Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 8 Medieval India: The Delhi Sultanate.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 8 Medieval India: The Delhi Sultanate.
I. Short Answer Questions :
Who was the founder of the slave dynasty in India ?
Qutubuddin Aibak is regarded as the founder of the Slave dynasty.
Why was Qutubuddin known as Lakhbaksh ?
Qutubuddin known as Lakhbaksh because of liberal distri bution of money, he earned the title of ‘Lakhbaksh’.
Mention any two military reforms introduced by Alauddin.
Military Reforms : Alauddin Khilji was the first ruler of Delhi who laid the foundation of a permanent standing army. He imported quality horses and started the system of branding horses (dagh) so that the soldiers could not replace them with inferior quality horses. He also introduced the system of chehra, i.e., giving a kind of identity card for every soldier.
How did Alauddin Khalji expand his empire ?
A large region was ruled in northern India by Alauddin. Alauddin Khalj i conquered many southern states in 1313, the states of Devagiri, Warangal, Dwarasamudra and Madurai. The annual tribute payed by these states was used for maintenance of his army.
Mention the two controversial steps taken by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
Two controversial steps taken by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, were as follows :
- Shifting of Capital from Delhi to Devagiri.
- Introduction of the “token currency”.
Which dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate built The Qutab Minar ?
Slave dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate i.e. Qutb-ud-din Aibak in AD 1199, built the Qutab Minar.
Who was the commander-in-chief of the army during the Sultanate period ?
Sultan was the commander-in-chief of the army during the Sultanate period.
Name the department which dealt with state correspondence during the Sultanate period.
Diwan-i-insha was department which dealt with state correspondence during the Sultanate period.
What was the iqta system ?
During Sultanate the empire was divided into provinces called ‘iqtas.During this period, the practice of giving grants of revenue from a territory came to be known as the ‘iqta system’. Those who were given iqtas were called ‘iqtadars’. Out of this grant, the iqtadars had to maintain themselves, their families and some soldiers for use by the Sultan during war.
Name the author of the book, Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi.
The book, Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi was written by Ziauddin Barani.
Why were the early rulers of slave dynasty called the Mamluk Sultans ?
The early rulers of slave dynasty were called the Mamluk Sultans because these Sultans were earlier either the slaves of the Turks or were
the sons of the slaves.
Mention any two reasons for the defeat of Rajputs by the Turks.
- The Turkish army comprised expert military leaders from different lands who employed new tactics of wars. The Rajputs, on the other hand, followed outdated tactics.
- The Rajput soldiers were highly efficient in the use of spear and sword and excellent in hand-to-hand fighting. But as archers, they were inferior to the Turks. The Turks were aware of the weak points of their opponents.
Who was Muhammad Ghori ? Why did he invade India ?
Shahabuddin Muhammad, also known as Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam or Muhammad Ghori, ascended the throne at Ghazni (in present Afghanistan) in 1173. He was an ambitious ruler and wanted to establish his empire in India. The wealth and military resources of India attracted Mohammad Ghbri’s attention, which he thought could be utilised to safeguard the Ghurid empire. Therefore, he strengthened his position at Ghazni and turned his attention towards India. He invaded India several times between 1175 and 1206.
Mention the four architectural features brought in by the Turks in India.
The architectural style brought in by the Turks in India had four main characteristic features — dome, minarets, arches and propped roofs. In the sphere of decoration, the Turks used geometrical and floral designs, combining them with panels of inscriptions containing verses from the Holy Quran.
Who was Razia Sultana ? To which dynasty did she belong?
Razia Sultana was the daughter of Iltutmish. She belonged to the Slave Dynasty.
What measures were taken by Alauddin Khalji for regulating the prices ?
Alauddin was best known in history for his market regulations. He fixed the cost of all commodities from food grains, sugar and cooking oil to a needle, costly imported cloth, horses, cattle, slave boys and girls. He set up three markets at Delhi e.g. for food grains, cloth and horses, slave and cattle, under the control of ‘Shahna’ or the controller. Strict punishment was given for cheating.
Mention any two measures taken by Alauddin Khilji to crush the power of the nobles.
- The Nobles were not allowed to hold parties or festivities or to form marriage alliances without the permission of the Sultan.
- The use of wine and intoxicants was banned.
- Gambling was forbidden and gamblers were severely punished.
With reference to the Delhi Sultanate, mention to which dynasties the following belonged:
(a) Razia Sultana
(b) Ibrahim Lodhi
(c) Firoz Shah
(d) Qutb-ud-Din Aibak
(a) Slave Dynasty
(b) Lodhi Dynasty
(c) Tughlaq Dynasty
(d) Slave Dynasty
Mention the period of the Delhi Sultanate in India.
