Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 13 The Modem Age in Europe: Industrial Revolution.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 13 The Modem Age in Europe: Industrial Revolution.
I. Short Answer Questions :
What is meant by the Industrial Revolution ?
Industrial Revolution is the name given to a series of changes that brought about a transition from production by hand to production by machine.
Name any two consequences of the Industrial Revolution in the economic field.
- Mass production of goods.
- Revolutionary changes in the political, social and economic life of the people.
What is Capitalism ?
The economic system which generates and gives power to capitalists (money-holders) came to be known as ‘Capitalism’.
Who was Karl Marx ? Name his outstanding work.
Karl Marx (1818-83) was a German political philosopher and economist. He wrote “Communist-Manifesto”. Due to his revolutionary ideas he had been compelled to leave Germany and make London his homeland.
What is meant by Socialism ? What was the cause of Socialism ?
It is an economic system in which means of production are owned not by private individuals but by the community. Socialism created as a reaction against the evils of Capitalism. It was to promote the rights of workers and their right to vote in order to set up a society free of exploitation and class divisions.
How did the evil effects of Industrial Revolution help in rise of Socialism ?
During Industrial Revolution, money and power came to the hands of capitalists. So, according to the acceptance of the anti-thesis ‘Laissez faire’, doctrine was socialism which visualised a society free from exploitation.
Mention any two effects of the Industrial Revolution on the general public.
Industrial Revolution resulted in the growth of towns and disappearance of small farmers.
Mention any two advantages of Industrialisation.
Industrialisation encouraged to provide a ready work force for the new industries and advent of better life through education, cultural benefits and enjoyment.
Mention two bad effects of the Industrial Revolution on labourers.
Two bad effects on labourers were as follows :
- Traditional handloom weavers could no longer compete with mechanised production of cloth.
- Domestic system of production was destroyed.
What were the two factors that led to the increase in demand for the British goods ?
The two factors were as follows :
- Due to large colonial hold, England had sufficient raw materials and huge profits of expanding trade provided an impetus to multiply her production.
- Napoleonic wars made the English industries quite active and the demand for the British goods increased remarkably.
How did the increase in the demand of the British goods led to the invention of new machine ?
The invention of machines, revolutionised the industries system in British. The following inventions added with the perfection and demand of the British goods :
- “The Flying shuttle’, invented by John Key, a weaver of Lancashire, which increased the speed of weaving’
- The ‘Spinning-Jenny’, invented by James Hargreaves’ spinning ability of eight threads at a time.
- The ‘Water Frame’, invented by Richard Arkwright, to producer harder and stronger yarn.
- The ‘Crompton’s Mule’, invented by Samuel Compton to combine, quantity with quality.
- The ‘Powerloom’, invented by Cartwright, to operate about 100 spindles.
How did urbanisation take place ?
The Industrial Revolution deeply affected the pattern of social settlement. Migration of people from the villages towards towns increased urbanisation along with the increase in population and labourers and change in sources of income.
What is known as the investment ?
From the word ‘to cloth, its Latin ‘investire’ gave rise to a new term called investment. I came to mean acquisition of financial or productive assets with the help of the capital. The general meaning of the investment is the application of a particular amount of capital for some profitable production.
How does India uphold socialist principles ?
India had been a prominent nation to follow socialism in the form of equal rights for every citizen. Now, in democratic scene, the principles of socialism are very well practiced through welfare of mankind in common subjects of unemployment solutions, old-age pensions, protection against illness etc.
Name any two sources to reconstruct the Industrial Revolution in England.
- The wonderful inventions of Arkwright, Crompton, Cartwright, James Watt.
- Factory Acts in England.
What is meant by Industrial Revolution?
The word ‘Revolution’ means, something “sudden and quite swift”. Industrial Revolution resulted in revolutionary changes in all walks of life.
Mention any two causes responsible for Industrialisation in England.
Reasons for the initiation of Industrialisation in England are :
- Enclosure Movement (Availability of Cheap Labour).
- Availability of Coal and Iron.
What is meant by four-fold rotation of crops introduced by Lord Townshend in England?
Lord Townshend introduced a new four-fold rotation of crops in his farm (turnip, barley, clover and wheat). This new-system disallowed leaving the land, lie fallow the third year.
What was the significance of Hargreaves Spinning- Jenny?
Hargreaves Spinning-Jenny could spin eight threads at a time.
What was the significance of the weaving loom, invented by Edmund Cartwright?
