Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 9 Medieval India: The Mughal Empire.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 9 Medieval India: The Mughal Empire.
I. Short Answer Questions :
Name two important sources which provide information about the Mughais.
Two important sources of information aboutthe Mughais are Ain-i-Akbari and monuments of Fatehpur Sikri.
Name of the author of Ain-i-Akbari.
The author of Ain-i-Akbari is Abul Fazal.
Between whom was the First Battle of Panipat fought ?
The First Battle of Panipat was fought between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi.
Who invited Babur to India ? Why ?
Daulat Khan Lodhi Governor of Punjab invited Babur to India to oust Ibrahim Lodhi from the throne.
Who was defeated by Akbar at the Battle of Haldighati in 1576 ?
Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar at the Battle of Haldighati in 1576 ?
Mention any two steps taken by Akbar to promote better understanding between the Hindus and the Muslims.
Akbar, took the following measures to promote greater under standing between the Hindus and Muslims,
- Akbar abolished the poll tax or jizyah, which the non-muslims were required to pay. He abolished the pilgrim tax on bathing at holy places such as Prayag and Benaras.
- He involved a number of Hindus into the nobility. Most of these were Rajput Rajas who entered into matrimonial alliances with Akbar. Mansabs were given to others on the basis of their competence.
Name the two taxes abolished by Akbar.
The two taxes abolished by Akbar were Jizyah and pilgrim tax.
What principles did Akbar’s Din-i-Ilahi promote ?
It was based on the principles of oneness of God ; stressing on virtues like courage, loyalty and justice.
When and for what purpose did Akbar built the Ibadat Khana?
The Ibadat Khana was built in 1575 at Fatehpur Sikri. At this hall, he used to call selected theologians of all religions, mystics and intellectuals and discuss religious and spiritual matters with them.
Name the title given to the heads of the revenue department and the military department respectively in the Mughal Empire.
The head of the revenue department was the wazir, known as diwan or diwan-i-ala.
The head of the military department was called the mir bakhshi.
Who were mansabdars ? How were they paid ?
The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank. The mansabdars formed the ruling group in the Mughal empire.
The mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs. Most of the mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their Jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected from them by their servants.
List any two social reforms that were introduced by Akbar.
- Akbar issued orders to the kotwals to check the forcible
practice of Sati or the burning of a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband. However, the women who committed Sati of their own free will were allowed to do so.
- Akbar legalised widow remarriage.
- Akbar was against anyone having more than one wife unless the first wife could not bear children.
What was the title of the Mahabharata translated into Persian ?
The title of the Mahabharata translated into Persian was Razm Namah.
Who was the architect who designed Humayun’s tomb?
A Persian Mirak Mirza Ghiyas designed the tomb, but it was built by Indian artisans and craftsmen. The main building stands on a 8.5 metre high platform and has archways on its sides.
Who built the Agra Fort ?
Agra Fort was built on the banks of the Yamuna river at Agra by Akbar during the period from 1565 to 1573.
Name two buildings located in Fatehpur Sikri.
Two prominent buildings at Fatehpuri Sikri are :
- The Palace of Jodha Bhai, Akbar’s Rajput wife.
- Buland Darwaza.
Why did Akbar build Fatehpur Sikri ?
Fatehpur Sikri was built to symbolise the power of Akbar’s empire, to represent the meaning of Allah’s message to mankind and to display the wonders of the Islamic faith.
Name the Mughal ruler who forbade the evil practice of Sati.
The Aurangzeb was the only ruler who forbade the evil practice of Sati.
Name the Mughal ruler whose reign was famous for ‘Chain of Justice’.
Jahangir’s reign was famous for ‘Chain of Justice’.
Name the two important centers of trade during the Mughal Period.
Two important centers of trade were Lahore and Delhi.
Mention any two measures which indicate Nur Jahan’s important position during Jahangir’s reign.
- She was promoted to the status of ‘Padshah Begum’.
- Coins were struck in her name and on all farmans, (permission) her name was attached to the imperial signature.
Name the two English, ambassadors who came to Jahangir’s court. Who sent them and for what ?
English ambassadors Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe wanted to obtain favourable concessions for trade with India. They were sent to India by King James I of England.
Who was the founder of the Mughal rule in India ?
Babur was the founder of the Mughal rule in India ?
Mention revenue reforms carried out by Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah introduced a new revenue reform system by developing a method of measuring the land and collecting the revenue with great efficiency.
Name the main roads built by Sher Shah Suri.
The roads built by Sher Shah Suri are as follows :
- Grand Trunk Road from Indus basin to Bengal (Sonargaon)
- Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor.
- Agra to Burhanpur.
- Lahore to Multan.
Name the two Maratha saints of the 17th century.
- Sant Tukaram (1608).
- Samrath Guru Ramdas Ji (1608-1681).
What were the Consequences of the policy of religious tolerance followed by Akbar?
Religious tolerance followed by Akbar resulted in very successful aspects to make him popular, e.g.
- He abolished the ‘Jizyah’, a tax paid by non-Muslims.
- He abolished the pilgrim tax on bathing at holy places.
- He abolished the practice of forcibly converting prisoners of war to Islam.
- In 1575, he built a hall (Ibadat Khana) at Fatehpur Sikri for religious meetings.
- In 1579, Akbar issued a ‘Declaration’ or ‘Mahzar’,which made him the supreme or final arbiter in religious matters.
- In 1580, he created a new religion called ‘Din-i-Ilahi’.
