Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 14 Our Constitution.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 14 Our Constitution.
What is meant by the term Constitution ?
‘Constitution’ is a comprehensive document containing the set of rules according to which the government of a country runs.
On the basis of which plan was the Constituent Assembly constituted ?
On the basis of the proposals of the Freedom Fighters a Constituent Assembly was set up, whose members were to be elected indirectly by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies.
What is known as the ‘Objectives Resolution’?
‘Objective Resolution,’ was proposed by Pt. Nehru on December 13,1946, for highlighting the ‘national goals’.
By whom and when was the Objective Resolution proposed and passed ?
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the Resolution and it was passed on January 22, 1947.
Who was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent ?
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee. Which was set up on August 29, 1947.
When was the Constitution adopted and passed ? When did it come into force ?
The Constitution was adopted and passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Constitution as a whole came into force with effect from January 26, 1950.
State the significance of January 26.
It was on this date, January 26, in 1929, that the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress had for the first time given the call for ‘Purna Swaraj’. Since then, the day was celebrated as Independence Day up to 1947, but later on, it was designated as the Republic Day.
What is known as the Preamble ? What is the importance of the opening words of the Preamble ?
The Preamble is the introductory part of constitution, which sets out the main objectives of the Constitution.Though the Preamble is not an operative part of the Constitution, it has a hold on the governments. This is because when there is a dispute regarding the interpretation of the text of the Constitution, explanation given in the Preamble comes in handy.
How is the Indian Republic different from that of the USA?
In the United States, the President is directly elected by the people whereas in the Indian Republic, the President is indirectly elected, by the elected representatives of the people.
Explain the significance of the term ‘Sovereign’.
The Preamble declared India a ‘Sovereign state’. It means that India is its own ‘Supreme’ power and not a subject of any other state or country.
Why was the word ‘SECULAR’, incorporated in the Preamble ?
The people of India form a significant mixture of the different religions and communities. So, it was indispensable to follow secularism, in order to maintain peace and order, because it concentrates on the respect and importance to every religion, as every religion is made for the welfare of humanity.
Explain the significance of the term ‘DEMOCRATIC’ in the Preamble.
This term implies that India has chosen a form of government in which people have a say as to who should hold power and how it should be used Government by the people, of the people and for the people.
What is meant by the term ‘JUSTICE’ as an ideal of the Indian Constitution ?
‘Justice’ implies not only administration of law in a fair and responsible way but also with out any privilege or prejudice.
Give two examples to indicate that the Preamble to the Constitution has ensured political justice for all.
- There is freedom for the citizens to have their political views as long as such views do not go against the interest of the country.
- There is freedom to vote for any recognised political party in the country.
- Every citizen of India except those who are debarred on account of criminal offenses can stand for election and hold office if elected.
Mention any two features indicating the significance of the Preamble.
- The Preamble represents the essence, the philosophy, the ideals of the entire Constitution of India. The other parts and provisions of the Constitution are only an elaboration and an attempt to give concrete shape to the words of the Preamble.
- The Preamble contains the five basic features of the Constitution. That is India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. Besides, it reminds people of the Four Ideals of the State. That is, India should secure to all its citizens Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
Why did the Muslims League boycott the meetings of the Constituent Assembly ?
The Muslims League boycotted the Constituent Assembly to demand the creation of a separate state called Pakistan.
Who represented the Anglo-Indians in the Constituent Assembly ?
The Anglo-Indians were represented by Mr. Frank Anthony and Mr. S.H. Prater, the Indian Christians, by Dr. H.C. Mukerjee and Joseph D’sauza.
Give two objectives of the Indian Republic as set forth in the constitution of India.
Two objectives are as follows :
- Secularism equal respect and recognition of all religions from the state.
- Sovereign Declaration of India as it own supreme power.
What is one main strength of the Indian Constitution ?
Indian Constitution is a lengthy document, most comprehensive and bulky Constitution ever adopted by any country.
Why is our Constitution known as the ‘Fundamental Law of the Land’?
Being superior to the ordinary laws of the State, the Constitution of India is known as the “Fundamental Law of Land”. Every that law is redundant that violates any of the provisions of the Constitution.
Which body framed the Constitution of India?
The ‘Constituent Assembly’ is the constitution-making body that framed the Constitution of India.
Name the three prominent members of the Constituent Assembly.
The three prominent members of the Constituent Assembly were :
- Lord Pethic Lawrence
- Sir Stafford Cripps
- Mr. Alexander.
Who was elected as Interim President of the Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as Interim President of the Constituent Assembly.
Who was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.
Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee?
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee.
When was the Constitution of India enacted and adopted?