The weaving loom, invented by Edmund Cartwright could be driven by horses. Later, this loom was improved.and was operated by water-power.
What was the significance of James Watt’s Steam- Engine?
James Watt’s Steam-Engine could run with the steam- pressure. Steam could drive the piston backwards and forwards. It was an effective means to turn the wheels. It became the throbbing heart of every industry.
Name the first warship built of iron plates in England.
The first warship built of iron plates in England was the Warrior (1860).
When and during whose regime were the first railway lines opened in India?
In 1848-1856 during the regime of Lord Dalhousie, the first railway lines opened in India.
When was Penny Postage introduced in England?
In 1840, Penny Postage was introduced in England.
What is meant by ‘Serfdom’?
‘Serfdom’ means, working of people on their master’s land and not to leave without his permission.
How did the abolition of Serfdom promote industrialisation in Russia?
Abolition of Serfdom freed a large number of persons, who were then employed in the factories. Thus, it facilitated the industrialisation of the country. After the success of the Communist Revolution (1917) railways, workshops and factories were declared ‘national property’ and operated directly by the Government.
Mention any two advantages of Industrialisation.
Two advantages of Industrialisation are :
- Production in large quantities.
- Brought Countries and peoples together.
Mention any two abuses or disadvantages of Industrial Revolution.
Two abuses or disadvantages of Industrial Revolution are mentioned as under :
- Urbanisation (Shifting of population from villages to cities).
What is a Capitalist system?
A Capitalist system is the economic system in which business and industries were owned by private individuals and not by the State.
What is meant by Socialism?
Socialism consists of one demand, namely that the land and other instruments of production shall be the common property of the people and shall be used and governed by the people, for the people.
Name any two of the Early French socialists.
Babeuf and Saint-Simon.
What is the role of Robert Owen in the history of socialist movement?
Robert Owen has been called “the Father of British Socialism”. He owned a cotton mill in Scotland. It was he, who first used the word ‘Socialism’ and maintained that the object of Government was to make the people happy. He reduced the working-hours of the factory workers, paid the good wages and helped the Trade Union Movement to grow.
Name that famous work by Marx and Engels (published in 1848) which marked the advent of Marxism or ‘Scientific Socialism’.
The ‘Communist Manifesto’ was published in 1848. It marked the advent of Marxism or ‘Scientific Socialism’, as they called it. According to Karl Marx and Engels the interests of the capitalists and workers are all the time opposed to each other. They laid stress not he doctrine of Class Struggle. The struggle between the capitalists and the working classes is a ceaseless affair, until the workers have won and a new social system is born.
Name any two prominent leaders of the Socialist Party founded in India in 1934.
The prominent leaders of the party were Acharya Narendra Dev, Achyut Patwardhan, Jayaprakash Narayan and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia.
Mention any two main activities of a modern Welfare State.
A modern Welfare State provides the citizens public assistance during sickness, unemployment and old age.
II. Structured Questions.
The industrial Revolution marked a change from handwork to machine work and from domestic system of production to factory system of production. In this context, discuss the role of the following factors in ushering in the Industrial Revolution,
(a) Invention of machines
(b) Availability of coal and iron
(c) Improved Transportation.
(a) Invention of new machines and powerlooms made the large production possible for expanding market. So the handlooms got a set back.
(b) Coal and iron areas were abundantly available for iron and steel and other industries. The cluster of industries concentrated around the coal fields.
(c) Improved Transportation supported the distribution of goods freely to the distant market all over the world.
2. With reference to the Industrial Revolution in England, state the role of the following factors :
Availability of raw material
England possessed important coal fields of Yorkshire and Lancashire along with the abundant iron ore areas of Sheffield etc. So the industrial clusters quickly spread near the coal fields.
Skill and energy of immigrants.
Protestant artisans of Spain and France migrated to England due to religious persecution. The English government hosted them and in turn they added their original skill to the industries.
Growth of population
Growth of population provided ample and easily available labour force for different types of industries.
3. With reference to the rise of Capitalism, answer the following questions :
What were the cause of the rise of Capitalism ?
These are the causes for the rise of Capitalism :
- Increase in Population : The Industrial Revolution increased the national wealth, raised the standard of living, made life more comfortable. All this helped in checking the various diseases.
- Legal Requirement: There was the new enclosure law which required farmers to put fences or hedges around their fields to prevent common grazing on the land.
- Growth of Towns : New manufacturing towns and cities grew dramatically. Many of these cities were located close to the coalfields that supplied fuel to the factories. Factories had to be close to sources of power because power could not be distributed very far.
