Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 7 The Medieval India: The Cholas.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 7 The Medieval India: The Cholas.
I. Short Answer Questions :
Mention the significance of inscriptions for providing information about the Cholas.
The inscriptions provide the following information about the Cholas.
- They tell us about the Chola administration.
- They record gifts and endowments to temples and brahmanas.
- They inform us about the construction of a temple or the setting up of a new image of the deity.
- (Inscriptions on temple walls served the purpose of a public registrations by conserving a record of sales, mortageges and other forms of transfers of property rights in village lands.
- Inscriptions have preserved the decisions and agreements on meters of public importance.
Who established the rule of the Cholas ?
Chola ruler Vijayalya (AD 846-871) established Chola rule in Tamil land with Tagore as his capital during the middle of ninth century.
Why did Rajaraja undertake a naval expedition against Ceylon and Maldives ?
Rajaraja (AD 985-1012)was a brilliant general and attacked the kingdoms of Pandyas and Cheras and parts of Mysore. This area was the main region of activities of Arabian traders. In order to strengthen his power along the coast of South India, he took out a naval expedition and attacked both Ceylon and Maldives islands.
Name any three great rulers of the Chola dynasty.
- Rajaraja I (AD 985-1012)
- Raj endra Chola (AD 1012-1044)
- Rajadhiraj Chola (AD 1044-1052)
Give any two achievements of Rajendra Chola.
- He defeated Mahipala, king of Bengal and adopted the title of Gangaikonda.
- With a huge navy he defeated Shrivijaya king and solved the problem of Indian merchants who were in trouble by the merchants of Shrivijaya.
Name the new capital built by Rajendra Chola.
The new capital was Gangaikonda-Cholapuram.
Why did the Cholas build a strong naval fleet ?
The Cholas built a strong naval fleet, in order to keep a strong control over the trade activities of Arabian traders with the Indian merchants of the southern coastal region.
What made the Chola administration strong and effective?
The Cholas system of administration was highly organised and efficient, the king as the pivot of all administration. There was central government, provincial government and local self-government including ‘ur’ – assembly of normal villages, ‘Sabha’- assembly of Brahmins and ‘nagaram’ – the assembly of merchants. All this well distributed and managed system of administration became strong and effective.
Name the two languages promoted by the Cholas.
The two languages promoted by the Cholas were Sanskrit and Tamil. Poems and plays were also written in Tamil by leading poets and dramatists. The works of Tamil writers were collected in eleven volumes which are known as ‘Tirumurais’.
Name any two features of temple built by the Cholas.
The chief features of Chola temples are their massive vimanas or towers and spacious courtyards. Most of the Chola temples were built in the Dravidian style.
Which is the best example of Chola temples ?
The best example of Chola temple is the Brihadeshvara or Shiva temple at Tanjavur.
What is known as the ‘gopuram’ ?
The ‘gopuram’ is the structure of entrance of the temple.
To what use was the temple put during the Chola period?
The temple in the Chola kingdom was the center of social activity. The money donated by the people was used for decoration and maintenance of the temples. Some temples also participated in inland and overseas trade. The temples also provided employment to large number of people and also provided food, clothing and housing facilities and education. Medical aid and hospitals were also established by the temples.
Name one important literary source that gives information about the Cholas. Name the author of this text and the ruler, whose exploits its describes.
Kalingattuparani is an important literary source about the Cholas. It was a war song by Jayankondar, the court poet of Kulottunga. It celebrates the victory of Kulottunga Chola I over the Kalinga King, Anantavarman Chodaganga in the Chola-Kalinga war. Kulottunga Chola I is the hero of this magnificent work.
Name the last ruler of the Cholas.
Rajadhiraj Chola (AD 1044-1052) was the last great ruler of Chola dynasty.
Who finally defeated the Cholas ?
Cholas were defeated by Chalukyas in AD 1052, in the famous battle of Koppam.
Give an example of sculpture during the Chola period.
The Cholas excelled in making images of gods and goddesses made of stone and bronze; e.g., the bronze image of Lord Shiva as ‘Nataraja’ – Lord of Dance, is an excellent work of art.
Who wrote the Tamil Ramayana ?
Kamban wrote the Tamil Ramayana.
Name the book written by Kamban.
Kamban wrote Tamil Ramayana in the beginning of 12th century.
Name any two literary works (literary sources) to reconstruct the age of Imperial Cholas.
- Kalingattuparani and
Name any two archaeological sources to reconstruct the age of Imperial Cholas.
- Brihadeswara Temple.
- Hundreds of inscriptions both in Tamil and Sanskrit the Chola kingdom.
Under whose rule, the Cholas rose to imperial greatness towards the end of the 10th century AD?