What is the significance of Akbar’s Mansabdari system?
Under this system every officer was provided a rank of ‘Mansab’ for ruling a particular region. The ranks were named from 10 to 5000 from lowest to highest for nobles.
Name any two literary sources to reconstruct the Age of the Mughals.
Ain-i-Akbari and Akbamamah.
Name any two monuments to reconstruct the Age of Mughals.
The Agra Fort and Humayun’s Tomb.
Whom did Babur defeat at the battlefield of Panipat? What was its consequence?
In April 1526 he defeated Sultan Ibrahim Lodi at the battlefield of Panipat.His victory was indeed a success of “consummate leadership” and “superior weapons” that he had acquired from Turkey. Babur was the king of India. The most formidable chieftain against whom Babur had yet to fight was Rana Sanga of Mewar, who had organised a huge confederacy of Rajputs against the Mughal invader. The victory of Khanua, a village near Agra, gave Babur complete control over the Central India.
What was the result of Babur’s encounter with a huge confederacy of Rajputs at Khanua?
Babur’s encounter with a huge confederacy of Rajputs at Khanua, resulted in the victory of Babur. The victory gave Babur complete control over the Central India.
Mention any two factors responsible for Humayun’s failure against Sher Shah Suri.
Two factors responsible for Humayun’s failure against Sher Shah Suri were :
- Humayun was far less able soldier and general than his father.
- He seemed incapable of a sustained and continued policy.
Mention any two revenue reforms instituted by Sher Shah Suri.
Two revenue reforms instituted by Sher Shah Suri were :
- Sher Shah Suri developed a systematic method of measuring the land.
- He assessed the land-revenue and collected it with great earnestness.
What is the significance of the Second Battle of Panipat (1556)?
The second Battle of Panipat was fought between Hemu, a nephew of Sher Shah Suri and the Mughals in November 1556. In this battle, the Afghan army was defeated and Hemu was captured and killed.
Name the Deccan territories included in Akbar’s empire.
Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
What is the significance of Akbar’s Mansabdari system?
Under mansabdari system, the capable candidates were choosen the Mansabdars by the emperor Akbar. They were directly appointed by the emperor and they acted both as military commanders and civil administrators. This system made quite easy to administer the vast kingdom efficiently and conveniently.
Mention the nature of Akbar’s Din-l-llahi.
Din-I-Ilahi was the new cult introduced by the emperor Akbar in 1580. It was based on the belief that there is only one God and required its members to accept such virtues as courage, chastity and justice. It also demanded loyalty to the Emperor.
How did Jahangir deal with the Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev?
Jahangir tortured and executed the Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev.
Why was the title of ‘Shah Jahan’ conferred on Prince Khurram ?
Prince Khurram was got married to the daughter of Asaf Khan, who was appointed Khan-i-Saman under the emperor Jahangir’s rule. Asaf Khan was also the brother to Begum Nur Mahal (Nur Jahan) who was the wife of Jahangir. Keeping all these things in mind, the title of ‘Shah Jahan was conferred on Prince Khurram.
Who was Nur Jahan?
Nur Jahan was the widow of a Persian nobleman, Sher Afghan. Jahangir married Nur Jahan.
Why did Shah Jahan revolt against his father?
Jahangir was fully under the influence of his spouse, Nur Jahan, who was a far-slighted woman and bore the dream at her heart to become the sole Empress. Shah Jahan smelled her political ambition. All this resulted in a rift between Nur Jahan and Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan at last, decided to raise a revolt against his father Jahangir.
Mention Shah Jahan’s conquests in the Deccan.
In the Deccan, Shah Jahan conquered Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
What added to the magnificence to Shah Jahan’s Court?
The exquisite Peacock Throne and the celebrated Kohinoor added to the magnificence to Shah Jahan Court.
Name the Sikh Guru who was beheaded at Chandani Chowk in Delhi.
Guru Tegh Bahadar.
Mention any one episode that demonstrates Shivaji’s encounter with the Mughals.
In 1659, the Sultan of Bijapur had to send his general Afzal Khan to subjugate the Marathas. Shivaji trapped and killed Afzal Khan.
Name any two Departments of Government during the Mughal Age.
(a) The Military Pay and Accounts Office held by Mir Bakshi.
(b) Imperial Household Department held by Khan-i-Saman.
(c) The Judiary under the Chief Qazi.
Who was at the head of the Finance Department under Mughal rule.
Diwan was the head of the Finance Department under Mughal rule.
Mention the way of life of the Mughal nobility.
The nobles, they rolled in wealth and luxury. Costly silks and precious jewels graced their persons and beautiful carpets decked their dining halls. They ate the choicest food and could taste the choicest wines. They lived in highly decorated palatial buildings. Many of them kept men and women as slaves who could be bought and sold as they liked.
Name any two women who earned enormous fame during the Mughal period.
Rani Durgavati, Chand Sultana, Nur Jahan, Jijabai and Jahanara were highly talented women.
Name two prominent Persian scholars patronised by the Mughal rulers.
- Abul Fazl,
Mention the contribution of Tulsidas to Hindi Literature.
Tulsidas was a prominent Hindi poet of Rama Cult, he wrote Ram Gitawali and Ram Charitmanas.
What was the contribution of Malik Muhammad Jayasi to the growth of Hindi literature?
Malik Muhammad Jayasi was one of the most well-known writers of Hindi who wrote the famous epic Padmavat.
Who was the Court poet of the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar?
Mirza Ghalib was the Court poet of the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar.
