Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 12 The Modem Age in Europe: The Reformation.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 12 The Modem Age in Europe: The Reformation.
I. Short Answer Questions :
What is known as the Reformation ?
It is the 16th century movement in Europe for the reform of the Church and the objectionable practices of the clergyman.
What are known as indulgences ?
Pope Leo X wanted to build St. Peter’s Church. So he issued “pardon certificates” called ‘ Indulgences” to those who gave money to build the Church. ‘Indulgences’ were letters which remitted punishments of the sinners who bought them, both in this life and after their death.
What is known as the Protestant Movement ?
In the second quarter of 16th century, Martin Luther, a German clergyman and professor of Theology at University of Wittenburg, openly criticised papacy (office of pope). He accused the Church for the sale of indulgences. In 1512, in a pilgrimage to Rome he found the clergymen living in luxurious life. He strongly opposed the Church. The ‘Diet of Worms’ (council of Princes and high dignitaries in 1521) ordered to burn the writings of Luther and to outlaw him. But the support of German rulers saved him and the movement was described as the German Protestant Movement.
How did Luther challenge the authority of the Church?
Luther (1483-1546), openly challenged the Church, on the basis of false practices and drawbacks practiced by the
Church and clergymen. He wrote 95 theses or statements dealing with the gap between the beliefs and practices of the Church and nailed them on the Church door at Wittenburg.
What is known as the Diet of Worms ? What did it decide about Luther ?
‘Diet of Worms’ was a council of Princes and high dignitaries in 1521, which ordered to burn the writings of Martin Luther and to outlaw him.
What role did Henry VIII play in curbing the power of the Pope ?
King Henry VIII of England hardly cared for the Pope. He got the Church lands and in 1536 passed an Act for the dissolution of monasteries, whereby small monasteries with an income of less than£200 a year were closed and their buildings, land and money taken by the Crown. By another Act of 1539, larger monasteries were closed. Henry ’ s lavish lifestyle, along with his wars, had led to a lack of money. By destroying the monastic system, Henry could acquire all its wealth and property, while at the same time removing the influence of the Pope.
What was the Counter Reformation ? What were its consequences ?
The Reformation Movement was against the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th Century and brought about the birth of Protestant Church. So, Catholic Church through dedicated Christians and some Popes introduced certain reforms within the Church. This movement is known as the Counter Reformation. A Church Council was held at Trent in northern Italy in 1545 by Pope Paul III.
What were the decisions made by the Church Council at Trent ?
The Council of Trent (1545-1563) made a number of changes in the Catholic Church. It expanded its doctrines in the light of the changed attitudes of the times. It condemned leading an irresponsible religious life by the clergy. Books, which were considered to have had ideas against the Catholic teaching were banned. The Pope was regarded as the head of the Catholic Church and the final interpreter of the Christian doctrine. The Council of Trent was responsible for establishing centres known as seminaries to educate and train priests. It forbade the Church to charge fees for conducting religious services, and advocated the use of the local language for preaching in the Church.
Who was John Calvin ? By what names were the Calvanists known in different countries ?
John Calvin (1509-1564), a French scholar, popularised the Protestant movement in Switzerland after the death ofZwingli, who declared Bible as the sole authority. Calvanists were known as the ‘Puritans’ in England, ‘Huguenots’ in France and ‘Presbyterians’ in Scotland.
Who was Ulrich Zwingli ?
He was a French reformer and declared the Bible as the sole authority for attaining salvation.
What role did Henry VIII help to spreading the Protestant movement in England ?
At first, Tuder ruler Henry VIII was a devout Catholic Christian and also wrote a book in praise of the Pope, but afterwards, due to some personal reasons, he stood against the Catholic Church. He made himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Which of the two divisions of the Church prevailed in the Scandanivian countries ?
Two divisions of the Church prevailed in the Scandanivian countries were Protestant Lutheran Church and Roman Catholic Church.
What were the important terms of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 ?
