law may be referred to the Supreme Court, under which jurisdiction will the Supreme Court express its opinion in the matter ? 
(a) State Legislative Assembly.
(b) Maximum 6 months.
(c) Ordinance: It is an order of the President when both houses of the parliament are not in session. The ordinance should be laid down before both the Houses when they reassemble.
(d) (i) The President is the supreme commander of the defence force of India.
(ii) He has the power to declare war or peace.
(e) Question hour is the First Hour of every working day of the house for both asking and answering of questions.
(f) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(g) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(h) The Court of the District Judge.
(i) It means that :
(i) Its judgements and orders are preserved as record.
(ii) If a person commits a contempt of High Court, the court has the authority to punish him.
(j) The President may obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court on a question of law or fact under Advisory Jurisdiction.
(a) Mention any two social evils that existed in India during the 19th century. What measures did the British Government take to stop them ? 
(b) State two factors responsible for the growth of Nationalism in India. 
(c) Name the nationalist who said “Swaraj is my birth-right.” Mention one contribution of his to the National Movement. 
(d) Why was the Rowlatt Act (1919) passed ? 
(e) Mention any two events which led to the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. 
(f) State any five objectives of the Muslim League. 
(g) What was the issue between Germany and Poland that was a cause of World War II ? 
(h) State any two similarities between Nazism and Fascism. 
(i) Which agency of the UN looks after the interests of the children in the world ? What was the original purpose of setting up this agency ? 
(j) State two reasons why Britain and France followed a policy of appeasement towards Germany in the 1930’s. 
(a) During the 19th century, the two social evils that existed in India were Sati Pratha and problems of widows as they were not permitted to remarry. The British Government passed the widow Re-marriage Act in 1856 and the Abolition of Sati Act in 1829 „to remove those evils.
(b) 1. Introduction of western education.
2. Development of transport and communication.
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
(i) In 1896 he led a ‘No Rent Campaign’ to expose the British who misruled our country.
(ii) He launched the Home Rule Movement which infused the nation with new strength and vigour. (any one)
(d) The Rowlatt Act (1919) was passed to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country. This act gave the authority to British Government, to attain and detain suspected Indians.
(e) The two events which led to the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 are as follows :
(i) Reaction against the Simon Commission and death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
(ii) Lahore session of the Congress in December, 1929 declared ‘Purna Swaraj’ as India’s goal.
(f) The aims of the Muslim league were:
- To promote feelings of loyalty among Indian Muslims towards the British Government.
- To protect the political and other rights of the Muslims and present them before the Government in mild language.
- To promote friendly feelings between Muslims and other communities of India without any harm to the objectives of the League.
- One of the main objectives of the Muslim League was to keep the Muslim intelligensia away from the mainstream of National Movement.
(g) In August 1939 Germany signed a Non-aggression Pact with Russia. Poland was accused of committing atrocities against Germans living there. On 1st Sept. 1939 German troops stormed into Poland. When Hitler was asked by England to vacate Poland he refused to do so. On Sept. 3, 1939. Britain and France declared a war against Germany and began to Second World War.
(h) The two similarities between Fascism and Nazism are:
- Both Mussolini and Hitler aimed at restoring the status and dignity of their nations by making them strong powers.
- Both aimed at providing strong, stable and efficient Governments.
- Both uphold one party and one man rule, to believe in aggression, to glorify war, anti-democracy. (any two)
(i) UNICEF (United Nations International Children Emergency Fund). The UNICEF was established in 1946 to deliver relief to Children and their Mothers immediately after the Second World War. The Original purpose of setting up this agency was to helped those countries, which were unable to meet the need of their children out of their own resource.
(j) Two Reasons:
- If Britain and France granted reasonable concession genuine grievances to Germany and Italy, they would be satisfied and would not do anything to disturb the peace of the world.
- The western power of Britain and France should start a vigorous programme of rearmament so that the dictators did not increase their demands any more.
PART II (50 Marks)
Attempt any two questions from this Section.
With reference to the functions of the Union Council of Ministers and State Council of Ministers, answer the following :
(a) Mention three important functions of the Prime Minister. 
(b) What is the difference between the Council of Ministers and the Cabinet in the Central Executive ? 
(c) How are the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister appointed at the Centre and State respectively ? 
(a) Three Functions of the Prime Minister:
- The Prime Minister presides at the cabinet meetings. He decides the agenda of the meetings.
- The Prime Minister, co-ordinates the working of various departments. He plays a special role in co-ordinating the policy of the Union.
- The Constitution imposes a duty on the Prime Minister to keep the President informed regarding the affairs of the Union.