Under the ruler ship of Sundara Chola’s son, Rajaraja I, the Cholas rose to Imperial greatness towards the end of the 10th century AD.
Mention any two victories won by Cholas under Rajaraja I.
Annexation of Kalinga and Maldives.
Who among the Chola kings adopted the title of ‘Gangaikonda’?
Rajendra I, adopted the title of‘Gangaikonda’. Gangakundrapuram or Gangaikonda-Cholapuram.
What names were given to the following territorial divisions of the Chola kingdom :
(a) Province, and
(b) the District?
Following names were given to the following territorial divisions of the Chola kingdom :(a) The Province was named as Mandalams.
(b) The District was named as Nadu.
What was the method of electing members of the village assembly under the Cholas?
The method of electing members of the village assembly was as such-name-slips of the candidates were thrown and mixed up in a pot, from which they were drawn one by one a small boy. The results were announced by the village-priest.
Mention any two duties assigned to a village assembly under the Cholas.
Following are the two duties assigned to a village assembly under the Cholas :
- To regulate water supply.
- To provide education to children.
Give one evidence to suggest that Cholas constructed magnificent temples.
The Brihadeswara Temple, also known as Rajarajeshwara Temple at Thanjavur.
Who translated the Ramayana into Tamil?
Kamban translated the Sanskrit epic Ramayana into Tamil.
Name the two scholars (one Buddhist and another Jain) who made rich contribution to Tamil literature.
Jain scholar Amrit Sagar and Buddhist scholar Buddhamitra.
Mention any two sources of revenue of the Chola rulers.
The two sources of revenue of the Chola rulers were :
- The land-revenue, that was fixed at 1/6 of the gross produce.
- The taxes on trade, mines, hand-looms water courses and the costumes i.e., duties on imported goods.
Give two evidence to suggest that the Cholas employed their resources in public work projects.
Two evidence that suggest the Cholas employed their resources in public work projects are as follows :
- The Cholas spent huge sums on irrigation projects such as canals, tanks, dams and wells.
- The Cholas also constructed roads which were a great boost to the economy of the land-trade, commerce and communication.
II. Structured Questions.
With reference to the sources of information about the Cholas, give the significance of the following :
(a) Chola Inscriptions.
(b) Brihadeshwara Temple.
(a) ChoIa Inscriptions—The inscription provide the following information about the Cholas.
- They give information about the Chola administration. For example, the Uttaramerur inscription gives information on the village administration, taxation and land revenue.
- They record gifts and endowments to temples and brahmanas. Copper-plate inscriptions are the records of grants of villages, plots of land or other privileges to individuals or institutions by the Cholas. For example, the Leyden grant (so called as they are preserved in the Museum of Leyden in Holland) of Parantaka Chola and those of Parakesari Uttama Chola are among the most important.
- They tell us about the construction of a temple or the setting up of a new image of the deity.
- Some inscriptions have preserved the decisions and agreements on matters of public importance. These include royal orders on taxation and land revenue resolutions of village assemblies, judgement delivered against persons guilty of theft, murder and other crimes.
- Inscriptions on temple walls served the purpose of a public registrations by conserving a record of sales, mortgages and other forms of transfers of property rights in village lands.
(b) Brihadeshwara Temple — The Brihadeshwara temple is the finest monument of a splendid period of South Indian history and the most beautiful specimen of Tamil architecture. The temple has been declared as a World Heritage City by UNESCO. It is one of the best specimens of Dravidian style of architecture. The main structure of the temple has a great building to temples. The taxes on land were collected by the officials from the village councils. vimana (tower) and is crowned by a massive dome consisting of a single block of stone. The massive temple building is covered from the base to the top with sculptures and decorative mouldings. The shrine houses a gigantic Shiva Lingam, cut in a monolithic rock.
With reference to the Chola period explain the following”
(a) Taxes imposed by the Cholas.
(b) Administration of the Kingdom,
(c) The three types of village assemblies.
(a) The revenue of the Chola Kingdom came from taxes on land and produce of the land and tax on trade. Part of the revenue was kept for the king and the rest was used for public works.
(b) The administration was highly organised and divided into central, provincial and local self governments in order to get better results.
(c) The three types of village assemblies were as follows: (0 ‘ur’ — the assembly of common villages.
- ‘Sabha’ — the assembly of Brahmins.
- ‘nagaram’ — the assembly of merchants.
With reference to the Chola Administration, write short notes on :
(a) The King, the chief administrator
(b) Local Self-Government
(a) The King was the pivot of administration with the help of the council of ministers. The King also went on tours to observe the public problems.