The Peace of Augsburg in 15 5 5, in Germany was based on the terms of the spirit of nationalism and strengthened absolute monarchies.
Define a Nation State ?
The Nation State refers to a country with well defined natural boundaries, having people with common history, culture and
How did the feudal societies contribute to the emergence of Nation States.
During the feudal (landlord system) times, there was unrest and disorder. Continuous fighting resulted in collapsing the system and so to save the pattern Nation States were created with particular creed and character.
How did Reformation cause formation of Nation States?
Reformation gave rise to nationalism, particularly in Germany and England. Rulers declared them as heads of Church and government. Control on the Church caused a common national government within the Nation States.
Name two achievements of Nation States.
Establishment of Nation States, gave a peaceful system of the common religion of the king and the people. This imparted a practical and simple government dealing with the common interests of the king and the people within Nation States.
Name any two sources to reconstruct the great religious movement known as the Reformation.
These of Martin Luther, Zwingli’s Teachings and Calvin’s Teachings.
What do you understand by the term ‘Reformation’?
‘Reformation’ was a religious Movement launched by Martin Luther. It protested against the dogmas of Roman Catholic Church.
Mention two important causes of the Reformation.
Two important causes of the Reformation are :
- Evils of the Catholic Church.
- Financial Burden on People in General.
What is meant by the Sale of Indulgences
Tetzel, who was sent to Germany by Pope, he used to sell Indulgences, offering pardon to those who paid money. This practice of his is said to be the Sale of Indulgences.
How did the Pope Lew X try to collect funds for building St. Peter’s Basilica?
The Pope Leo X, tried to collect funds for building St. Peter’s Basilica by sending missionaries to sell Indulgences.
Name the English priest who translated the Holy Bible into English.
Who started the revolt against the authority of the Church in Germany?
Why did Marin Luther object to the power of Pope?
The Pope used to forgive sins of all that paid, regardless of whether they sincerely regretted their actions, which made Martin Luther to raise his objection against the power of the Pope.
Why was Martin Luthur Excommunicated from the Church?
Martin Luther was very much against the worldliness of the Pope Leo X, the Clergy and the spiritual emptiness of the Catholic Church. All his resentment provoked the Pope and he declared Martin Luther as a heretic and sent a letter, warning him that he would be excommunicated from the Church.
Martin Luther defiantly burnt the Papal’s Bull of Excommunication in the presence of the public at Wittenberg on December 10, 1520, theory marking his revolt.
Who translated the Holy Bible from Latin to German language?
Martin Luther translated the Holy Bible from Latin to German language.
What was the immediate cause of the division of the Roman Catholic Church?
The Reformation in Europe was the immediate cause of the division of the Roman Catholic church.
Which are the two factions of the Church?
The Roman Catholic and the Protestant.
What were the important terms of the peace of Augsburg in 1555?
The important terms of the peace of Augsburg in 1555 were :
- The ruler will have the right to determine his static-religion.
- Lutheran subjects in Catholic states in Germany will not be asked to renounce their faith.
Who heralded the Protestant Movement in Switzerland?
Ulrich Zwingli heralded the Protestant Movement in Switzerland.
What did the Puritans want people to do?
Puritans condemned and prohibited Sale of Indulgences. Seminaries were to be started for importing education and training to priests. The Church should not charge any fees for conducting religious services; sermons should be preached in the language of the people.
What were the decision made by the Council of Trent?
The Council of Trent took up steps to enforce strict discipline among the Church officials. The sale of Church offices were stopped. It condemned and prohibited Sale of Indulgences. Seminars were to be started for imparting education and training to priests. The Church should not charge any fees for conducting religious services; sermons should be preached in the language of the people.
Who founded the Society of Jesus?
Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish nobleman founded the Society of Jesus.
Mention the names of two Jesuit missionaries who helped in restoring the prestige of the Catholic Church.
St. Francis Xavier and Loyola.