(b) (i) The Council of Ministers consists of all categories of Ministers while the Cabinet consists of some senior Ministers.
(ii) The Council of Ministers is a large body, it meets occasionally while the Cabinet is a small and cohesive group, it meets frequently as possible.
(iii) The Council of Ministers can attend meeting only if invited to attend some particular meeting while the Cabinet Ministers attend meeting of the Cabinet in their own right.
(c) The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The leader of the political party securing absolute majority in the Lok Sabha is appointed by the President as the Prime Minister.
The leader of the majority party is invariably appointed by Governor as the Chief Minister. If no party commands a real majority, the governor shall have to exercise his personal judgement in selecting the Chief Minister.
With reference to the Executive Branch of the Government:
(a) Mention the common qualifications required to be eligible to become the President of India or the Governor of a State. 
(b) Explain the special powers of the Governor during the President’s Rule in a State. 
(c) Mention two Executive and two Legislative powers of the President of India. 
(a) He should be :
- a Citizen of India,
- should have completed the age of thirty-five years,
- should not hold any Office of Profit under the Government, and
- should not be a member of either House of Parliament or of State Legislature. If a member of Parliament or of State Legislature is appointed as Governor, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in the House on the date on which he enter upon his office.
(b) Answer has not given due to out of present syllabus.
(c) Two Executive Powers:
- All executive orders are issued in the name of the President. All the Union officials are his subordinates.
- The President appoints the Attorney-General of India, the Controller and Auditor-General of India, the judges of the Supreme Court and those of the High Courts, the Governors, Ambassadors and other Diplomatic Representatives of India abroad.
Two Legislative Powers:
- The President summons and prorogues the sessions of Parliament and may dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term on the advice of the Prime Minister.
- In case of a deadlock between the two Houses of Parliament on a Money Bill, the President may call a joint session of the Parliament and make rules for the transaction of business.
With reference to the powers and functions of the Supreme Court, answer the following:
(a) What is meant by Judicial Review and Original Jurisdiction ? 
(b) What is Appellate Jurisdiction ? Mention any two types of cases over which the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction. 
(c) (i) Why is the Judiciary kept independent from the control of the executive and legislature ?
(ii) What is the procedure for the removal of a Supreme Court Judge ? 
(a) Judicial Review: Judicial Review: The Supreme Court has the power to review any judgement pronounced or order made by it. It is not bound by its own decisions and orders. It possesses the rights to review the judgement and, if found necessary, it reverses the earlier decisions. Both the Supreme Court and the High Courts are empowered to declare any law or act of any body or individual ultra vires if it violates the spirit of the constitution.
Original Jurisdiction: The Original Jurisdiction extends to those cases which Supreme Court has authority to hear and decide in the first instance. The Supreme Court in its original jurisdiction entertains suits in the following cases:
- A dispute between the Government of India and one or more states.
- Disputes between two or more states.
- A Dispute between the Union and any state on the one side and other states on the other.
- The Supreme Court entertains suits for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights also. Such suits can be brought by private individuals against the Union Government or a State Government.
- Original Jurisdiction extends to such other cases in which an Interpretation of the Constitution is involved.
(b) The cases which come to the Supreme Court to appeal from the decision or order of High Court or a Tribunal in India come under as ‘Appellate Jurisdiction’. Two types of cases over Appellate Jurisdiction :
(i) Constitutional Cases: An appeal can lie to the Supreme Court from any ; judgment or order of a High Court, whether in civil, criminal or other
proceeding, if the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution.
(ii) Civil Cases: If the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law and the said questions needs to be decided by the Supreme Court then an appeal can lie to the Supreme Court.
(c) (i) Judiciary kept independent from the control of the executive and legislature because an independent judiciary alone can do justice. The judges are free to announce their decisions and decrees in the court chambers without any danger to their person, property or fame. Their decisions cannot be affected or criticized by any person of any possession and status, public and not even by press.
(ii) A Judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his office only on the ground of ‘Proved misbehaviour’ or ‘incapacity’. Procedure for the removal has been prescribed in the Constitution itself. In order to remove a Judge of the Supreme Court, each House of Parliament will have to pass a resolution supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a 2/3 majority of the members of that House present and voting; Such a resolution passed by both the Houses will be addressed to the President, who will then pass the order of removal of the Judge.
Several factors led to the revolt of 1857. With reference to this, explain each of the following:
(a) Discontentment of the Sepoys. 
(b) Resentment of the rulers of the native States against the British. 
(c) Unhappiness of the Indian Artisans and Craftsmen. 