(b) Cholas were good administrators. They believed in local self-government. In many of the villages the administration was carried out, not by the government officials but by the villagers themselves. These villages had three types of village assemblies, namely, the ur, the sabha and the nagaram. There are long inscriptions on the walls of some of the village temples giving details of how the ur and sabha were organised.
Study the picture of the Brihadeshwara Temple and answer the following questions :
(a) Who built this temple ? Brihadeshwara Temple
(b) To which deity is the temple dedicated ?
(c) Mention two special features of this temple.
(a) Brihadeshvara temple at Tanjavur was built by the Chola King Rajaraja-1.
(b) It is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
- The main structure of the temple has a great vimana or tower consisting of 13 successive stores rising to a height of 190 feet.
- Its top is crowned by a massive dome of a single block of stone about 25 feet high and weighing about 80 tons.
With reference to the South Indian temples answer the following questions :
(a) The role of the temple as an employer.
(b) The role of the temple as a landlord.
(c) The role of the temple as centers of learning.
(a) The temple provided employment to large number of people in various types of works and means of livelihood to a large number of people. The temples used to take care of the welfare of its workers by providing food, 128 clothing and housing facilities and by arranging groper education and establishing hospitals.
(b) The temple owned large areas of land, so the temple authorities worked as big landlords.
(c) Various types of people from different communities came together in the temple and discussed several matters of public problems and views. This resulted in the promotion of knowing and learning the various aspects of social structure and state of progress.
With reference to Chola literature, write on the following:
(b) Religious and secular literature.
(a) It is a 12th century poem and a war song by Jayankondar, the court poet of Kulottunga I. It is the most fascinating historical work in Tamil literature which celebrates the victory of Kulottunga Chola I over the Kalinga King, Anantavarman Chodaganga in the Chola-Kalingawar. It gives a vivid and a graphic description of battle scenes and also provides details about the route taken by Kulottunga’s army. It is hailed as one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature with its majestic styles and diction,
(b) Tamil Ramayan and stories from Ramayana and Mahabharat are the religious literature. The secular literature are treaties on grammar by Buddhamitra and Rawankashi.
7. Write short notes on the following :
The revenue system of the Cholas.
The revenue of the Chola kingdom came from — taxes on land and the produce of the land, and tax on trade. Part of the revenue was kept for the king. The rest was used on public works, such as the building of roads and tanks, on salaries of officials, on paying for the upkeep of the army, and on the building to temples. The taxes on land were collected by the officials from the village councils.
The inscriptions of the Chola are in the form of Copper-plate grants, inscribed on the walls and pillars of temples. The Copper-plate grants known by the names. Anbil and Karandi as well as the Kanyakumari stone inscription give long legendary genealogies which indicate the Solar origin of the Chola dynasty. Another set of Copper-plate contains 31 copper sheets. These plates are written in Sanskrit and Tamil. They record a grant made to a temple by Rajendra Chola I.
With the accession of Rajaraja I (985-1014 AD) began the most glorious epoch of the Cholas. In this context, explain briefly:
(a) His Conquests.
(b) His activities as a Great Builder and a Ruler.
With the accession of Rajaraja I (985-1014 AD) began the most glorious epoch of the Cholas. In this context, the given headlines are described as below :
(a) Rajaraja defeated the Cheras and then he seized Madurai and captured the Pandya king Amarbhujanga. He also annexed Kalinga. He carried out powerful raids into the territory of Western Chalukyas also. He invaded the Island of Sri Lanka and annexed its northern parts. Towards the end of his reign he conquered Maldives. Thus, Rajaraja made himself the overlord of almost the whole of the present state of Tamil Nadu, parts of the State of Karnataka, its adjoining regions, Sri Lanka and other islands.
(b) Rajaraja I was also a capable administrator, a great builder and a patron of arts and literature. A chief mark of his administrative system was an expansion of rural self-governing institutions. He constructed the famous Brihdeswara Temple (also known as Rajarajeshwara Temple) at Thanjavur. He endowed and built some Vishnu temples also. He worshipped
Shiva, but was tolerant of other sects and religions, as is evident from the fact that he granted to a village to the Buddhist Vihara at Nagapattam in the Malay peninsula.
King Rajendra I (1014-1044 AD) raised the Chola empire to the pinnacle of glory. In this context explain:
(a) His main Conquests.
(b) His attainments as a Great Builder.
King Rajendra I (1014-1044 AD) raised the Chola empire to the pinnacle of glory. In this context the given headlines are explained as under:
(a) His main Conquests : About 1017 AD, he annexed the whole of Sri Lanka. He organised the Pandya and Kerala territories and the Island of Sri Lanka into regular provinces of his empire. His armies marched through the northern region as far as the Ganga Valley. He overpowered Orissa and a portion of Eastern Bengal. To commemorate this event, he adopted the title of Gangaikonda and built a new Capital called Gangaikonda-Cholapuram, identified with Gangakundapuram. In 1025 AD, he despatched a naval expedition for the conquest of King Shailendra’s territories of Java and Sumatra.