What is meant by the term ‘Nation-State’?
The Nation State refers to a country with well defined natural boundaries, having people with common history, culture and character.
How Reformation led to the formation of Nation-States in Europe.
As the Protestant revolt grew in strength, many rulers who wanted to be freed of leading-strings of the Pope sided with Martine Luther or Calvin. Many European kings now declared themselves as Head of the Church as well as of the Government. The kings had already crushed the feudal lords. Now another great rival of the Crown i.e., the Church also submitted to King’s authority. That completed the edifice of a National-State.
What was ‘Mercantilism’?
Mercantilism meant ‘complete government control over trade, commerce and industry.’
Mention the main point on which Luther and Zwingli disagreed.
The ‘Lord’s Supper’ was the main point on which Luther and Zwingli disagreed.
II. Structured Questions :
1. With reference to the Reformation, explain the following:
The meaning of Reformation.
The Reformation is the name given to a group of religious movements of sixteenth century launched by the Christians against the various drawbacks of the Church and the objectionable practices of the clergymen. The main target of these movements was the Pope, the highest authority in the Church hiearchy. These movements created a split in the Christian Church between those who continued to remain loyal to the Pope at Rome and those who broke away from the Church at Rome. The former were known as Roman Catholics and the latter as Protestants.
Who were the Protestants ? By what other names was Protestantism known ?
The Christian who broke away from the Church at Rome was known as Protestants. An extreme form of Protestantism’
was Calvinism. Presbyterianism of Scotland and Puritanism ofEngland were similar to Calvinism in simplicity, stribtness and austerity. Although these movements were organised by different people under different names, they are collectively termed as Reformation because they were aimed at reforming the then existing Church.
With reference to the Reformation, answer the following:
(a) Mention any three Church practices that caused dissatisfaction among the people.
(b) How did New Learning become a factor that led to the reformation ?
- Dissatisfaction with the practices of the Catholic Church : The Catholic Church, during the early medieval period, had become a vast hierarchical organisation headed by the Pope in Rome. The Pope was the supreme authority over the entire hierarchy and he exercised this authority directly. Systematic efforts were made to extend the authority of the Church over everyone, high or low. But during the 14th century, people became dissatisfied with some of the Church practices and this dissatisfaction paved the way for Reformation.
- Corruption in the Church : Moral decay crept into some areas in the functioning of the Church. Some of the clergymen lacked proper education and some lived in luxury and neglected their religious duties. The priests promised salvation in exchange for fees. They could pronounce a marriage lawful or unlawful. In fact, there were fees for every transaction in life, from birth to death, fees for the peace of the soul and fees for the souls of the people dead long ago. These practices were severely criticised and opposed by the people.
- Movement against the Church : Anti-Church movements began in Europe in the middle ages. These movements directed their attacks on the wrong doings of the Church. John Wycliffe, an English priest and Oxford professor, criticised the worldliness of the Church and some of its practices. He laid emphasis on the Bible as the sole guide for salvation. The Church ordered his expulsion from the Oxford University where he was teaching. This create dissatisfaction among the scholars.
(b) New Learning : The spread of new learning and spirit of enquiry was developed by Renaissance scholars. The invention of printing press and the printing of the Bible in vernacular languages brought a new outlook among laymen. The Renaissance encouraged spirit of enquiry, developed critical attitude and broadened the mental outlook of man. The people then began to question everything including the authority of the Pope. They criticised the Church practices, rituals and the lifestyles of some of the clergymen. New learning led to a secular outlook among the people. Nobles and merchants were jealous of the wealth of the Church. The common people in Europe looked upon the Church taxes with contempt. The changing attitude of the people towards the Church led to the growth of secular ideas.
With reference to Counter Reformation, answer the following :
(a) What was the Counter Reformation ?
(b) What was the role of the Council of Trent in Counter Reformation ?