On November 26, 1949 the Constitution of India was enacted and adopted.
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
On January 26, 1950 the Constitution of India came into force.
What is the importance of January 26 in India’s struggle for Puma Swaraj (Complete Independence)?
After a long trail of freedom-struggle and innumerable sacrifices, ultimately India succeeded in attaining the freedom from at the hands of ‘Union Jack’. It was on the 26th of January, 1950 when India got Complete Independence or Puma Swaraj that was absolutely free from the influence of the British government. This very day embodied the dream of freedom of the great freedom- fighters and patriots.
What do y29u understand by the term ‘Preamble’ to the Constitution?
‘Preamble’ is an introduction to the Constitution. It ‘walks before the Constitution and tells the source, the objects and contents of the Constitution. It imbibes the basic structure or framework of the Constitution.
What do the words “We, the People of India” in the Preamble signify?
The words “We, the People of India” in the Preamble relate to the natives from India who by birth belong to India.
Preamble to the Constitution describes India as a Sovereign State. What do you understand by the term ‘Sovereign’?
The term ‘Sovereign’ suggests the meaning in terms of Political Power. That means, a nation which is politically endowed with ruling power in external and internal affairs.
Mention any two implications of a Democratic government, as promised by the Preamble to the Constitution?
A Democratic government, as promised by the Preamble to the Constitution, it implies that the formed government is the government made by the people, of the people and for the people. In other words, a democratic government is fully devoted to the citizens of the country. It promises the citizens provide them physical and social security. If the citizens of the country feel dissatisfied with the government, they can dissolve such government through Franchise, process. Thus, public welfare is the sole motive of a Democratic Government.
Mention any two steps taken by the Indian Republic in pursuance of its socialist objectives.
In pursuance of socialist objectives, following are the two steps taken by the Indian Republic :
- Social Justice.
- Economic Justice.
The Constitution of India stands for a Secular State. What does ‘Secularism’ mean?
‘Secularism’ means the quality of having oneness while looking into the other religions. The country like-India incorporates a number of religions. There is no restrain in following the denomination. Everyone is free to adopt any religion, but side by side, one is to show respect for other religions too. Hence, the Constitution of India seeks uniformity on the religions level. The ideology of uniformity in the religions perspective makes India a Secular State.
What is the opposite of a Secular State? Name any one State that is not Secular.
The opposite of a Secular State is a Theoratic State. Pakistan is a Theocratic State.
Mention any two features illustrating the nature of Indian . Polity or State.
Two features illustrating the nature of Indian Polity or State are as follows :
- India is a Sovereign State : India is Independent both internally and externally. She can frame her own socio-economic policies and develop her resources the way she likes. No foreign State can claim her control over her. She is free to frame her foreign policies and choose her allies in peace and war alike.
- Socialist Order of Society : The work ‘Socialist’ was inserted in the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. Socialism guarantees “fair distribution of wealth” and “securing a decent standard of life to the people”. The Directive Principles laid down in view of State Policy ensure for its people adequate means of livelihood, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work for both men and women, protection of children and the working people against exploitation. The conditions of work in mines and factories are regulated by the Equal Remuneration Act and Workmen’s Compensation Act. The Minimum Wages Act provides for fixation and revision of wages from time to time.
Mention any two of the main objects (or ideals) of the Indian Republic as set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution.
The two main objects (or ideals) of the Indian Republic as set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution, are as under:
- Justice-Social, Economic and Political : It is the fundamental right of every citizen in the society to seek justice whether it is associated with society, economy or politics. Justice ensures of protection of rights and interests of an individual and the society respectively. The constitution makes it possible to achieve such an object by securing to all citizens certain fundamental rights. It also lays down certain Directive Principles guiding the State to work efficiently.
Social Justice in the sense, providing equal opportunities of education work and labour irrespective qf religion, race, caste or sex. It also discourages social abuses like -Untouchability and religion fanaticism. It is liable to uplift the backward and down troddens in the society.The directive Principles aim at making the sound economic position of all the citizens by allocating Economic Justice to all of then by means of equal distribution of wealth system.All the citizens have the right to participate in the political activities. They have right to cast their vote, they have right to contest the election as per the norms and conditions of the election commission. Thus, Political Justice is meant for all.
- Liberty of Thought, Expression, Belief, Faith and Worship : There is provision in the Constitution as the Preamble refers to i.e., every individual has the right to write, speak or express his thoughts, beliefs while keeping himself within the restrictions imposed on this right. Likewise, every person is free to follow any religion. He is free to have faith or belief in any God or Goddess. He can go to any Pilgrimage to worship in the country.
Mention what the Preamble says about ‘Equality’.