(a) Indian soldiers were an integral part of the Indian society, they too suffered the consequences of the oppressive British rule. Besides, they had other grievances. The Indian sepoys were looked upon as inferior beings and treated with disrespect by their British officers. They were paid much less than the British soldiers. All avenues of the promotion were closed to them as all the higher army posts were reserved for the British.
There were other specific and more immediate causes for the discontent among the sepoys. The annexation of Awadh inflamed their strong feelings against foreign rule.
Finally, there occurred an incident, which sparked of the revolt. It was the introduction of the Enfield rifle with the Greased Cartridges. The cartridge for that gun contained some animal fat only it. To loads that cartidge in the gun, the soldier was required to use his teeth to tear of one end of the cartridge, At once, a rumor spread among the sepoys that the cartridge contained the fat of cows and pigs. It meant the loss of religion by the Hindus and Muslims alike. It made the sepoys furious. The British authorities forced the sepoys to use the cartridge. The sepoys saw a deep conspiracy to destroy their religious faiths.
(b) The British used very shrewd methods to gain control over the rulers of the native states. They struck at the very root of their existence, through the Doctrine of Lapse. According to this, if a ruler died without or heir, his adopted son could neither inherit the throne nor the title and the state would be annexed to the British empire using this policy Lord Dalhousie annexed Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur. And where this policy could not be applied, the pretext of mismanagement in the governance of the state was used as was done in the case of Oudh. This discriminating actions of the British caused widespread resentment among the native rulers.
(c) As a result of the British policy of making India a raw material producing country. Indian handicrafts and cottage industries were ruined. Thousands of craftsman and artisans were thrown out of employment. The manufacturers of silk and cotton goods got no profits from their work and began to look for other means of livelihood. The miserable condition of the workmen became a potent cause of resentment against the British rule.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
“…. the Indians who actively worked for the creation of an all-India political organization represented new social forces that were increasingly opposed to the exploitation of India for British interests. They needed an organization that would fight for India’s political and economic advancement. ” —From “Freedom Struggle”.
(a) (i) In the context of the above, identify the two individuals in Pictures 1 and 2, who were the early leaders of the organization to be formed.
(ii) How did the person in Picture 1 explain the economic exploitation of India for British interest ? 
(b) Name the organization which was to be formed. What were the objectives behind the formation of this political body ? 
(c) Explain the major ideological differences which emerged amongst the leaders within the first twenty years of the foundation of this organization. 
(a) (i) Picture 1: Dada Bhai Naoroji and
Picture 2: Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
(ii) He criticized British rule for its bad effect on Indian economy. Through his famous ‘Drain Theory’ Dada Bhai Naoroji explained how India’s wealth was being taken away to England in these forms:
- Salaries payable to the members of the India Council.
- Dispatch of savings to England by British personnel posted in India.
- Pensions to British Officers.
- Payments to the war office for the maintenance of British troops in India.
- The Indian National Congress was to be formed.
The objectives were as follows:
- To enable national workers from all parts of India to become personally known to each other.
- To end all racial, religious and provincial prejudices and to promote a feeling of national unity among all lovers of the country.
- The formulation of popular demands on vital Indian problems and their presentation before the government.
- To train and organise public opinion in the country.
(c) With in the first twenty years of the foundation of Indian National Congress, two groups of leaders—Moderates and Extremists emerged. Major differences in which are :
|1.||The Moderates felt that Britishers had respect for the ideas of freedom and would accept the just demands of Indians.||The extremists believed that Britishers were selfish and would not accept the demands of Indians.|
|2.||They believed peaceful methods of expressing themselves in society.||They believed that Britishers would only understand through harsh and extreme ways.|
|3.||They said it was necessary to express their demands and make the British government aware of the feelings of the Indians through speeches and petitions.||They said that people must rely on their own strength and not on the ‘good’ intentions of the Britishers.|
In the political scenario of 1939, important developments took place in India and abroad.In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Who was the founder of the ‘Forward Bloc’ ? Why was this organization formed ? 
(b) Why did Sir Stafford Cripps come to India ? Why was the Quit India Movement launched ? 
(c) Explain any four proposals made by Lord Mountbatten to settle the independence issue for India. 
(a) Subash Chandra Bose.
This organisation was formed for the liberation of India with the support of peasants, workers, youths and all radical organisations. After attaining independence Forward Bloc would work for the establishment of a socialist society through:
- the state-planning for the reorganization of agriculture and industry on socialist lines.
- abolition of landlordism.
- establishment of a new monetary and credit system.