The period between AD 1206 and AD 1526, the rule of five dynasties (Slave, Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyid and Lodhi) at Delhi their capital is known as the period of Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultans infused a new culture and tradition in India. In this context name the dynasties that ruled between.
(a) AD 1206 to AD 1290
(b) AD 1320 to AD 1414.
(c) AD 1451 to AD 1526
(a) (AD 1206 to AD 1290) The Slave Dynasty
(b) (AD 1320 to AD 1414) Tughlaq Dynasty
(c) (AD 1451 to AD 1526) Lodhi Dynasty
Who laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate?
Qutub-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate.
Name any two literary sources to reconstruct the period of the Delhi Sultanate.
Name any two archaeological sources to reconstruct the age fo the Delhi Sultanate.
- Qutab Minar,
- Illahi Darwaza.
Mention any two ways in which Iltutmish consolidated the Turkish conquests in India?
Iltutmish effectively suppressed the rebellions of Amirs and also defeated the governors of Sindh and Bengal who had risen in revolt. He then embarked upon a career of conquests. He made Delhi his Capital and was the first Turkish ruler to introduce a purely Arabic coinage. Finding his sons incompetent to rule, Iltutmish chose his daughter Raziya to be his successor.
Who was Razia Sultana? Who plotted against her?
Raziya Sultana was the daughter of Iltutmish. She was put to death by her nobles, who plotted against her and her husband Altunia and got them murdered in 1240.
What measures were taken by Balban to crush the Turkish Nobles?
Balban adopted a policy of sternness and severity. He established order in the neighbourhood of Delhi and instilled fear in the minds of the Turkish nobles by inflicting severe punishment on them even for slight offenses. Some of them were even publicly flogged. The north-west frontier posts were strongly garrisoned.
Mention any two schemes of Muhammed Tughiaq that failed and made him extremely unpopular.
Two schemes of Muhammed Tughiaq that failed and made him extremely unpopular
- Muhammed Tughiaq increased the taxation in the Doab (the territory between the rivers Ganga
- His decision to transfer his Capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) with a view to having the Capital situated in the middle of his kingdom. He was bent upon taking all the inhabitants of Delhi to the new Capital.
Both of his schemes failed as people never accepted both the schemes of him.
What measures were taken by Firoz Tughiaq for the encouragement of agriculture?
Firoz Tughiaq constructed irrigation canals. He built gardens, schools, mosques. Consequently, agriculture and trade flourished and there was increase in the general prosperity of the people.
Who was the greatest of the Lodhi Kings?
Sikandar Lodhi was the greatest of the Lodhi Kings.
Who invited Babur to invade India?
The alienated Governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India.
Why was the Muslim state in India characterised as a theocracy?
The Muslim state in India was ruled over by the Sultan, who ruled in the name of God and Islam. Thus, by this system, the state imparted with the Islamic state. Hence, the Muslim state in India is characterised as a theocracy.
Mention any two sources of revenue during the Sultanate period.
- Land tax, usually one-tenth of the produce.
- The booty captured in wars.
Who was Ibn Batuta?
Ibn Batuta was a resident of North Africa and primarily a traveler, reached Sindh in 1333 and lived at the Court of Muhammed Tughlaq for eight years.
What does Ibn Batuta say about the state of agriculture under the Delhi Sultanate?
Ibn Batuta said, “The soil was fertile and Indians produced many crops such as rice, sesame, sugarcane, oilseeds and cotton.”
Mention any two languages that flourished during the Sultanate period.
Though Arabic was the religious language of the Muslims, Persian was adopted as the court language. Amir Khusrau was an outstanding poet in the Persian language and a great historian. He was popularly known as Tutii-i-Hind or the ‘Parrot of India’.
Name two prominent works of Amir Khusrau.
Khazzain-ul-Futuh and Tughlaqnama.
What led to the evolution of the Urdu Language?
The intermingling of Persian and Arabic words with Hindi, led to the evolution of a common language which came to be known as Urdu. It is also known as the “Camp Language”.
Name the two famous Sufi saints of India.
Hazrat Khwaja Muin-ud-Din Chisti and Nizam-ud-din Auliya.
What was Jiziya?
Jiziya was a form of tax that had been imposed on the Hindus by Firoz Tughlaq to win the sympathy of the Muslims telling himself to be the true Muslim King.
What was being produced at the royal Karkhanas (factories) during the reign of Delhi Sultans.
Silken cloth was manufactured at the royal Karkhanas. Besides, other stuffs were also woven. Gold and silver articles were also made for the royal household and nobility.
