Plus Two Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers is part of Plus Two Chemistry Notes. Here we have given Plus Two Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers.
|Text Book||NCERT Based|
|Chapter Name||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|Category||Plus Two Kerala|
Kerala Plus Two Chemistry Notes Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols and Phenols
Alcohols and phenols are the compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH). j The alcohols contain the -OH group attached I to the alkyl group whereas in phenols the -OH ; group is attached to the aromatic ring.
Primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) alcohols according as the -OH group is attached to a primary, secondary and tertiary carbon atoms respectively.
Nomenclature of Alcohols :
Preparation of Alcohols:
1. From haloalkenes
CH3-Cl + KOH(aq) → CH3-OH + KCl
2. From aldehydes and ketons
(ii)Using Grignard reagent:
Ethanol reacts with:
Note: This is the best chlorination method as byproducts are gases.
- Lower alcohols are soluble in water due to formation of hydrogen bonds with water mole- cules. Higher alcohols are less soluble due to higher alkyl group.
- The boiling and melting points of alcohols are much higher than those of alkanes, alk¬enes and alkyl halides because of hydrogen bonding between the alcohol molecules.
Nomenclature of Phenols
Preparation of Phenols
1. From aryl halides:
2. From benzene sulphonic acid:
3. From diazonium salts:
By decarboxylation of salicylic acid
From Grignard reagent
Reactions of Phenol:
Identify B and D in the following sequence of reactions:
Ethanol and alcoholic KOH
- Ortho-para effect :- OH group in phenol is a +l effect group and releases e– Therefore there will be more e– density at o, p-positions (2, 4, 6), i.e., electrophilic substitution reactions occurs at o, p-positions.
- Phenol is acidic in nature.
- Presence of +1 effect group (CH3, NH2, OCH2) decreases acidity.
- Presence of -I effect group (NO2, X, COOH, CN) increases acidity.
Strength of acidity is in the order
iii > iv > i > ii
Give IUPAC name of the compound given below
IUPA C name of m-cresol is
Distinction between Alcohols and
- Litmus test: Phenols turn blue litmus red but alcohols do not.
- Bromine water test: Phenol on shaking with bromine water gives a white ppt. of 2. 4. 6- tribromophenol but alcohols do not.
Preparation of Ethers:
1. From alcohols:
2. Williamson’s synthesis:
Note: In Williamson’s synthesis, if 3° alkyl halide is used, ether is not produced (due to sta¬bility of 3° carboration). To get ether we may use 3° alkoxide.
Reaction with HX.
eg., Take HX = HI
Reactions of Anisole:
Note: Ring reactions occurs separately at o and p positions.
Physical Properties of ethers:
- The lower homologous of ethers are pleasant smelling.
- Ethers are soluble in organic solvents like alcohol, benzene, acetone etc.
Uses of Ethers:
- They are extensively used as solvent.
- They are used as anaesthetic in pure form.
- It is used in perfumes.
- It is used as solvent for fats, oils, wax.
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