- Mass Production : Mass production destroyed the domestic system of production.
- Disappearance of Small Farmers : The small farmers who cultivated land and manufactured goods in their spare time, in their homes shifted to new industrial towns. They were forced to seek employment in factories because they were replaced by big landlords.
What was the impact of Capitalism on the working class?
- Loss of Traditional Jobs : The movement of people away from agriculture and into industrial cities brought great stress on the labour force. Women in households, who had earned income from spinning, found the new factories taking away their source of income. Traditional handloom weavers could no longer compete with the mechanised production of cloth.
- Exploitation : In the factories, people had to work long hours under harsh conditions, often with few rewards. Factory owners and managers paid the minimum amount necessary for a workforce, often recruiting women and children to tend the machines because they could be hired for very low wages.
- Stress and Strain : The nature of work changed as a result of division of labour. This idea in the Industrial Revolution called for dividing the production process into basic, individual tasks. Each worker would then perform one task, rather than a single worker doing the entire job. Such division of labour greatly improved productivity, but many of the simplified factory jobs were repetitive and boring. Workers also had to labour for more than 12 hours a day, sometimes more than 14, and people worked six days a week. Factory workers faced strict rules and close supervision by managers and overseers. The clock ruled life in the mills.
- Overcrowding : By about the 1820s, income levels for most workers began to improve. The economy was expanding at a rate that was more than twice the pace at which it had grown before the Industrial Revolution. Although vast differences existed between the rich and the poor, most of the population enjoyed some of the fruits of economic growth.
4. With reference to Socialism, answer the following questions:
What is meant by the term ‘Socialism’ ?
Socialism is defined as an economic system in which the means of production are owned not by private individuals but by the community in order that all may share more fairly in the wealth produced.
What were the causes of the rise of Socialism ?
Disorder and frustration due to the injustice practiced towards workers and common people, a new wake up for better peaceful society, Socialism was adopted by many countries in Europe and Russia.
Who was Karl Marx ? What is his contribution to Socialism 7
Karl Marx was a German political philosopher and economist. He wrote ‘Communist Manifesto’, with the help of a French associate, Fredrick Engels. After his death, a new democratic socialism came to the scene and ultimately Russia adopted socialism.
With reference to Capitalism and Socialism, state the following :
(a) Difference between Capitalism and Socialism in terms of control means of production.
(b) Two key proponents each of Capitalism and Socialism.
(c) What according to you is better of the two economic systems ? Give reasons to support your answer.
- In Capitalism, production is for profit: useful goods and services are a by-product of pursuing profit.
- Competition for ownership of capital drives economic activity and creates a price system that determines resource allocation ; profits are reinvested in the economy.
- Private property in capital and other goods is the dominant form of property.
- Production decisions are driven by consumer demand. Individuals choose what to consume and this choice leads to more competition and better products and services.
- It relies on markets to determine investment, production, and distribution decisions.
- In Socialism, production is for use : useful goods and services are produced specifically for their usefulness.
- Economic activity and production especially are adjusted by the State to meet human needs and economic demands.
- Two kinds of property : Personal property, such as houses, clothing, etc. owned by the individual. Public property includes factories, and means of production owned by the State but with worker control.
- Production decisions are driven more by the State than by consumer demand. These decisions are made on the basis of human consumption needs and economic demands.
- It relies on planning to determine investment and production decisions. Planning may be centralised or decentralised.
(b) Capitalism : Key Proponents of Capitalism include Richard Cantillon, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Fredrich A. Hayek, Ayn Rand, Milton Friedman.
Socialism : Key Proponents of Socialism include Robert Owen, Pierre Leroux, Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels, John Stuart Mill, Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw.
(c) Capitalism : Capitalism refers to the economic system in which the means of production like labour, raw material, tools and machines are owned by private individuals or groups of them for profit.
Capitalism believes in free market and is opposed to government intervention in economics because it believes that government intervention introduces inefficiencies.
The evil effects of Capitalism and the spirit of improving the condition of workers gave birth to socialism. The ultimate goal of socialism is to eliminate class struggle between the capitalists and the workers and form a classless society. In order to achieve these objectives, government control over production and distribution of important things is considered necessary. As such socialism is based on three principles. First, it is opposed to private capitalism. Secondly, socialism is the voice of all workers and the working class. Thirdly, socialism demands a just distribution of wealth. Socialists maintain that all factors of production should belong to entire human race or society.