(a) The Reformation Movement was against the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the birth of the Protestant Church. In order to restore the credibility of the Catholic Church, a large number of dedicated Christians including some Popes introduced certain reforms within the Church. This movement is known as the Counter Reformation.
(b) The Council of Trent (1545-1563) : The Council made a number of changes in the Catholic Church. It expanded its doctrines in the light of the changed attitudes of the times. It condemned leading an irresponsible religious life by the clergy. Books, which were considered to have had ideas against the Catholic teaching, were banned. The Pope was regarded as the head of the Catholic Church and the final interpreter of the Christian doctrine. The Council of Trent was responsible for establishing centers known as seminaries to educate and train priests. It forbade the Church to charge fees for conducting religious services, and advocated the use of the local language for preaching in the Church.
State the contribution of each of the following to the protestant movement.
(a) John Calvin ;
(b) King Henry VIII of England
(c) Ulrich Zwingli
(a) John Calvin a French Scholar, popularised the Protestant movement in Switzerland. Calvanists disliked feasting on a lavish scale.
(b) King Henry VIII: He became against the Church due to not receiving a permission from the Pope, he broke away from the Cathodic Church and made himself the “Supreme Vied of the Church in England.
(c) Ulrich Zwingli: He spread Lutheranism in Switzerland. He regarded the Bible as the sole guide to right living. He was killed in a religious war against the Pope that broke out in AD 1531.
5. With respect to the growth of Nation States, answer the following questions :
How did the Reformation contribute to emergence of Nation States.
On account of the disorder and unrest during the feudal times, people came to the conclusion that there must be a peaceful condition and atmosphere with peaceful and amicable relationship which could only be possible through formation of the Nation States with common creed and religion.
Describe the other factors that contributed to growth of Nation States.
Main factors that contributed to growth of Nation States were as follows :
- Rise of nationalism
- Church were submitted to King’s authority.
- Rulers opposed the Supremacy of Church.
- After the long tussle between the rulers and the Church, after Reformation religion of the King became the religion of the people and at last the Nation States came into existence.
6. With reference to Mercantilism answer the following questions :
What is meant by the term Mercantilism ?
Mercantilism refers to a collection of economic maxims of strict practical utility aimed at maintaining a favourable balance of trade by discouraging imports and encouraging exports. These were meant to ensure the prosperity and security of the state.
Explain briefly the basic principles of Mercantilism.
The basic principles of mercantilism were identical in all the countries. These were the following :
- Foreign Trade: The Mercantilists believed that the strength and richness of a country depends on two things — the possession of gold and silver mines and favourable balance of trade. As all the countries did not have mines of gold and silver, they could built up stocks of these metals by exporting maximum of their manufactured goods and importing minimum of commodities from other countries. They, therefore, insisted on discouraging imports through imposition of heavy duties and prohibition on foreign goods and encouraging exports by promoting domestic agriculture and industry.
2. Importance of Wealth : Mercantilists considered wealth as the sources of all power and laid great emphasis on the importance of gold and silver.
3. Interest : Mercantilists favoured charging of low rate of interest on the money as it could be profitably employed in trade to make profit. The high rates of interest made the money scare.
4. Factors of Production : Mercantilists considered the land and the labour as the sole factors of production. Most of them laid emphasis on the need to increase production to attain self-sufficiency in food-stuffs and to encourage exports. They laid emphasis on the cultivation of wastelands to increase production in agriculture.
5. Large Population : Mercantilism emphasised the need of having large population for increasing production and participation in war. They regarded large population as the real strength of the community as it made inventions and developed industries which brought riches to the nation.
6. Commercial Regulations : For the maintenance of a favourable balance of trade the mercantilists favoured commercial regulations. The European countries framed regulations to restrict the import of foreign goods and encourage exports.
With reference to the Reformation, explain the following:
(a) Circumstances leading to Reformation.
(b) Political factors that facilitated the Reformation Movement.