While speaking in context of ‘Equality’, the distinction made in the Preamble goes on two levels. On one hand, Equality serves equality for all before law, status and opportunity in matters of public employment, while on the other hand, equality always means “equality among equals”. There can be no equality between paupers and princes. To discriminate between them is not a violation of the Constitution. Consequently, the state can make special provision for women, children and the backward classes of citizens.
Mention what the Preamble state about ‘Fraternity’.
‘Fraternity’ means spirit of brotherhood. As our society is divided by a number of classes castes, religions and languages, therefore it is very essential to establish Harmony amongst them for that reason our constitution-makers added the word ‘fraternity’ in the Preamble. Thus, securing the Unity and Integrity of the Nation.
Mention the words introduced in the Preamble by the Constitution Forty-second Amendment Act, 1976.
The words Socialist, Secular, Unity and Integrity of the Nation were added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitution Amendment Act of 1976. It came into effect on January 3, 1977.
What is the significance of the Preamble to the Constitution?
The Preamble to the Constitution is significant in many ways.
- The Preamble declares that the source of the Constitution is the People of India.
- It indicates the secular, socialist and democratic basis of the Constitution.
- It states the basic or ideals of the Indian Republic. It leads the law and makes it go in the right direction while providing ‘Social Justice’, and protecting the interests of the weaker sections of the society.
- It includes basic features of the constitution viz., Supremacy of the Constitution, India has the Republican and Democratic form of government, the Constitution is that of secular character. Segregation of Powers between the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary, the Constitution is also of Federal character under certain circumstances.
Is the Preamble a part of the Constitution?
Yes, the Preamble is a part of the Constitution because it contains the basic structure or framework of the Constitution.
What do we mean when we say that the Preamble is a part of the Constituion of India?
It means, the Preamble is the introductory part of the Constitution. It “Walks before” the Constitution and cells us the sources, the objects and contents of the Constitution.
The Preamble to the Constitution describes India a Socialist State. What does the expression ‘Socialist’ mean here?
The expression ‘Socialisty’ signifies the meaning of “fair distribution of wealth” and “Securing decent standard of life to the people”. India, which is a Socialist State, she does provide equal opportunities to all, irrespective of birth, sex and religion in all aspects of life.
In what sense is India a Republic?
A Republic country is that, where equality, liberty and fraternity go hand in hand. Such a country is ruled over by the representatives that are nominated and elected from and by amongest the common mass. There is no hereditary monarch in such a state. The President of India holds office for a term of five years. He is the elected Head of the State. The legislators (the MPs and MLAs) are also elected by the people. As India enjoys all these relaxations, hence we can say India is a Republic.
II. Structured Questions :
With reference to the making of Indian Constitution explain the following :
(a) When and how were the members of the Constituent Assembly elected ?
(b) How was the membership of the Constituent Assembly reduced as a result of partition of the country?
(c) How do you say that the Constituent Assembly gave adequate representation to all sections of the Indian Society?
(a) The first sitting of the Assembly was held on December 9, 1946, presided by Dr. Sachidanand Sinha. The oldest member Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected permanent chairman on December 11. 1946. The members were the leading personalities of the day. e.g. Pt. Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukerjee, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, J.B. Kriplani, Maulana Azad, K.M. Munshi, Dr. Ambedkar, H.N. Kunzru, Sarojini Naidu, Vijayalaxmi Pandit, Rajagopalachari etc.
(b) The membership of the Assembly of India stood 299 against the original number of 385 members, due to the partition of the country.
(c) The wide ranging membership of the Assembly gave representation to all shades of public opinion, e.g. Muslims and Sikhs, Congress leaders, Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians, Scheduled Castes and Tribes, all in one, got combined representation.
With reference to the Objective Resolution explain the following :
(a) When was the Resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly ?
(b) What were the main points of the Objective Resolution?
(c) What did the Resolution propose ?
(a) The Resolution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
(b) The Objective Resolution, focussed on the ‘national goals’ of republic, ideals of democracy, fundamental rights of citizens along with minorities and backward classes.
(c) The Resolution proposed:
- Republic of India
- Ideals of social, political and economic democracy would be granted to all.
- Fundamental Rights to citizens.
- Safeguard the rights of minorities and backward classes.
With reference to commencement of the Constitution explain the following :
(a) The changes effected in the administration of the country with the commencement of the Constitution.
(b) The clause relating to citizenship was put into effect immediately after signing of the Constitution.
(a) Along with various important changes for safe side, with a meaningful perspective, the constitution of India is the real.
guide of the successive governments and their political ideologies.