Where is Humayun’s Tomb located? Mention any two features of the monument.
Humayun’s Tomb is located at Delhi under the instructions of his wife, Hamida Banu Begum. The monument rests ofa a high square platform and has archways on each side. Each archway opens into a room. The monument has a bulbous marble dome with slightly curved outlines arising from a narrower “neck”.
Mention any two features of the Agra Fort?
Two features of the Agra Fort are :
- The Agra fort is the shape of an irregular semi-circle.
- There is a moat all round the fort which was always filled with water to prevent enemies from entering the fort.
Name any two prominent buildings at Fatehpuri Sikri.
Two prominent buildings at Fatehpuri Sikri are :
- The Palace of Jodha Bhai, Akbar’s Rajput wife.
- The Jama Masjid.
Name one religious building built by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri.
The Jama Masjid.
Mention any two features of the Jama Masjid at Delhi.
Two features of the jama Masjid at Delhi are :
- The Jama Masjid is built on a lofty basement with majestic flights of steps, leading to the imping gateways on three sides of the courtyard.
- At its four external corners are placed twelve pillared kiosks surmounted by domes.
Name the master architect who designed the Taj Mahal.
Ustad Isa was the architect who designed the Raj Mahal.
Name any prominent painter at Akbar’s court.
Daswanth was the prominent painter at Akbar’s court.
Name the famous musician patronised by Akbar.
Tansen was the famous musician patronised by Akbar.
II. Structured Questions
With reference to the Mughal Empire, explain briefly the significance of the following :
(b) Taj Mahal
(c) Red Fort
(a) Ain-i-Akbari — This book was written by Abul Fazl, the minister and one of the Nine jewels at Akbar’s court. It was part of a large project of history writing commissioned by Akbar. Ain-i-Akbari is regarded as a precious source material for knowing the administration and culture during the reign of Akbar.
The Ain-i-Akbari is divided into five books. The first book deals with the imperial household. The second book deals with the servants of the emperor, the military and civil services. The third book deals with the imperial administration. It consists of the regulations for the judicial and executive departments, and the divisions of the empire. The fourth book contains information about the Hindu philosophy, science, social customs and literature. The fifth book contains the wise sayings of Akbar. This also contains an account of the ancestry and biography of the author.
(b) Taj Mahal — Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built this monument. It is located at Agra. Shah Jahan built this movement is memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. This monument reflect the Mughal style of architecture as it is made of pure white marble. The main structure is constructed on a high platform. On each of the four corners of this platform there is a minaret. The central dome rises to a height of 56.1 meters. The interior has an octagonal chamber. The marble dome in the center looks like an inverted lotus. The grave is in lower chamber, underground. Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983 and was declared as one of the Seven Wonders of the World in 2007.
(c) Red Fort — It was built by Shah Jahan after he decided to shift his capital to Delhi. It is located on the banks of the Yamuna. Red sandstone and marble were used in its construction. The fort has massive walls and two gateways. The Western Gateway is known as the Lahori Gate. This gate was used for the emperor’s ceremonial purposes. Among the many impressive buildings in the complex are Diwan-i-Aapi and Diwan-i-Khas. The Diwan-i-Khas is the lavishly ornamented hall where the Peacock Throne was placed. The hall was used by the emperor to give audience to the princes of the royal family, nobles and other important dignitaries. The Red Fort is an important historical monument. Many historical events are connected with this fort. The Prime Minister of India every year unfurls the national flag from its ramparts on Independence Day (August 15).
With reference to the Mughal rule, state briefly :
(a) Akbar’s policy towards the Rajputs.
Friendly relations with Rajputs were appreciable of Akbar’s policy. He married the daughter of Bhara Mai (the ruler of Amber), Harkha Bai (Jodha Bai). He gave full respect to his wives e.g. he gave a separate worshipping palace to Jodha Bai in Fatehpur Sikhi. Rajputs were made equal partners in the Mughal Government.
(b) Akbar’s policy of religious tolerance.
Akbar is famous for his religious tolerance. He paid respect to every religion and was reasonable for every sect of society. The abolishment of ‘Jizyh’ tax, and forcibly converting prisoners of war to Islam. In 1575, Akbar built a hall called ‘Ibadat Khana’, where religious meetings were held to discuss about various religions.
3. With reference to the administrative system in the Mughal Period, answer the following questions :
What was the position of the monarch ?
There are a number of references in the court chronicles of the Mughals which show that the power of the Mughal kings came directly from God. One of the legends they narrated was that of the Mongol queen Alanqua, who was impregnated by a ray of sunshine while resting in her tent. The offspring she bore carried this Divine Light and passed it from generation to generation.
Who were the three important ministers ?
In the days of Babur and Humayun, there used to be a Prime Minister, known as vakil, who was entrusted with large powers in civil and military affairs. During the early years of Akbar’s reign Bairam Khan was the vakil.
The head of the revenue department was the wazir, known as diwan or diwan-i-ala. The diwan was responsible for all income and expenditure.
The head of the military department was called the Mir Bakhshi. The Mir Bakhshi was also the head of the intelligence and information agencies of the empire.
How was the provincial government organised ?
The empire was divided into twelve provinces or subahs, which was further subdivided into sarkars and each sarkar into parganas or mahals.
Each Subah was headed by one governor who was called the subahdar or sipah salar or nazim. He was usually a mansabdar of high rank. His functions included maintenance of law and order, enforcement of imperial decrees, administration of criminal justice and the smooth collection of revenue. The provincial diwan was in charge of revenue administration of the province. His responsibilities were similar to those ofthe central diwan. Besides the subahdar and the diwan, the other important officials in the province were faujdar, kotwal, bakhshi, sadr qazi and muhtasib.