(a) People started to realise the malpractices done by the authorities of the Church. The richness of the Church-Through ‘title’ and ‘indulgences’, provoked the Kings against them. Anti-Church movements began to be organised in Europe in the middle ages e.g. John Wycliff, criticised the worldliness of the Church and emphasised on Bible. Erasmus, described the malpractices by the Church in his book “Prayer of Folly’, and prepared ground for the Reformation Movement.
(b) Various eminent personalities opposed the Church through Protestant Movement e.g. Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin etc. King Henry VIII, made him self the Supreme Head of the Church of England. In 1559, Queen Elizabeth established the Church of England as the official Church. The German rulers found an opportunity to free themselves from the domination of the Pope.
How did the following causes contribute to the formation of Reformation ?
(a) Rise of strong rulers
(b) Criticism by scholars
(c) Rivalry in the Church.
(a) The French King, Philip IV had forced Pope Clement V to leave the headquarters at Rome in 1309. King Henry fall of England hardly cared for the Pope. He got the Church lands and in 1536 passed an Act for the dissolution of monasteries.
(b) John Calvin (1509-1564), a French Scholar popularised the Protestant Movement in Switzerland. The Calvanists became popular in England, France and Scandanavia.
(c) Reformation divided the Church into Protestantism and Catholicism. These two main groups further
broke up into many sects. The National Churches in many countries were ruled by the ruling authorities of the countries.
The Movement against the Roman Catholic Church is called the Reformation. Discuss its causes with reference to the following :
(a) Sale of Indulgences
(c) Raising Fund to build St. Peter’s Basilica
(a) Sale of Indulgences : Another way of collecting money was the sale of letters which remitted punishment for sin. Those who had money would be made free from doing penance for their sins by buying a Letter of Indulgence. The clergy claimed that those who bought the Indulgences got remission of their sins by God.
(b) Tithe : The people were required to pay ‘title’ (one-tenth of their income) to support churches and priests. Besides, the clergy collected another tax called ‘Peter’s pence from the people. The burden fell mainly on the peasants and the middle class families.
(c) Raising Funds to build St. Peter’s Basilica : Pope Leo X wanted to build St. Peter’s Basilica (Church) with the new architectural designs. He sent emissaries to sell Indulgences and to collect funds for the new project. John Tetzel, an agent of the Pope, went to Wittenberg with the mission of raising sums for the building. It provoked Martin Luther:
How did the following causes contribute to the 16th century Reformation Movement in Europe :
(a) Humanist Movement
(b) Spread of New Learning
(a) Humanist Movement: The pretensions of the Church was much discredited by Humanist Movement. Reuchlin and Erasmus criticised the Church for its corruption and worldly business. Reuchlin brought to light many inconsistencies in the interpretation of the Bible that were made by theological scholars. The Dutch scholar Erasmus, criticized the conduct of the clergy and he wanted them to change their lifestyle. Unfortunately, Pope Leo X could not see the danger signal.
(b) Spread of New Learning : The New Learning and the spirit of inquiry that was developed by the Renaissance scholars, the invention of printing press and printing of Bible in vernacular languages brought a complete change in people’s outlook. They now questioned superiority of the Church. It also led to the growth of secular ideas. Nobles and merchants believed that there was nothing wrong in acquiring wealth to lead a worldly life. The monarchs and capitalists were jealous of the wealth of the Church. The common people in Europe looked upon Church-taxes with contempt.
Early in the sixteenth century there rose in Germany Martin Luther who became the great leader of the Reformation Movement. In this context describe :
(a) Luther’s Beliefs and Doctrines
(b) Luther’s Theses
(a) Luther’s Beliefs and Doctrines : Martin Luther belonged to a peasant family of Saxony, in Germany. After his theological education in the University of St. Augustine in 1505, he was appointed a Professor of Theology at Wittenberg University. His thorough knowledge of the Bible, led him to believe that man could attain salvation only by repentance. Salvation is the Gift of God, and can be had if the penance be done. Luthur questioned Tetzel’s authority to sell Indulgences and he had at once the moral support of many princes and ordinary people alike.