With reference to the causes of Industrial Revolution, explain the following :
(a) Overseas markets
(b) British colonies
(a) Due to the development of new sea routes, overseas markets increased particularly of the East Asian countries. Britain brought raw materials from these countries and sold manufactured goods and gained large profit.
(b) Britishers established many colonies all over the world along with India, making the series of Commonwealth. British Empire due to its colonial rule nearly in every part of the world.
Industrial Revolution changed the lives of ordinary people. In this context, answer the following questions.
(a) How did the urbanisation take place during the Renaissance period ?
(b) What were the consequences of urbanisation ?
(a) Due to fast economic growth, there was large migration towards towns from the villages and the urban population increased upto 50%. The industrial region became the clusters of heavy population.
(b) The consequences of urbanisation were clear in the better conditions of the ordinary people and workers through getting various types of jobs and wages from industrial establishments. Inspite of economic growth, the over crowding and hardwork problems also appeared in Britain.
England in the 18th century, was most favourably placed for an Industrial Revolution. Discuss the role of the following factors in stimulating industrial expansion :
(a) Enclosure Movement.
(b) Availability of Coal and Iron.
The role of the given factors instimulating industrial expansion in England in the 18th Century are described as under :
(a) Enclosure Movement : In the early years of the 18th century land-farming in England was done in common. Each village owned three or four fields and every house-holder owned a certain number of acre-strips in each field. Big landlords, with money to spend on farming machinery wanted to consolidate their holdings. The Acts of Parliament, enabled them to buy the land of their neighbours. Thus, the big landlords could convert their acre strips into huge enclosed farms. An enclosed farm was surrounded by a wall or fence which separated it from another such farm, the small farmers, who had sold their land, became landless labourers. Many of them migrated to the cities to work in the factories. Thus, there was no paucity of workers in the newly-grown industrial towns.
(b) Availability of Coal and Iron : Coal and Iron was immensely available in England. In the north of England, lay both the coalfields and the deposits of iron. Most
factories sprang up in northern regions, which bee ape the most populous part of the country.
(c) Improved Transportation : In the 18th century, James Watt developed an engine in which the steam was employed to drive the piston backwards and forwards and the piston could be used to turn the wheels. Then came the invention of the railways. Goods and people could now be carried far faster than by previous modes of transport.
Industrial Revolution in England may be attributed to many factors. What was the role of the following factors?
(a) A Vast Overseas Market.
(b) Technical Skill and Energy of Immigrants.
(c) Inventive Qualities of Her people.
The role of the given factors attributed to the Industrial Revolution in England is described as under :
(a) A Vast Overseas Market : Overseas trade, brought into plenty of money to England. After the Battle of Plassev (1757), the East India Company compelled our people to sell their goods below the market-rate and purchase the commodities they had brought at very high prices. As England had acquired Canada also, her trade developed considerably. She had now, a big market for her products.
(b) Technical Skill and Energy of Immigrants : Because of religious persecution, many Protestant artisans of France and Spain had gone to live and work in Britain. The British government gave them protection against loss of earnings. The immigrants were men of enterprise, energy and ambition. They worked very hard. Their technical skill and other virtues went a long way to industrialise England.
(c) Inventive Qualities of Her People : The new opportunities came from all directions. The English mindfully responded to the challenge. There took place remarkable inventions in many fields — farming, spinning, weaving and locomotives.
The Industrial Revolution changed the face of life in England. Describe the course of revolution under the following heads :
(a) Revolution in Textile Industry.
(b) Iron and Coal Industries.
The course of Industrial Revolution that changed the face of life in England is described under on the basis of given heds :
(a) Revolution in Textile Industry : In 1767, a Lancashire weaver named, James Hargreaves invented a machine, called the Spinning-Jenny. It could spin eight threads at a time instead of one thread of the old fashioned spinning- wheel. Yarn spun on the Jenny was not very strong. Richard Arkwright Improved on this. He invented a machine operated by water-power, which made-even stronger threads. A weaver named, Crompton, invented a machine (Crompton’s Mule), which combined the advantages of the two previous machines. His ‘spinning mule’ succeeded in combining quality and quantity.
In 1785, Edmund Cartwright, invented a weaving loom, which could be driven by horses. Later, this loom was so much improved as to be operated by water-power. Now, that there was a greater demand for textile goods, a quicker device was needed for separating cotton fibers from the seeds. In 1793, an American, named, Eli Whitney,invented a cotton gin. It could separate the seeds from fibers three hundred times faster than the fastest hand. Textile trade of England prospered amazingly because of those inventions. At this time, Lancashire and Yorkshire became the two most important industrial centers of cotton and wool textile respectively.