(b) Being an Indian or having Indian citizenship is just not enough without cementing bond of unity of nation. So an Indian citizen is expected to maintain both individual and national dignity.
With reference to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, answer the following :
(a) What became the basis of incorporating the Preamble in the Indian Constitution ?
(b) Give the significance of ‘Wethepeople” in the Preamble.
(c) How have the objectives of Indian Constitution been emphasised in the Preamble.
(a) Preamble is the introductory part of the Constitution summarising the main features and ideals of the nation in order to get proper clue and direction.
(b) We, The People’. It has perhaps been inspired by a similar expression in the American Constitution. The words ‘ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION’ makes the people the holders of this authority. Speaking about this purpose and intention of the Constitution, Dr. Ambedkar said in the Constituent Assembly : “This Constitution has its roots in the people and it derives its authority from the people.”
(c) The objectives of the Indian constitution are emphasised in the preamble in order to memories the ideals and goals of the constitution to keep it unforgettable.
5. With reference to the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, answer the following questions :
Explain the significance of the Preamble.
The significance of the Preamble are as below :
- The Preamble represents the essence, the philosophy, the ideals of the entire Constitution of India. The other parts and provisions of the Constitution are only an elaboration and an attempt to give concrete shape to the words of the Preamble. Over the years so many amendments have been made to the Constitution but its basic features could not be altered.
- Disputes, ambiguities are to be resolved in a writing Constitution. In order to interpret the articles it is necessary to refer often to the Preamble which should form the basis for interpretation.
- The Preamble contains the five basic features of the Constitution. That is, India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. Besides, it reminds people of the Four Ideals of the State. That is, India should secure to all its citizens Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
What is the significance of the words, ‘Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic’ as given
in the Preamble ?
‘ Sovereign Social i st Secular Democratic Republic’. In the words of Chief Justice Hidyatullah : “It lays down the pattern of our political society.” Based on this significance, the Preamble is considered ‘the soul and spirit’ of our Constitution.
Explain the meaning following terms :
(a) Liberty : It means the Liberty of thoughts, expression belief, faith and worship.
(b) Fraternity: It is to assure the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation for brotherhood and friendship.
(c) Equality: It means the equality of status and of opportunity and to promote them among all.
How do you regard the Constitution of India as a real guide for the successive Governments in respect of the following:
(a) The Preamble
(b) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.
(a) The Preamble is an ideal guide to understand the actual objectives and aims of the Nation for easy and peaceful decisions practiced on the basis of it.
(b) Fundamental Rights must be enjoyed by every citizen to satisfy the public opinion and the Directive Principles qf State Policy ensure constant interaction between people and state which are basic roots to be successful for the successive governments in each and every type of circumstances i.e. the key to success is undoubtedly is to follow the constitution for proper guidance.
How can you say that the Constituent Assembly of India represented all major and smaller communities of the country?
Briefly comment on the statement that the Constituent Assembly looked like a Mini-India.
Following the principle of “Unity in Diversification”, the Constituent Assembly of India came into existence. It was skillfully interwoven, taking the members from almost all major regions and all major sections and communities of India. The joint efforts of their, made the country venture into the sea of progress and prosperity in the near future. All the members had been committed to the national integration. They were liable to work in the interests of general public even when their aspirations tended lean to their respective regions and communities. As an evidence in this perspective, we find it included Dr. Ambedkar hailed from maharashtra, Rajendra Prasad and Satyanarayan Sinha belonged to Bihar, Mohammed Saddulla belonged to Assam, Hukam Singh and Ujjal Singh from East Punjab and so on. Also, it included the women members like Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. Thus, in a way the scenario set forth by the Constituent Assembly is no less than A Microcosm of India (Mini- India).
The Preamble to the Constitution declares India to be a Secular-Democratic Republic. In this context, answer the following questions :
(a) What does the expression ‘Secular’ mean here?
(b) Do you agree with the view that Indian Constitution promises not only political and social democracy, but economic democracy as well?
The above questions in context of the Preamble to the constitution declaring India to be a Secular Democratic Republic are answered as under.
(a) The manner in which the word ‘Secular’ is introduced into the Preamble of the Constitution of India, it refers to religious aspect. Ours is the country that is dominated by maximum number of religions. Every religion follows different traditions and rituals. In this light, the makers of the Constitution had to look into every religion with the same point of view, hence it was decided to treat all religions equally, so as to avoid any sort of dispute that might erupt in the name of religion. The impartial attitude adopted towards religion on legal grounds stepped into the need to mention a word like-‘Secular’ in the Constitution. That means. Anyone is free to adopt any religion.