He was shocked to learn the worldliness of the Pope, the clergy and the spiritual shallowness after he visited Rome. In 1517, he nailed on the door of the Castle-Church at Wittenberg, ninety-five these is (statements), which he thought, people should known and think about carefully.
The first thesis was : When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ says Repent, he means that he entire life of believers should be a repentance? Luther’s insistence was that, Tetzel was quite unscrupulous in his misinterpretation of Scripture. He questioned the power of the Pope and priests to forgive sins of all who paid, regardless of whether they sincerely regretted their actions.
(b) When Luther visited Rome he was grieved to witness the worldliness of the Pope and the Clergy. In 1517 he nailed on the door of the Castle-Church at Wittenberg Ninety- five Theses (Statements), which he thought people should know and think about carefully.
The first Thesis was : “When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ says Repent, he means that the entire life of belivers should be a repentance.” All other statements were an elaboration of this Thesis. Luther questioned the powers of Pope and priests to forgive sins of all who paid, regardless of whether they sincerely regretted their actions.
Lutheran Church was the Protestant Church founded on the doctrines of Martin Luther. In this context describe :
(a) Luther’s Excommunication by the Pope
(b) His success in mobilising Princes’ and People’s support
(a) His Excommunication : Pope Leo X, declared Martin Luther as a heretic and sent a letter, warning him that he. would be excommunicated from the Church. He defiantly burnt the Papal’s Bull of Excommunication in the presence . of the public at Wittenberg on December 10, 1520, thereby making his revolt.
In 1521, Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to attend the Diet at Worms to answer charges levelled against him by the Pope. Though his friends and well-wishers persuaded him not to attend, Luther appeared before the Diet to defy the Church. He boldly declared that he would not revoke any of his statements as his conscience “is taken captive by the word of God”. The Emperor issued the famous Edict of Worms, declaring Luther as a heretic and ordered for his arrest.
(b) His success in mobilising Princes’ and People’s support:
Frederick the Wise, Duke of Saxony, saved Luther’s life by forcing him to hide. Luther spent one year in a lonely – castle during which time, he translated the Holy Bible from Latin to German. Many German princes who supported Luther, raised their banner of revolt against the authority of the Church and formed a League to protect Luther. Those who favoured the new protest movement, broke away from the Catholic Church and came to be known as Protestants. Lutheran Churches were established all over the country.
It divided Germany into two factions-one group, under Emperor Charles V and the other group, under the Protestant rulers of Germany. It led to religious conflict, which took a heavy toll and ended in the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. The Peace acknowledged the right of a ruler to determine his state-religion. Lutheran subjects in Catholic states in Germany were not asked to renounce their faith. Thus, the power and prestige of the Catholic Church led by the Pope suffered a serious setback.
A series of measures were taken to restore the reputation of the Catholic Church. In this context answer the following questions :
(a) What is known as Counter-Reformation?
(b) What measures were taken to introduce reforms in the Catholic Church?
In context of measures taken to restore the reputation of Catholic Church, the given questions are answered as under :
(a) The Reformation movement greatly damaged the very foundation of the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century and brought about the birth of the Protestant Church. In order to restore the reputation of the Catholic Church, a large number of dedicated Christians, including some Popes, had adopted certain reforms within the Church. A church Council was convened at Trent, in northern Italy in 1545 by Pope Paul III.
(b) The Council of Trent took up strict measures to maintain discipline among the Church officials. The sale of Church offices was stopped. It condemned, and prohibited Sale of Indulgences. Seminaries were to be started for importing education and training to priests. The Church should not charge any fees for conducting religious services; sermons should be preached in the language of the people.
The society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish noble man. He took a vow to serve Christ and turned into a Missionary after studying the life of Jesus Christ and other saints. He studied theology in Sorbonne University. He founded a religious Order by the name Society of Jesus with the permission of the Pope.