The big machine in England went on advancing and became more sophisticated with each passing day. In this context, describe the following :
(a) Improved Steam-Engine.
(b) Improvement in Transportation and Communication.
The big machine in England went on advancing and became more sophisticated with each passing day. in this context, the given headlines are described as follows :
(a) Improved Steam-Engine : The wind and water were not perfect source of power, because the wind would cease and the rivers might go dry in hot weather. In 1769, James Watt, a maker of mathematical instruments, improved on the existing steam-engines. He made an engine, in which the steam-pressure was controlled by valves. The steam could now be employed to drive the piston backwards and forwards. Thus, the standing steam-engine was converted by James Watt into an effective means to turn the wheels. The steam-engine became the throbbing-heart of every industry.
(b) Improvement in Transportation and Communication : Greater attention was now paid to road-building. James Telford was a clever bridge-builder, who constructed roads across the rivers by means of iron bridges. Then began the era of navigable canals, that were dug throughout the length and breadth of the country.
In the early years of the 19th century, came the locomotive engines that made railways possible. George Stephenson is regarded as the father of the railway system. The first railway was the colliery-line between Stockton and Darlington. It was opened in 1825. A railway to carry passengers between Liverpool and Manchester was opened in 1830. At first, the trains ran only at about 20 kilometre per hour, but they continued to gather speed ever since. Steam was applied to ships also. It was in 1838, that a passenger-steamer crossed the Atalntic, unsupported by sails.
From England, railways spread to other countries. In India a proposal for construction of railways was made as early as 1843. It was in 1855, that two small railway lines near Kolkata and Mumbai were opened during Lord Dalhousie’s regime (1848-1856).
The Telegraph was first used publicly in 1838. Penile Postage was introduced in 1840, i.e., a universal rate of one-penny-stamp was introduced in irrespective of the distance, letters had to cover. Other things followed soon, such as postal orders, money orders and the parcel post.
Examine the advantages of the Factory System (Industrial Revolution) under the following headings :
(a) Production in Large Quantities.
(b) Comfortable Living.
(c) Bringing Countries and People close together.
The advantages of the Factory System (Industrial Revolution) under the given headings are examined as under :
(a) Production in Large Quantities : Elaborate machinery meant that goods could be produced in immensely large quantities. This reduced the price of most commodities. Many goods or services, which earlier were within the reach of rich people, could now be enjoyed by millions.
(b) Comfortable Living : The application of machines to production had made life comfortable. People could live a life of ease and luxury. The new modes of transport, especially railways, were a great boon to people. Electricity could be used for heating and lighting and to provide power to machines in factories.
(c) Bring Countries and People close together : Improved communications, canals and the railways brought countries and peoples close together. Sir C Wheatstone was the pioneer of the electric Telegraphy in England. His device was first put to practical use on the railways. The telegraphs had an added advantage because they could cross the seas.
Industrial Revolution might have been helpful in some ways, it also caused problems in other ways. Discuss its disadvantages under the following heads :
(a) Urbanisation and Increase in Slums.
(c) Evils of Capitalist Economy.
The disadvantages of Industrial Revolution on the basis of the given heads are discussed under :
(a) Urbanisation and Increase in Slums : the introduction of machinery took the work out of the homes into newly built factories. Since, most of the population lived in villages, the people left the countryside to work in the factories. The domestic system of production came to an end, with considerable loss to rural England or the rural France, as the case may be. Poverty in rural areas increased. Exodus to the cities led to an increase in Slums. Usually, the factories were situated in areas near the coal-fields or sea-ports. Not much care was taken to provide houses for the industrial workers. They, therefore, were forced to live in slums. In 1840s, more than l/10th of the population of Manchester was living in the rooms in the ground underneath.The workers needed recreation and sometimes fell prey to harmful practices, such as drinks or gambling.
(b) Unemployment : Introduction of new machines, threw a large number of manual workers on the street. Since men lost their work, in some parts of the world, there was a massive wave of riots.