(b) Yes, we very much agree with the view that India Constitution promises not only political democracy, but economic democracy as well. In the Preamble, a just economic system is promised under Economic Justice. A sound democracy lies in a sound economy in a democratic nation. For the purpose, “fair distribution of wealth” and “a decent Standard of life to the people” has been secured in the Indian Constitution
The Preamble states ‘Justice’ and ‘Liberty’ as the basic objects for which the Indian Republic exists. In this context explain the social, economic and political dimensions of Justice.
The Preamble guarantees justice on different levels. Here, Justice is put in a comprehensive manner. Thus, Justice is closely associated to the following aspects that prevail in a democratic Republic State like that of India.In context of Social Justice, one thing is made very clear in the Constitution i.e., all the individuals living in the society shall not be discriminated on the grounds of religion, race, caste or sex. They are supposed to enjoy the civil amenities in a subservient way. There is no room for Untouchability in our Constitution. The State may make provision for the advancement and upliftment of socially and educationally backward classes of citizens.
For Economic Justice, the Directive Principles promise to bring about a just economic system in the Preamble. Economic Justice means, all the citizens living in the society are liable to be financially sound so as to meet and enjoy their daily needs comfortably. As Justice Krishna Iyyer has rightly said in context of Economic Justice, he says, “Economic Justice means, wipping out the tear from every eye”.
Justice is confined to various dimensions when it is talked in Political context. Political Justice is related to the right to vote, free and fair elections and equal access to public offices. The Constitution of India guarantees a minimum number of seats to the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. People belonging to various communities, sects or groups are eligible to form their separate union or association to raise their voice against injustice or in favour of their reasonable demands before the government.
Explain the following terns in the context of the Preamble to the Constitution :
(b) Equality, and
The given terms in context of the Preamble to the Constitution are answered as under :
(a) Liberty : In the preamble, there is a provision of freedom or relaxation over a certain issues under the name of ‘Liberty’, that goes for the welfare of common miss. The liberty mentioned in the context of the Preamble to the Constitution relates to Liberty of Thought, Expression Belief, Faith and Worship. Freedom of through and expression means, the right to speak or write freely on any subject, provided the speaker abides by the restrictions imposed on’ this right. A person has freedom of religion and conscience. The State gives equal freedom to all religions.
(b) Equality : A person is ensured of equality before law. Social equality and equality of opportunity in matters of public employment, are yet another levels of Equality. But, equality is seen on the criterion which reveals “equality among equals”. A poor is no match to a rich. So, at this juncture, equality differs in its meaning. The Constitution too overlooks such a discrimination and rules out any violation while discriminating the both. Hence, the State can make special provision for women, children and the backward classes of citizens.
(c) Fraternity : It is the spirit of brotherhood which is indispensable to bind the nation in a single string to provide strength and stability to the nation. Since, our society is divided by many classes, castes, religions and languages therefore, it is very essential to bring about harmony among them, lest any kind of friction differentiation of ideologies should bring forth any kind confrontation. Fraternity marks the dignity of the individual and the Unity and Integrity of the Nation.
What is the significance of the Preamble to the Constitution?
The Preamble is a prologue that throws the light on the source, the objects and the contents compiled in the Constitution. It is an integral and vital part of the Constitution that consists of the basic structure or framework of the Constitution. It depicts the real, picture of the nation along with the description of its nature. The Preamble states that the source of the Constitution is the People of India. Again, it indicates that India is a secular, socialist and democratic country. It states the basic objects or ideals of the Indian Republic. It works as a lighthouse to Law-makers to bring about amendments time to time in the interests of weaker sections of the society.
What do you know about the Composition of the Constituent Assembly which framed the Constitution of India?
To end the political deadlock, the Cabinet Mission brought forth the proposals of it’s members that contained details of the Constituent Assembly elections that were to be held in July, 1946. The Provincial Assemblies elected the members of the Constituent Assembly, under the scheme of Indirect Election proposed by the Cabinet Mission. The representatives included as per the nomination were from the Princely States, whom the rulers of these states had nominnated. The Constituent Assembly had been equipped with 385 members in all. 292 seats went to the Provinces, whereas the Princely States were allocated 93 seats. However, the number of seats reduced to 308 after the partition of India. The eminent personality, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was appointed the President. Many other distinguished political leaders too joined hands in it’s composition. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of Assembly’s Committee i.e., the Drafting Committee.
In other words, the Constituent Assembly presented the panorama of a Mini-India that included persons from different communities in the society. It also included the women members. Presumably, the Congress had the lion- share in the Constituent Assembly. It also propounded the supporters of Forward Bloc and members of the Hindu Maha Sabha and the Muslim League. In nutshell, the contribution of them led to the framing of the Constitution of the Independent India.
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