St. Francis Xavier was one of the Jesuit followers of Ignatius Loyola. He went to China and Japan for the Propagation of Christianity. He came to India and worked till he died. His mortal remains were placed at the Church of Born Jesus in old Goa.
The selfless and dedicated service rendered by the Jesuits helped in restoring the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church.
Explain the impact and consequences of the Reformation under the following headings :
(a) How Reformation led to the formation of Nation-States?
(b) How did the rulers of Nation-States work on Mercantilist theories?
(a) Reformation gave rise to nationalism, particularly in Germany and England. Rulers declared them as heads of Church and Government. Control on the Church caused a common national government within the Nation States.
(b) Mercantilism was a theory that the state should regulate economic activities in order to achieve some national objectives. It should follow the policy of ‘Protectionism’. Large nation-states had come into existence in England, France, Spain and Portugal. The rulers of these countries had imposed numerous restrictions on international trade in the national interest. Under the influence of mercantilist theories, the governments encouraged ‘Protectionism’, which meant protecting home producers from foreign competition by taxing imported goods.
John Calvin was one of the later leaders of the Protestant Movement. In this context. Explain the following :
(a) Calvin’s Teachings
(b) His large following in Europe.
John Calvin was one of the later leaders of the Protestant Movement. In this context, the given headings are explained as follows :
(a) Calvin’s Teachings : Calvin insisted upon the strict interpretation of the Bible. He enjoined upon all his followers a strict Code of Conduct. Places of worship were made as simple as possible and many amusements and leisurely activities were forbidden.
Calvin’s important teaching was that of the Doctrine of Predestination, which he popularised in his book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’. This work was dedicated to the French King, Francis I. The Doctrine of Predestination stresses that it is divinely ordained that God has chosen His own Elect and man’s good works in themselves are not sufficient to ensure the Granting of Grace. God will grant righteousness to those who believe in Him, for it is by the Grace of God that man is saved,
(b) His large following in Europe : Calvin’s ideas and doctrines spread widely. He founded the University of Geneva. The distinguished scholars, who studied at this University spread Calvinism to Netherlands, Hungary, France, England and Scotland. Calvin’s teachings became the basis of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The flowers of Calvin were the first English Puritans. “In their zeal for a simple form of Church service”, said Dr. Tickner, “they objected to surplice or fasting, to the use of marriage ring or baptismal cross or to music or procession.”
Calvin was so intolerant, he persecuted and severely punished those who were free-thinkers and did not agreewith his doctrines. The religion, which Calvin established, did not bring religious liberty to Europe.
Zwingli heralded the Pretestant Movement in Switzerland. In this context describe.
Zwingli heralded the Protestant Movement in Switzerland. In this context, the given heads are described below :
(a) Main events of his life : Ulrich Zwingli heralded the Protestant Movement in Switzerland. He was a contemporary of Martin Luther. Born at Wildhaus in 1484, he was trained as a priest. Glarus was the first town, where he became a clergyman in 1514. He studied the Greek text of the New Testament authored by Erasmus. In 1518, he became a priest at the Cathedral in Zurich. By 1520, he had become convinced of the need for reforming the Church. He developed his Protestant Theology and preached against the sale of Indulgences. The Catholic Bishop of Zurich tried to silence Zwingli. But by that time, he had become a “Peoples’ Priest”. The civil authorities intervened at this state. They took charge of city’s religious affairs and called a Public Debate to decide whether people should accept Catholicism or Zwingli’s Protestantism. After an intensive debate, Zwingli brought the majority of the people over to his side.
In course of time, most of the Swiss Cantons (Provinces) were Zwingli’s side. Only the rural communities (Forest Cantons) continued to cling to old emotional values. The conflict erupted into open warfare between Catholics and the Protestant troops. Zwingli was killed at the Battle of Kappel in 1531. Written on his gravestone are the words : “They may kill the body but not the soul.”