4. With reference to Mansabdari system, answer the following questions :
What was the Mansabdari system
The mansabdari system introduced by Akbar was a unique feature of the administrative system of the Mughal empire. The mansabdars formed the ruling group of the Mughal empire with a rank of (mansab). With a great power of civil and army control the rank ranged from number 10 to 5000 for nobles. The ranks were again divided into ‘zat’ and ‘sawar’. For every ten cavalrymen, the mansabdar had to maintain twenty horses.
What was meant by zat and sawar rank ?
Zat fixed the personal status of a person and the salary due to him. The higher the zat, the more prestigious was the noble’s position in court and the larger his salary.The sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen or sawar a mansabdar was required to maintain. For every ten cavalrymen, the mansabdar had to maintain twenty horses.
Study the picture of the Red Fort and answer the following questions :
(a) Who built this fort ? Where is it located ?
(b) Mention two architectural features of the fort.
(c) Mention three important buildings within the fort.
(d) What material is used for the structure and the decoration of this monument ?
(a) Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built this fort. It is located at Delhi.
(b) The fort measures 930 meters by 495 meters has massive walls. There are two gateways.
(c) Three impressive buildings in the complex are Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas and Moti Masjid.
(d) Red sandstone and marble were used in its construction.
Study the picture of the Taj Mahal and answer the following questions :
(a) Who built this monument ? Where is it located ?
(b) Why was the monument erected ?
(c) How does this monument reflect the Mughal style of architecture ?
(a) Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built this monument. It is located at Agra.
(b) Shah Jahan built this movement is memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
(c) This monument reflect the Mughal style of architecture as it is made of pure white marble. The main structure is constructed on a high platform. On each of the four corners of this platform there is a minaret. The central dome rises to a height of 56.1 meters. The interior has an octagonal chamber. The marble dome in the center looks like an inverted lotus. The grave is in lower chamber, underground.
7. With reference to the social development during the Mughal Age, answer the following questions :
Explain the division of society on the basis of wealth.
During the Mughal Age, society looked like a feudal organisation with the king at its apex. Next in rank to the king were the nobles, who enjoyed special honours and privileges. With abundant resources at their disposal, the rich indulged in luxury and led a comfortable life. They lived in highly decorated palatial buildings and amused themselves with outdoor sports as well as indoor games.
Below the nobles, there was the middle class, which was living according to the standard suited to their respective offices and professions. The merchants in general led simple life. According to some European writers, the merchants of the western coast, having made much wealth out of their extensive commerce, lived in a comparatively rich style.
The condition of the lower order was hard as compared with that of the two higher classes. They did not have sufficient clothing and woollen garments and shoes were above their means. As their other demands were few, they did not suffer from want of ordinary food but in times of famine and scarcity, their miseries must have been great. The shopkeepers, though sometimes rich and respected, generally kept their wealth hidden.
Explain briefly any two steps taken by Akbar towards integrating the Hindus and the Muslims.
The Mughal Emperors, especially Akbar, took a number of measures to promote greater understanding between the Hindus and the Muslims. Some of these measures were the following:
- Akbar abolished the poll tax or jizyah, which the non-Muslims were required to pay. He also abolished the pilgrim tax on bathing at holy places such as Prayag and Banaras. Further, he abolished the practice of forcibly converting prisoners of war to Islam.
- To strengthen the liberal principles, Akbar enrolled a number of Hindus into the nobility. le most of these were Rajput rajas, many of whom entered into matrimonial alliances with Akbar, mansabs were given to others also on the basis of their competence.
What steps were taken by the Mughal rulers to promote education ?
The Mughal rulers introduced a number of educational reforms: Akbar revised the educational syllabus, laying more emphasis on moral education and mathematics and on secular
subjects such as agriculture, geometry, astronomy, logic and history.
The other Mughal emperors also were keen patrons of education and there was considerable development in this area. In fact one of the duties of the public works department. Shuhra-i-am was to build schools and colleges. Jahangir passed a law, whereby if a rich man was to die without an heir, his assets would be used by the State to help in the development and maintenance of educational institutes. Shah Jahan although more interested in building monuments, did take some significant educational initiatives like providing scholarships to assist students.
Female education also existed in some form during the Mughal period. Girls from rich families were usually able to have an education, through private tuitions at home. The Middle class girls were usually able to attend the same schools as the boys.
With reference to Humayun’s Tomb and answer the following questions :
(a) Who built this monument ? Where is it located ?
(b) Name the architect who designed this building.
(c) How is this monument a precursor of the Taj Mahal ?
(a) Humayun’s Tomb was built under the auspices of Humayun’s wife Hamida Banu Begum.
(b) It is located at Delhi. A Persian architect Mirak Ghiyas designed the tomb, but it was built by Indian artisans and craftsmen.
(c) The main building stands on a 8.5 metre high platform and has archways on its sides. The bulbous marble dome is slightly curved. Its structure is considered as the precursor of the Taj Mahal.
With reference to the decline of the Mughal empire, state briefly :
(a) Aurangzeb’s responsibility
(b) Jagirdari crisis.
(a) Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal Eimpire had expanded beyond the point of effective control. It covered almost whole of India, but the lack of communication and transport tended to weaken the empire. His partial religious policy also created rebel lions of Jats, Bundelas, Rajputs, the Sikhs and the Marathas. His policy of war against Southern states also damaged the Mughal empire.