(b) The Cripps Mission wanted to solve the political deadlock which had resulted due to British needing Indian support in Second World War and Indians denying it.
Under following circumstances, Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement to force the British out of the country.
- The Cripps mission failed to solve the constitutional problems of India.
- The British presence in India acted as a bait for the Japanese who were at war with Allied powers in Second World War. An immediate Japanese attack on British India could be prevented by an early and peaceful withdrawal of the British from India.
- Lastly the British rulers in India were fanning communal hatred between the Hindus and Muslims which resulted in riots and anarchy.
(c) (i) The existing Constituent Assembly would continue to work, but the constitution framed by it would not apply to Pakistan.
(ii) The British Parliament would pass an Act for the transfer of power before 15 Aug. 1947.
(iii) The treaties with the Princely states would come to an end.
(iv) The country would be divided into two Dominions i.e., India and Pakistan.
The world witnessed a ‘great war’ in the years between 1914-1918. In this context:
(a) Discuss any three reasons which led to the war in 1914. 
(b) Mention three clauses of the Treaty of Versailles. 
(c) Explain how the Treaty of Versailles was responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War. 
(a) Three causes of the First World War (1914):
Militant Nationalism and Mutual Rivalries: Each nation thought about her own national interest. Nationalism had become competitive and aggressive. The spirit of Nationalism was a strong driving force in European politics of the 19th century. Thus the whole atmosphere was charged with narrow militant nationalism and inter-state rivalries.
Europe Divided into Power Blocs: In Europe, there existed single nation states like France, Holland, Germany. There also existed some imperial states like Austria Hungarians empire, which included nationalities like Serbs, Hungarians, Bosanions and the Croats. There was the Russia empire which included Polish Ukranian, Turkish and Mages people. Great Britain was also a colonial empire. The major European nation were divided into two Bloc’s. Germany, Austria, Hungary and Italy had made the Triple Alliance in 1882 A.D. and the Dual Alliance united France and Russia. At the dawn of the 20th Century Europe was divided into two hostile camps. Tension prevailed in their relations with each other, bloc-wise.
The immediate cause: The Sarajevo Incident: In June 1914, The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, The Heir-Apparent to the throne of Austria went to Sarajevo, the Capital of Bosnia, on an official visit. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife were shot dead. The assassin, Gavrilo Princep, was a nineteen years old Bosnian student. This dual murder had been planned in Serbia by a secret society of patriotic terrorists called the “Black hand”. The Austrians blamed the Serbians for this crime, as the assassin and fellow conspirators had received their guns and bombs in Serbian Capital with the help of Serbian officials.
(b) Three clauses of the Treaty of Versailles are as follows:
- The Treaty declared Germany guilty of aggression. She had to pay a very heavy sum estimated of 33 billion dollars as war indemnity to the allies. Germany was to evacuate the places she had captured during the war.
- The area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised. Germany could not maintain or construct any fortification either on the left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank. Moreover, all existing fortifications were required to be destroyed. To guarantee the execution of the Treaty, the German territory west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied troops for 15 years.
- The German army was dishanded. She was allowed to keep only one lakh soldiers. The air force and sub-marines were also banned. Her navy was limited to 15,000 men and 36 ships.
(c) The Peace Settlement at Paris was made in a spirit of revenge. The Germans felt that too much injustice had been done to them. The victorious powers had deprived Germany of huge tracts of its territory. She was burdened with an immense War Indemnity. It was impossible for a pround German race to forget the consequences of the War, which they had lost so humiliatingly. This fuelled the rise of Nazism in Germany and entered upon a career of aggression.
With reference to the Human Rights issue, answer the following:
(a) Why was it necessary to bring about the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights ? 
(b) What is the importance of the articles 1 and 2 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ? 
(c) What is meant by JLO ? How does this agency of the UN ensure the welfare of the workers of the world. 
(a) Purpose for Adoption of Human Rights: The Human Rights Declaration adopted by the UN aimed at creating a society which gets ample freedom and opportunities for every kind of development. The Human Rights would bring social, political, cultural and economic well being of the masses. These rights would help in creating a just economic, political and social order. The Human Rights were cornerstone of human freedom and protection, against injustice, terror, tyranny and dictatorship.
(b) The Importance of Articles 1 and 2: These articles lay great stress on equality of human beings. These articles ensure equal freedom and rights to people without any distinction whatsoever. Thus the articles help in creating a progressive society. It also lays down the limit on the power of law making bodies and executive. No authority can abridge or deny the fundamental rights to the people in any country of the world. Thus Articles 1 and 2 can be said to be the foundation of Human rights.
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