(b) Zwingli’s Teachings : Zwingli accepted the Bible’s supremacy as the “Universal Priesthood of all Believers”. That means, priests did not constitute a class separate from lay people. All believers should be regarded as priests.
Zwingli considered the Lord’s Supper as a thanks-giving ceremony. According to him, the Gift of Gospel is God’s biggest favour (Grace) for which Mankind is expressing it’s Gratitude. He believed in “total rebirth of humanity and society”. He fought for people’s right to control church and city’s religious affairs.
What were the results (Impacts) of the Reformation?
The results (Impacts) of the Reformation were as follows:
1. The Church was split up : It led to the birth of Protestantism. With the spread of the Protestant Movement, some of the kings and princes of Europe sided with one faction, while others with the other. Luther was supported greatly by the masses, as there was a strong feeling against the abuses of power by the Roman Church.
2. Religious Conflicts and Wars : The fanatics who never showed any respect to the sublime teachings of Jesus Christ, always encouraged cruel persecutions. Religious intolerance resulted in civil was in Germany. Subsequently, the Holy Roman Empire underwent Thirty Years War. the main object was to force the Protestant states to become Catholic. Religious frenzy drove the English Puritans to North America, that led to formation of the United States of America in the course of time.
3. Counter Reformation (Reform in Catholic Religion) : Reformation resulted in Counter-Reformation. Roman- Catholics under the Pope at the Council of Trent, took measures to revive the prestige of the Church. Christianity became more liberal, more tolerant of different kinds of opinions.
4. The Rise of National Monarchies : Those princes who wanted to be freed of leading-strings of the Pope, stated with Martin Luther or Calvin. The Reformation assumed the form of nationalism particularly in Germany and in England. Had it not been for the support of English Parliament, Henry VIII would not have succeeded in his struggle against the Catholic Church.
5. Rapid Economic Growth : The Clergy were hurt and crushed. The new age that was dawning, was “the age of traders, bankers or financiers”. Much of the Church property had passed to the kings. Therefore, they had considerable wealth at their disposal. They could now give attention to those sufferings, poverty and beggary.
What forces and factors contributed to the rise of Nation¬States in Europe?
The forces and factors that contributed to the rise of Nation-States in Europe are as follows :
1. Political Factors (Need for a strong Control Authority): Fighting was the Chief occupation of the feudal lords. People were fed up of anarchy and disorder. They were prepared to lend moral and material support to those kings who could reduce the power of the nobles. The Tudor Monarch, Henry VII (1485-1509) destroyed the power of the feudal lords in England. Cardinal Richelieu, the leading statesman of France, strengthened the authority of the French Crown. He reduced the power of the nobles. At this, Spain and Portugal also had very powerful monarchs.
2. Economic Factors : The merchants and traders resented : all such barriers as prevented them from moving from one part of the country to another. This new class gave presents and also advanced loans to the kings that added to their military strength. The kings could now raise their independent armies to crush the plots and rebellions of their nobles.
3. Intellectual Factors (Renaissance): Science and literature, also forged ahead during this period. England, Italy, France, and Spain produced writers, inspired by nationalist ideas. Machiavelli, for instance, wanted to unite Italy under a strong central government. In this book ‘The Prince’ he pleaded for a strong monarchy for Italians at that time.
4. Religious Factors (Reformation): In view of the Protestant revolt, many princes of Germany and other European kings, sided with Reformation. They now, declared themselves as heads of the Church as well as of the Government. The kings had already crushed the feudal lords. Now, another great rival of the Crown i.e., the Church also submitted to king’s authority. That completed the edifice of ta Nation-State. In England, it was king Henry VIII (1509-1547) who championed the cause of Protestantism. He got the English Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy to nullify Pope’s power over the Churches in England. This made the king, the supreme Head of the Church of England.
More Resources for Class 9 ICSE Solutions
- Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions (Morning Star)
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