(b) By the end of 17th century, the number of Jagirs decreased and the payment of the officers by the Mughal emperors also faced a crisis. To overcome this crisis, a lot of crown land was converted into Jagirland, which again reduced the revenue share of the emperor and led to further decline of his power.
Who were the Later Mughals ? How were they responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire ?
After Aurangzeb, the Later Mughals were, Bahadur Shah I, Mohammad Shah, Bahadur Shah Zafar etc. Due to weak administration, rivalry amongst the nobles, ascendancy of the British (East India Company in AD 1600), rivalry among the small kingdoms etc. were the several reasons of the decline of the Mughal Empire. At the end of the Mughal dynasty Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Myanmar (Burma).
The Mughal rulers of India gave encouragement to learning. In this context state briefly the growth of
(a) The Persian Literature
(b) The Hindi Literature
(c) Urdu Literature.
(a) The Mughal rulers patronised several poets and gave encouragement to the creation of eminent literature. Many Sanskrit books were translated to Persian and Urdu. Malik Muhammad Jayisi wrote in Hindi, but put forward Sufi concepts with touch of Persian language.
Through the Persian language. India was able to davelop close cultural relations with Central Asia and Iran Persian became the language of upper class and administration. Many Persian words are still injected in common Hindi language. The famous Persian poet Abul Fazl wrote Ain- i-Akbari. He was in the court of Akbar.
(b) Hindi literature also highly progress during the Mughal period. Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote ‘PadmawaC in Hindi Rahim wrote ‘Satsai’ as ‘Rahim ke Dohe’. Tulsidas, Surdas, Bihari were remarkable Hindi poets of this time.
(c) Urdu progressed very much in the 18th century when Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) Patronised Urdu. Urdu was also patronised by Bahmani rulers of Deccan. The great poets were Mir Dad, Mirza Galib (the court poet of Bahadur Shah Zafar).
Akbar had both the time and inclination to look at the administrative problems of the Empire. In this context describe.
(a) His Mansabdari System
(b) His Land Revenue System
(a) Mansabdari System : Akbar introduced the mansabdari system to organise his armed forces more effectively. All imperial officers except the qazis and sadars, were enrolled as members of mansabdari system and were reined to maintain some troops proportionate, to their ranks. The Mansabdari held their appointments directly from the emperor. They got their remuneration in cash not in the form of land grants. In addition to meeting their personal expenses, the Mansabdar had to maintain out of his salary a required quota of horses, elephants mules and carts. The Mughal Mansabdari were required to serve in whatever place or capacity the Emperor desired. They acted both as military commanders and civil administrators. By giving them handsome salaries and high status, Akbar was able to recruit men of remarkable capabilities to the service of the empire. Mansabdari status was not hereditary. The Mansabdars could be promoted or dismissed by the Emperor.
(b) His Land Revenue System : No efforts were made to improve the land system prevailing in the country in the early part of Akbar’s reign. It was only after, when Todar Mai became the Diwan-i-Ashraf (head of the land revenue department.) Todar mal devised a system based on
- a survey and measurement of land,
- classification of land according to its productive capacity, and
- fixation of rates payable in cash or kind by the cultivators. Another important change that Akbar made was the introduction of the dahsala system. Under this system the average produce of different kinds of lands as well the prices of the last ten (dah) years were collected from the government records. The land revenue was fixed at one-third of the average produce. The benefit of the system was that there was now no necessity of settling the land revenue every year. The work of revenue collection was therefore expedited.
In brief, Todar Mal started a system that enriched the state treasury without impoverishing the cultivators. The state advanced loans to the needy farmers. As a result, agriculture flourished that boosted trade and industry also.
Akbar was the greatest of all medieval rulers of India. In this context describe : His policy of racial and religious pacification.
His Policy of Conciliation and Synthesis : Akbar sought to bring about racial and religious conciliation in the country. Jiziya was abolished and the state services were opened for the Hindus, especially Rajput princes. The Emperor patronised Hindu writers and artists and welcomed matrimonial alliances with the Rajput families. In 1580, the Emperor promulgated a new cult called Din-i-llahi. It was based on the belief that there is only one God and required its members to accept such virtues as courage, chastity and justice. It also demanded loyalty to the Emperor. The new cult could not have many followers and it was never imposed.
Shah Jahan’s reign marks the climax of the Mughal dynasty and empire. In this context explain briefly :
(a) his Conquests.
(b) Magnificence of the Imperial Court and his Architectural Achievements.
Shah Jahan’s reign marks the climax of the Mughal dynasty and empire. In this context the given headlines are explained below :
(a) His Conquests : In 1632, Shah Jahan started his military campaign against Ahmadnagar. He annexed Ahmadnagar. He ordered the states of Bijapur and Golconda to submit to Mughal authority. The Emperor himself marched to Deccan to seek compliance to his orders. The ruler of Golconda acknowledged the Mughal suzeranity in 1636, but military action was needed to bring Bijapur into submission.
In the North-West, the Mughals had suffered some reverses after Akbar’s death. Shah Jahan wanted to recover Kandhar which he did in 1638. But the Mughals could not retain it for long, because the Shah of Iran captured it again in 1649. Three major campaigns to recover Kandhar failed and Kandhar was lost to the Mughals for good. The Emperor was successful in suppressing the revolt of Jujhar Singh, son of Bir Singh Bundela.