Why was Jauhar practised by the Rajput women?
Jauhar (collective suicide) was practiced by the Rajput women in order to escape dishonour at the hands of invaders.
Mention any two new elements of architecture style introduced by the Muslims in India.
Two new elements of architecture style introduced by the Muslims in India are :
- Open Airy and Spacious Buildings.
- Mosques and Tombs.
Mention two important features of mosques.
Two important features of mosques are :
- The mosques have an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared varandah.
- There is a prayer-hall having a recess or alcove called Mehrab in the western wall at the back of the hall.
How did Alaudin Khalji expand his empire?
Alauddin Khalji raided Malwa and Gujarat and also defeated the Rajput rulers of Ranthambhor and Chittor. Next, he faced to the four wealthy kingdoms of the Deccan—Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra and Pandya Kingdom with its Capital at Madurai. The task of conquest of Deccan had been entrusted by Alauddin to his military commander, Malik Kafur.
Who was Timur Lang?
Timur Lang (Timur the Lame) was a foreign invader who had risen into power in central Asia and invaded Delhi.
II. Structured Questions.
With reference to the sources of information about the Delhi Sultanate, give the significance of the following :
(b) Qutub Minar
(a) Inscriptions — These are valuable supplements and not the sole sources of information on the Delhi Sultanate. The inscriptions are found on coins, monuments, milestones and tombstones. Some of the inscriptions are in Sanskrit, some in Arabic and some in both the languages. For example, the first coin issued by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji bears both Arabic and Sanskrit inscriptions. Similarly, the famous traveller Ibn Batuta noticed a commemorative inscription in the Jama Masjid in Delhi, which he deciphered.
(b) Qutub Minar — It began to be built in AD 1199. It was started by Qutub-ud-din Aibak and was dedicated to the Sufi saint, Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki, who was greatly venerated by the people of Delhi. The structure was completed in 1230 bylltutmish.Verses from the Holy Quran and some intricate carvings, floral motifs are inscribed on this tower.
2. With reference to the Slave dynasty, answer the following questions :
Why were the early rulers of the Slave dynasty called the Mamluk Sultans ?
The word Mamluk is an Arabic word that means ‘owned’. Since these Sultans were earlier either the slaves of the Turks or were the sons of the slaves, they were called Mamluk Sultans.
Who was Qutubuddin Aibak ? State any two of his qualities.
Qutubuddin Aibak is regarded as the founder of the Slave dynasty. Qutubuddin Aibak was a man of letters. Scholars like Hasan Nizami and Fakhre Mudir adorned his court. Because of liberal distribution of money, he earned the title of ‘Lakhbaksh’. Qutubuddin Aibak laid the foundation of Qutub Minar in Delhi, after the name of the famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki.
3. With reference to the Khilji dynasty, answer the following questions :
What were the steps taken by Alauddin Khilji to regulate prices ?
He fixed the cost of all commodities such as food grains, sugar and cooking oil. For this purpose, he set up three markets at Delhi — one market for food grains, the second for costly cloth, and the third for horses, slaves and cattle. Each market was put under the charge of a controller of market (Shahna). Very strict punishments were prescribed for cheating and under weighing the goods.
What were the methods adopted by Alauddin Khilji to crush the power of the nobility ?
When Alauddin Khilji came to the throne, he had to face a series of rebellions from the nobles. So he took a number of measures to crush their power.
- The Nobles were not allowed to hold parties or festivities or to form marriage alliances without the permission of the Sultan.
- The use of wine and intoxicants was banned.
- Gambling was forbidden and gamblers were severely punished.
- He stopped paying the soldiers in land and introduced cash salaries.
- He established an efficient spy system to keep a check on the activities of the nobles.
What measures did Alauddin Khilji take to increase the revenue?
Alauddin Khilji introduced a number of important measures to get maximum revenue. He brought all the land of the empire into his direct control. He introduced the practice of measuring land and fixing the state share accordingly. He increased the land revenue from one-third to one-half and demanded it to be paid in cash and not kind. He also appointed special officers to collect land revenue.
4. With reference to the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, explain the following :
His attempts to transfer the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad.
During Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s reign the empire had also spread to the south. He shifted his capital to Devagiri near modern Aurangabad and renamed it Daulatabad. He did it for the following reasons :
- Daulatabad was centrally located from where he could control the Deccan territories ; and
- Delhi was in the grip of severe famine; and
- Delhi was constantly threatened by the Mongol invasions. He ordered the people of Delhi including religious heads to shift to Daulatabad in 1328-29.