(c) Capitalist Economy : Incoming of Industrialism demanded huge sum of money and assets for factory production. This was called as ‘Industrial Capital’. The Capitalist System created two new classes; the Capitalist-class and the class of Wage-earners. The capitalists were anxious to make profit beyond their expectations at the cost of exploitation of the working- class. Workers’ share in the profits of industry was very small. Shockingly, women and little children had to work for as many as fifteen hours a day, with very short interval for food.Above all, they worked in dirty and unventilated factories and many of them fainted because of hunger or pain. There arose a demand for improving the conditions . of the working-class. This expressed itself in three ways. Firstly, it led to the Trade Union Movement. Secondly, State or municipal bodies enacted Factory Acts, regulating hours, wages and conditions of work for the workers employed in factories. Thirdly, the agitation of the working- class led to the rise and growth of Socialist Movement.
Comment on the statement that “Socialism emerged as a reaction to Capitalism”.
Socialism is a way of mass or group or government control of wealth and Capitalism is a way of individual control of wealth from the socialist view, capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and controlled and operated for a private profit. It provided the main means of industralization through out much of the world. On the other hand, capitalism is associated with unfair and inefficient distribution of wealth and power, counter revolutionary wars and various forms of economic and cultural exploitation, repressions of workers and trade unions, and phenomena such as social alieunation, inequality, unemployment and economic instability Socialist Tradition can be divided into three categories :
- The Early Socialist : Robert Owen (1771-1858) has been called “the Father of British Socialism”. He owned a cotton mill in Scotland. It was he who first used the word ‘Socialism’ and maintained that the object of Government was to make people happy. He was deeply interested in bettering the lot of his factory workers. He reduced their working hours, paid them good wages and helped the Trade Union Movement to grow. The Socialists had not paid any serious attention to the problem as to how their ideal state of society was to be realised. Therefore Karl Marx called them Utopians’.
- Marxian Socialism : The Marxian conception of Socialism is that of a specific historical phase that will displace capitalism and precede communism. In the year 1847 Marx and Engels set up the Communist League. They were asked to draw up a manifesto for the Communist Party. The ‘Communist Manifesto’ was published in 1848. It marked the advent of Marxism or ‘Scientific Socialism’ as they called it. According to Karl Marx and Engels the interests of the capitalists and workers are all the time opposed to each other. They laid stress on the doctrine of Class Struggle. The struggle between the capitalists and the working classes is a ceaseless affair, until the workers have won and a new social system is born.
- Democratic Socialism : After the death of Karl Marx his ideology was propagated in an organised manner. But some difference of opinion appeared among the Marxists on certain matters. These differences led to the birth of a new ideology, named ‘Democratic Socialism’. Bernstein (1850-1932) of Germany was of the opinion that Marxism needed a revision. He was not in agreement with the principle of Class Struggle advocated by Marx. He believed that socialist objective should be achieved through democratic means.
Socialism can mean a variety of different Ideologies. In this context describe the
(a) The main Ideas of Marx and Engles,
(b) Democratic Soclialism.
Socialism can mean a variety of different ideologies. In this context, the given headings are described as below :
(a) Marxian Socialism : Karl Marx (1818-1883) is the most outstanding figure in the whole socialist movement. He was born in Rhineland (Germany) in the year 1818. In 1843, he had to leave Germany because of his revolutionary thoughts. He went to Paris (France), where he met Engels. Their meeting turned into a life-long friendship.
In the year 1847, Marx and Engels set up the Communist League. They were asked to draw up a manifesto for the Communist Party. The ‘Communist Manifesto’ was published in 1848. It marked the advent of Marxism or ‘Scientific Socialism’, as they called it. According to Karl Marx and Engels, the interests of the capitalists and workers are all the time, opposed to each other. They laid stress on the doctrine of Class-Struggle. The Struggle between the capitalists and the working- classes is a ceaseless affair, until the workers have won a new social system is born. Karl Marx is the view that the end of Capitalism is inevitable. The new social system will be marked by social harmony.
(b) Democratic Socialism : After the death of Karl Marx, his ideology was propagated in an organised manner. But, some difference of opinion appeared among the Marxists on certain matters. These differences led to the birth of a new ideology, named ‘Democratic Socialism’.
Bernstein (1850-1932) of Germany was of the opinion that Marxism needed a revision. He was not in agreement with teh principle of Class-Struggle advocated by Marx. He believed that socialist objectives should be achieved through democratic means. Democratic Socialism set-forth by Bernstein found support in other countries also. Jean Juares in France. Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb, in England and Brantic, in Sweden became the chief defenders of democratic socialism in their respective countries.
A Socialist party was established in India in 1934. The prominent leaders of the party were Acharya Narendra and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia. Jayaprakash Narayan in his book. ‘Why Socialism?’ described socialism as a theory of socio-economic reconstruction.
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