(b) Magnificence of the Imperial Court and his Architectural Achievements : Shah Jahan modelled his court after the style of the old Persian monarchs. The exquisite Peacock Throne and the celebrated Kolxinoor added to the magnificence of his court. Shah Jahan patronised men of letters and arts. The famous Taj at Agra and Jami Masjid and Delhi are some of the finest examples of Mughal architecture of his time. Music arid painting also made great progress under Shah Jahan’s patronage.
Aurangzeb died forlorn and destitute. In this context, explain briefly :
(a) His dealings with the Sikh Gurus.
(b) His attempts to suppress rebellion in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb died forlorn and destitute. In this context, the given headlines are explained as under :
(a) His dealings with the Sikh Gurus : Aurangzeb was a fanatic Fundamentalist (Sunni) Muslim ruler. He adopted a rigid policy, especially for the Hindus and emphatically converted them into Islam. The Hindu pandits from Kashmir, approached the Ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadar at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab and they grieved and sought the help of the Guru to relieve them from the atrocities of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb got infuriated at this act of the Guru to assist the Kashmiri Pandits. He captured Guru Tegh Bahadar and took him to Delhi. He kept forth the option of embracing Islam or facing death before the Guru. Seeing the Guru not converting his denomination and denying to adopt the Islam religion, Aurangzeb beheaded the Guru openly at a place called Chandani Chowk in Delhi.
Now, there is erected the Gurudwara Sisganj in the memory of the martyred Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadar.
In 1704, the Mughals attacked the fort of Anandpur, a fierce battle was fought between the Sikhs and the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh, who led the Sikh warriors, fought heroically. His two sons Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh, were captured and were bricked alive when they refused to adopt Islam. The Guru’s last encounter with Mughal forces took place at the battlefield of Muktsar, it claimed a huge loss of lives of the soldiers. Thus, an unending enmity existed between the Mughals and the Sikhs that continued even after the departing of Guru Gobind Singh.
(b) His attempts to suppress rebellion in the Deccan : Shivaji was succeeded by his elder son Shambhaji. A new dimension that was added to the events in Deccan was the arrival of the rebel Prince Akbar at the Maratha Court. Aurangzeb feared that the Prince, the Marathas and the Sultans of Bijapur and Golconda could forge an alliance against the Empire. He therefore, reached the Deccan in 1681. He sought to crush the Marathas, but his efforts did not bear the desired results. He could annex Bijapur in 1686 and then came the fall of Golconda also. Shambhaji was also defeated, captured and killed in 1689.
The Deccan, now seemed to be under the control of the Mughal Emperor. But the Marathas did not allow themselves to be earned into submission. They enthroned Shambhaji’s younger brother Raja Ram on the throne. When the Mughal army besieged their Capital, they fled towards Jinji. The Mughals captured Shambhaji’s wife and her nine-year old son Sahuji. The Mughal-Maratha contest continued for many years. When Raja Ram died in 1700, his widow Tara Bai declared her four-year old son. Shivaji- II, the king.
From 1700-1705 Aurangzeb, though ill-managed to, drag himself from the siege of one fort to another. After nearly twenty-five years of direct military action in southern India, Aurangzeb died at Aurangabad in 1707 – with little success, but substantial loss of wealth, prestige and self¬esteem.
Describe the Mughal Administration under the following headlines :
(a) Position of the Monarch
(b) Main Department of Government
(a) Humayun and Akbar believed that “royalty is a light emanating from God, a ray from the sun.” The Mughal state was a “centralized autocracy”. In other words, the King’s power were unlimited. He was the “head of the government, the commander of the armed forces and the fountain of justice.” He was also the chief legislator, because his word was law.
(b) The highest position below the Emperor was held by the Vizier, but the Exchequer (Finance Department) was in the hands of the Diwan. Other important departments were:
- The Military Pay and Accounts Office held by Mir Bakshi.
- Imperial Household Department held by Khan- i-Saman.
- The Judiciary under the Chief Qazi. The other Officers, somewhat lower in status were :
- Daroga-i- Topkhana (head of the artillery),
- the Daroga of the Mint, and
- Mir Arz the officer-in-charge of Petitions seeking favour of the Monarch.
Describe the Mughal Administration with reference to the following :
(a) The Army and the Navy
(b) Administration of Law and Justice
(a) the armed forces were composed of
- navy and
- war elephants.
The artillery consisted of two section — heavy guns, and the light artillery. The heavy guns were used for assaulting forts. The functions of the Admiralty Department were
- to build boats,
- to recruit professional seamen, and
- to collect river duties and tolls. The Navy was used for the suppression of piracy as well as for war. With the development of the flint-gun, the infantry had also become a powerful fighting force during the 17th century. An important factor that harmed the efficiency of the Mughal army was that the soldiers did not owe direct allegiance to the Emperor. They were more attached to their immediate officers. The Army looked like a “moving city”, with a portion of the ‘harem’ (wives of the nobles and chief officers), their offices, the attendants, musicians and the soldiers moving from place to place during a war. This sort of affairs naturally brought in luxury and in disciplane in the army.
(b) The Chief Qazi was the principal judicial officer in the realm. He appointed Qazis for the provinces. Justice was administered by Qazis, Muftis and Mir-adls. The Muftis acted as advocates; they interpreted the Muslim law. The Mir-adls drew up and announced judgement. Fines could be imposed and severe punishments, like amputation of hand or led could be inflicted by the courts without any reference to the Emperor, but capital punishment (death penalty) required Emperor’s sanction. Above all these courts was the Emperor himself.