Introduction of token currency.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced the “token currency”. It meant introduction of bronze tanka in place of silver tankas. This was done because of the shortage of silver. But this experiment failed due to the circulation of counterfeit or fake coins on a very large scale.
Increased taxation in Doab and its consequences.
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq wanted to conquer territories not only in India but also in Central Asia. He required a large army and, therefore, large amounts of money to pay for the army. So in order to get more revenue, he increased the land tax in the fertile region of Ganga-Yamuna doab. At the same time, a severe famine broke out in the area and the people refused to pay the extra taxes and rose in rebellion. But the tax collectors showed no mercy and took stern measures to collect the taxes. This made some of the peasants to abandon their lands and flee to jungles.
With reference to the administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate, give the functions of each of the following officials :
(a) Ariz-i-mumalik — The minister in charge of the army was called ariz-i-mumalik’. The ariz was notthe commander- in-chief of the army, since the Sultan himself commanded all the armed forces. The special responsibility of the afiz’s department was to recruit, equip and pay the army.
(b) Wazir — The key figure in administration was the wazir, who acted as the Prime Minister. The wazir supervised the work of the other officials.
Study the picture of Qutab Minar and answer the following questions :
(a) Who began erecting this monument ? Where is it located?
(b) Name the saint after whom the monument is named.
(c) Name the ruler who completed the construction of Qutab Minar.
(d) Mention three important features of the monument.
- Qutub-ud-Din Aibak began to erect this monument. It is located in Delhi.
- This monument is named after the Sufi saint, Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki.
- The structure was completed only in AD 1230 by Tllutmish.
- It has five stores separated by balconies. Its height is 71.4 meters. It is of 13.8 meters in diameter. It is made of red sandstone, marble and grey quartzite.
7. With reference to the invasion of Muhammad Ghori, answer the following questions :
Why did Muhammad Ghori invade India ?
The reasons which made Muhammad Ghori to invade India. The wealth and military resources of India, which he thought could be utilised to safeguard the Ghurid empire. Therefore, he strengthened his position at Ghazni and turned his attention towards India. He invaded India several times between 1175 and 1206.
Briefly describe the conflict between Prithviraj Chauhan in the two battles of Tarain.
In 1191, in the First Battle of Tarain, the forces of Muhammad Ghori were completely routed by the forces of Prithviraj. Muhammad Ghori decided to avenge his defeat and made another bid for India in 1192. The Second Battle ofTrarain in 1192 is regarded as one of the turning points of Indian history. The Turkish army of Muhammad Ghori won the battle. A large number of Rajput soldiers lost their lives. Prithviraj escaped, but was captured. Later on Turkish army attacked and captured Ajmer. It seems that Prithviraj was allowed to rule over Ajmer for some times as is evident from the coins of the period giving the date and the legend Prithviraj adeva on one side and the words ‘Sri Muhammad Sam’ on the other.
What were the cause of success of the Turks against the Rajputs ?
The factors which led to the defeat of the Rajputs against the Turks were the following :
- The Turkish army consisted mainly of cavalry and its horses had greater stamina and endurance.
- The Turkish army comprised expert military leaders from different lands who employed new tactics of war. The Rajputs, on the other hand, followed outdated tactics.
- The Rajput soldiers were highly efficient in the use of spear and sword and excellent in hand-to-hand fighting. But as archers, they were inferior to the Turks. The Turks were aware of the weak points of their opponents. They avoided a close combat and usually made their attack from a safe distance.
- The Rajputs were divided into a number of clans, each of which laid greater importance to its own family traditions. The Turks had to fight not against a unified army but against a few dynasties.
8. With reference to the social life during the Sultanate period, answer the following questions :
Explain the caste divisions which existed in the social structure.
There were hardly any changes in the structure of the Hindu society during the period.
According to the Smritis, the Brahmins were at the apex, followed by the Kshatriyas. The duty of the Kshatriyas was to protect the people. The Vaishyas were engaged in trade.
It was the duty of the shudras to serve the other castes, but they were allowed to engage in all occupation. However, severe restrictions were placed on mingling with the out castes. The Muslims were divided into ethnic and racial groups. There were Turkish, Iranian, Arab, Afghan and Abyssinian muslims. During the 13th century, among all the foreigners, the Turkish Muslims were in a dominating position. Besides, the muslims were divided into many groups on the basis of origin, religion and occupation.However, the caste divisions did not close social intercourse between the Muslims and the Hindus.
Explain the inequalities which existed between rulers and the ruled during the Sultanate period.