(b) His attainments as a Great Builder : Rajendra I got constructed an artificial lake, near his new Capital. Its embankments were more than 25 kms. in length. It was filled with water from the Kolerun and Vellar rivers. He also constructed a splendid temple at Gangaikonda-Cholapuram. Its huge lingam (a symbol of generative power) of solid granite is very impressive.
Under Cholas, the ruler was the pivot on which turned the whole machinery of the state, but actual administration was not hightly centralised. In this context, explain briefly.
(a) The position of the Chola Monarch.
(b) The functioning of the autonomous rural institutions (Gram Sabhas).
Under Cholas the ruler was the pivot on which turned the whole machinery of the state, but actual administration was not highly centralised. In this context given headlines are explained as under:
(a) The position of the Chola Monarch : The king was the pivot, around, which the whole system was based. The coronation Ceremony was marked by many festivities. The power and glory of the monarch was enchanced with the huge resources of the kingdom, vast palace establishment and splendour of the Court. The verbal orders of the King were reduced to writing, before they were communicated to the officials concerned.
(b) The functioning of the autonomous rural institutions (Gram Sabha) : Gram Sabha enjoyed full powers in the management of local affairs. The village assemblies administered justice within the village except the cases involving serious crimes. They regulated water supply, gathered such as temples, schools etc. They could sell or donate for religious purposes. Accounts were maintained with meticulous care. In case a defaulter embezzled money, he was severely dealt with.
The village assembly on its affairs with the help of smaller committees, each looking after specific matters such as the tanks, gardens, temples, justice and general management.
Discuss people’s social life under Imperial Cholas with reference to :
(a) Caste System
(a) The caste system very much prevailed in Southern India. Besides the prosperous Brahmins, merchants had emerged as a powerful class by virtue of their wealth. The social status of the lower castes was pitiable. They could not draw water from the common wells, nor were they allowed to enter temples.
(b) The Chola emperors were worshippers of Lord Shiva, but they were by no means intolerant of other sects and religions.
Write a brief not on the works of art and public works _ projects of the Chola rulers.
The Chola rulers built cities and beautiful them with majestic palaces and grand temples. The chief features of these temples are their vimanas or tower, magnificient, sculptures, pillared halls. One of the masterpieces of Chola architecture is the Brihadeswara Temple.The Cholas spent huge sums on irrigation projects viz., canals, tanks, dams and wells, Rajendra I, dug an artificial lake near his new Capital, Gangaikonda-Cholapuram. They also constructed roads which were a great boost to the economy of the land-trade, commerce and communications.
Write a brief note on the development of Tamil Literature under the Cholas.
The development of literature, art and architecture of the Chola period promoted the cultural value of the Chola rule. The Cholas made lot of improvements in these fields. The Chola rule marked a milestone in the history of Tamil literatures. The Chola kings gave many concessions and patronage to Tamil scholars and writers. Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance and trade with the revival of Cholas power in the middle of the ninth century, the awareness for the literature and art broadened for the first time in history, an imperial state encompassed the entire South India bringing with it the safety and security to the people and provided the opportunity for the people to experience cultures beyond their own. Tamil became a language of the people. One of the best known Tamil work of this period is the Kamban Ramayana by Kamban who flourished during the reign of Kulottunga III. It is the greatest epic in Tamil Literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki, his work is not a mere translation or even an adaptation of Sanskrit epic.
More Resources for Class 9 ICSE Solutions
- Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions (Morning Star)
- ICSE Solutions for Class 9 History and Civics (Avichal, Candid & Goyal Brothers Prakashan)
- ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Geography (Morning Star, Candid, Pitambar and others)
- ICSE Solutions for Class 9 English Literature and Language
- ICSE Solutions for Class 9 English – A Collection of Poems & Short Stories
- ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Hindi
- Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Maths (Selina Publishers)
- Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Physics (Selina Publishers)
- Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Chemistry (Selina Publishers)
- Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Biology (Selina Publishers)
- New Simplified Chemistry Class 9 ICSE Solutions (Dr. Viraf J.Dalal, Allied Publishers)
- A New Approach to ICSE Physics Part 1 Class 9 Solutions (Goyal Brothers Prakashan)
- Frank ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Maths (Frank Brothers)
- Frank ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Physics (Frank Brothers)
- Frank ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Chemistry (Frank Brothers)
- Frank ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Biology (Frank Brothers)
Hope given Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 6 are helpful to complete your homework.
If you have any doubts, please comment below. APlusTopper try to provide online tutoring for you.