Give an account of the social developments during the Mughals Age under the following headlines :
(a) Social Structure
(b) Position of Women
(a) The society comprised of, an general, three classes of people;
- Princes and the Nobles,
- the Middle Class, and
- the lower orders, i.e., the Ordinary People, the peasants and the labourers. As regards the princes and the nobles, they rolled in wealth and luxury, Costly silks and precious jewels graced their persons and beautiful carpets decked their dining halls. They ate the choicest food and could taste the choicest wines. They lived in highly decorated palatial buildings. Many of them kept men and women as slaves who could be bought and sold as they liked. The middle classes, i.e., the merchants, traders, artists, musicians, scholars and those belonging to the class of priests and the clergy had a living standard suited to their respective professions. The living conditions of the lower orders were hard. The landless peasants and labourers could eke out a bare existence. Towards the end of Shah Jahan’s regin, the peasants got much harassed by the revenue officials. Whenever there was a famine it was this class of peasants who suffered the most.
(b) The position of women was in many respects pitiful.The child marriage was a standing social evil, Akbar tried to check girls marriage before puberty, but his attempts did not seem to have been effective. Polygamy also was not uncommon. Moreover, Sati system was prevalent in Hindu society. The efforts of Akbar, Jahangir and Aurangzeb failed to uproot this evil. Despite constraints, instances of women taking on active part in social and political affairs are many. Rani Durgavati, Chand Sultana, Nur Jahan, Jijabai and Jahanara were highly talented women, who have left an enduring reputation behind.
The Growing harmony between various religious communities was a marked feature of social life during the reigns of rulers from Akbar to Shah Jahan. In this contex. explain briefly.
(a) Growing harmony between Hindus and Muslims
(b) Growth of the Bhakti Movement and Sufism in the Mughal period.
(a) The growing harmony between Hindus and Muslims was a marked feature of the social life at that time. Akbar’s liberalism went a great way to heal the rift between the two communities. The Jiziya (poll tax on the non-Muslims) was abolished and state services were opened for the Hindus, especially the Rajput princes. Akbar’s marriages with Hindu princesses led to the introduction of Hindu customs into the palace and Durga Puja was celebrated within the palace then and afterwards. On the other hand. Mughal etiquette, Mughal dress and dishes were adopted by the Hindu zamindars and people having a high social rank. The Muslims of high rank often took part in the Holi and Diwali festivals with their Hindu friends.
(b) The Bhakti tradition continued to grow and several new cults had arisen in the 17th and 18th centuries. One of the most prominent saints of Maharashtra was Tukaram. Sufism also had a profound influence on society during the period.
(c) The Chief Qazi was the principal judicial officer in the realm. He appointed Qazis for the provinces. Justice was administered by Qazis, Muftis and Mir-adls. The Muftis acted as advocates; they interpreted the Muslim law. The Mir-adls drew up and announced judgments. Fines could be imposed and severe punishments, like amputation of hand or led could be inflicted by the courts without any reference to the Emperor, but capital punishment (death penalty) required Emperor’s sanction. Above all these courts was the Emperor himself.
Give an account of the social developments during the Mughals Age under the following headlines :
(a) Social Structure
(b) Position of Women
(a) The society comprised of, an general, three classes of people;
- Princes and the Nobles,
- the Middle Class, and
- the lower orders, i.e., the Ordinary People, the peasants and the labourers. As regards the princes and the nobles, they rolled in wealth and luxury, Costly silks and precious jewels graced their persons and beautiful carpets decked their dining halls. They ate the choicest food and could taste the choicest wines. They lived in highly decorated palatial buildings. Many of them kept men and women as slaves who could be bought and sold as they liked. The middle classes, i.e., the merchants, traders, artists, musicians, scholars and those belonging to the class of priests and the clergy had a living standard suited to their respective professions. The living conditions of the lower orders were hard. The landless peasants and labourers could eke out a bare existence. Towards the end of Shah Jahan’s reign, the peasants got much harassed by the revenue officials. Whenever there was a famine it was this class of peasants who suffered the most.
The Bhakti tradition continued to grow and several new cults had arisen in the 17th and 18th centuries. One of the most prominent saints of Maharashtra was Tukaram. Sufism also had a profound influence on society during the period.
Akbar was deeply influenced by the mysteries of Sufism and teachings of the Hindu saints. Throughout the period, the Bhakti school of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu held the field in Bengal and Orissa. In Rajasthan, Gujarat and South India also the Bhakti Movement retained its popularity. Raja Man Singh of Amber, in Rajasthan, was one of the greatest patrons of Vaishnavism.
The Mughal rulers of India were patrons of learning and scholars. In this context, describe briefly.
(a) The growth of Persian Literature in those times.
(b) The growth of Hindi Literature during the age of the Mughals.
The Mughal rulers of India were patrons of learning and scholars. In this context, the given questions are described as under :
(a) The Persian language made a tremendous progress under the patronage of the Mughal emperors. Akbar’s court had many Persian scholars who migrated to India. One of the eminent historiants of Akbar’s court was Abul Fazal, who wrote Ain-i-Akbari, gives information about the legal and revenue-system of Akbar’s administration. While Akbamama is about the life of Akbar and the Mughals in general.