During the Sultanate period, the society was marked by inequalities. In towns, the nobles and merchants led a life of great luxury. The great mass of people lived in simple life and had to face many hardships. It was, however, not a life with out joy, as numerous festivals and fairs held from time to time used to relieve them of their monotonous existence.
Describe the condition of women during the Sultanate period.
There was hardly any change in the position of women among the Hindus. The old rules such as early marriage for girls and the wife’s obligation of service and devotion to the husband continued. A number of travellers refers to the existence of the evil practice of Sati. According to Ibn Batuta, permission from the Sultan had to be taken for the performance of Sati. The practice of purdah was widespread among the upper class women.
His a brief account of the reign of Alauddin Khalji under the following headings.
(a) His main conquests
(b) Treatment meted out to the rulers of Southern India.
(a) Alauddin Khalji raided Malwa and Gujarat and also defeated the Rajput rulers of Ranthambhor and Chittor. Next, he faced to the four wealthy kingdoms of the deccan—Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra and Pandya Kingdom with its Capital at Madurai. The task of conquest of Deccan had been entrusted by Alauddin to his military commander, malik Kafur.
(b) The task of conquest of Deccan had been entrusted by Alauddin to his military commander Malik Kafur.Malik Kafur captured an immense booty which consisted of hundreds of elephants, thousands of horses and gold and jewels in large quantities. But Southern India was not annexed. Its rulers had to acknowledge the lordship of Delhi Sultan and pay him tribute in return for peace and protection.
Why did Muhammad Tughlaq’s following schemes prove a failure?
(a) An increase in taxation in the Doab.
(b) Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Devagiri.
(c) Introduction of Token Currency.
(a) He increased the taxation in the Doab, the territory between rivers Ganga and Yamuna with a view to augment his resources. This scheme was defeated because of consecutive years of drought.
(b) In 1327 he decided to transfer his Capital from Delhi to Devagiri now Daulatabad with a view to having the Capital situated in the middle of his kingdom. He was bent upon taking all the inhabitants of Delhi to the new Capital. No one liked the forced move; it was doomed to failure. As soon as the Sultan was convinced of the failure of his scheme, he ordered the people to return to their homes in Delhi.
(c) In 1329 the Sultan introduced Token Currency by proclaiming that brass and copper coins could have the same use or function as that of gold and silver coins disappeared from the market and forged copper coins manufactured by people at their homes came into circulation. Trade and business came to a stand still.
Give an account of the administration of the Sultanate of Delhi under the following
(a) Position of the Sultan
(b) His Ministers
(c) Provincial Administration
(a) The Sultan of Delhi was an unlimited despot. He was the chief executive of the state; he was also the highest judicial authority. The Sultan was the Commander-in-Chief of the army. His powers were very wide. He was responsible for the safety and security of the state. A direct appeal could be made to him against the highhandedness of any of his officials or judges. There was no constitutional method to remove a king from the throne. He could be removed only by a successful revolt which meant a Civil War.
(b) The Sultan, however, could not manage the task of administration single-handed. The highest officer in the government was the Wazir, the Chief Minister. Other key functionaries and ministers were the Diwan (the Finance Minister), the Qazi (Chief Judge) and the Ariz (the Army Minister). The special responsibility of the Army Minister was to recruit, equip and pay the soldiers.
(c) The provinces were placed in the charge of Governors called Naib Sultans. The most important provinces under Khaljis and the Tughlaqs were those of Jaunpur, Malwa, Khandesh, Gujarat, Bengal and the Dakhin (Deccan). The Governors were required to maintain a powerful army and provide military aid to Sultan in times of War. In each province there was a regular department for the collection of land revenue and other taxes.
Describe the social conditions during the Sultanate period under the following headlines :
(a) Caste structure and position of Women and Slaves
(b) Position of the Hindus
(a) There was little change in the position of the so-called untouchables in Hindu society. Even the Muslim society had its own class structure for purposes of marriage and social interaction. However, the Sultans had started recruiting Hindu soldiers for their armies.
The women among the Muslim and the high caste Hindus were reared in seclusion. Purdah system (wearing a veil) grew more pronounced during this age. A large section of population consisted of slaves, who were generally bought for domestic service. Some of the skilled slaves had risen to high offices in the state. Slaves were allowed to marry and raise their own families.
(b) The Hindus formed the vast majority of the population. In spite of their disabilities, there were many well-to-do persons among them. The Chaudharies and prominent businessmen were mostly Hindus. Deliberate humiliation, destruction of temples and occasional persecution of Brahmins made them angry and pessimistic at times. But a few Turkish rulers knew that unless Hindus cooperated with them, Muslim soldiery and nobility could not be sustained.
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