Two other historians of Akbar’s reign were Nizam- ud-din Ahmad, who wrote Tabakat-i-Akbari and Badauni, who wrote Muntakhab-ut-Twarikh. Akbar encouraged the traslation of Sanskrit literary works into the Persian language. Different sections of the Mahabharcita were translated into Persian and compiled into a book. Badauni completed the translation of the Ramayana. Abul Fazal translated the Panchatantra. Faizi was a renowned scholar who translated many Hindu classics into Persian.The translation of Sanskrit works in Persian continued under Jahangir.
Tulsidas was a great poet of the Rama cult, he wrote Ram Gitawali. His most famous work is Ram Charitmanas, singing the noble deeds of Lord Rama. It is a masterpiece of Hindi literature.Surdas wrote Sursagar which describes episodes from Krishna’s early life.
Many scholars adorned the court of Akbar, who encouraged Hindi Literature. Akbar’s courtiers—Birbal, Raja Man Singh and Raja Bhagwan Das—were known for their poetic works in Hindi. Akbar conferred the title ‘Kavipriya’ on Birbal for his poetic works. Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was teh most distinguished Hindi poet of Akbar’s court. Till today, his dohas in Hindi have been greatly appreciated and read with interest.Malik Muhammad Jayasi, one of the most well-known writers of Hindi, wrote the epic Padmawat. Sundar, who wrote Sundar Sringar was given the title ‘Mahakavi Rai’ by Emperor Shahjahan.
What role did the following factors play in decline and downfall of the Mughal Empire :
(a) Aurangzeb’s policies.
(b) Incompetence of the Later Mughals.
(c) Foreign Invasions.
The given factors played a significant role in the decline and downfall of the Mughal Empire, which are as explained as follows :
(a) Aurangzeb’s Policies : Aurangzeb was an orthodox Sunni Muslim. His personal life and austerity won him the support of the Muslim clergy who called him a Zinda Pir, a Living Saint. In 1669, the Emperor forbade the building of new temples and permitted the destruction of a few existing temples as well. The temples at Mathura and Varanasi became special targets of attack. He reimposed the old Jiziya on Hindus. This naturally cost him the sympathy and support of the Hindus, particularly, the RajputS who had been the pillars of the Mughal Empire.
(b) Incompetence of the Later Mughals : The later Mughals were incompetent and did not have the skills that were needed to keep the system in working order. They let the affairs drift in their own way. R.C. Majumdar writes, “Province after province the Deccan, Oudth and Bengal slipped out of imperial control.” The Marathas, the Jats and Sikhs had also become very powerful by now. And in 1739, Nadir Shah, returned home laden with immense treasure including the famous Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor diamond. The invasion left the empire “bleeding and prostrate”. The last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II was a symbolic head of the Great Uprising of 1857. He was imprisoned and banished to Rangoon, where he died in 1862.
(c) Foreign Invasions : In 1739, the Emperor of Delhi was literally at the mercy of Nadir Shah. The already Shrunk Mughal empire was left exposed to further invasions. Ahmad Shah Abdali led a number of expeditions and in 1757, he advanced into India as far as Delhi. In 1759, he finally conquered the Punjab. Since Marathas had also become strong contenders for supremacy in northern India, a contest between Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas was inevitable. Ahmad Shah defeated the Maratha army at the Battle of Panipat in 1761. This defeat not only checked the growing power of the Marathas, it also hastened the process of the disintegration of the Mughal empire. It indirectly contributed to the rise of the Sikh-power in Punjab and the north-west and the spread of British influence in the rest of the subcontinent.
Akbar was the greatest of all medieval rulers of India. In this context describe : His Concern about Law and Justice.
Law and Justice : Akbar regarded speedy administration of justice as one of his important duties. The Chief Qpazi was the foremost Judicial officer in the realm. He nominated Qazis for the provinces. The Qazis were believed to be just and impartial. They tried both civil and criminal cases. The bigger towns had their own Qazis. The villagers settled their disputes through the institution of the Panchayat. Above all the local and provincial courts was the Emperor himself. He was the fountain of justice and the final court of appeal’. The prisoners were kept in forts.
Describe Aufangzeb’s Administration under the following headlines :
(a) A Setback to the Policy of Religious Toleration
(b) Provincial Government
(c) Consequences of Emperor’s Long Absence from the Capital
(a) A Setback to the Policy of Religious Toleration :
Soon after his accession, Aurangzeb abandoned the liberal religious viewpoints of his predecessors. Though Akbar Jahangir and Shah Jahan’s approach to faith was more liberal than the empire’s founder. Aurangzeb’s position is not so obvious. While his conservative interpretation of Islam and belief in Shria (Islamic law) is well documented, how this affected the empire remains unclear. Despite claims of sweeping edicts and policies, contradictory accounts exists his compilation of the Fatwa-e-Alamgirie, a digest of Muslim law, was either intended for personal use, never enforced. While some assert that the lack of broad adoption was due to an inherent flow, others insist they were only intended for his observance. While it is possible the war of succession and continued incursions combined with Shah Jahan’s spending made cultural expenditures impossible.
(b) Provincial Government : The number of princes had risen to twenty-one in the time of Aurangzeb. The Diwan or the Revenue Chief of the province was required to keep a strict watch over the Subahdar (the Governor) so that the latter would not become all powerful.
(c) Consequences of Emperor’s Long Absence from the Capital : The Kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were finally conquered and annexed (1686-87). But the Emperor’s long absence from the Capital led to utter neglect of administration of Delhi. This emboldend the rebels to challenge the Mughal authority in the North. The troops were also strongly dissatisfied with Emperor’s authority because of arrears of payment. Before Aurangzeb died in 1707, the disintegration of the capital was obvious.
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