Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 10 Medieval India: Composite Culture.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 10 Medieval India: Composite Culture.
I. Short Answer Questions.
What is meant by the term composite culture ?
The interaction of the Turks with the Indians with strong religious beliefs, art, architecture and literature resulted in a new composite culture known as the Indo-Islamic culture. This culture was neither purely Persian (or Muslim) nor entirely Indian (or Hindu), but a happy fusion of the best elements of the two.
Mention the two phases of the growth of Indo-Islamic culture.
The two phases of the Indo-Islamic culture are the music and paintings.
Music : Music of India inherited the rich Arab tradition of music. Amir Khusrau, introduced many Perso-Arabic ragas with the Indian tunes. He developed the style of quwwalis and khayals. Music was patronised by several medieval rulers e.g. Gunyat-ut-Munya, in 14th century, was the first work in Indian music by a Muslim scholar. Akbar patronised 30 musicians, including Tansen. The famous musician composed many ragas.
Paintings: The wall-paintings of Ajanta are the best example. In the reign of Akbar, revival of paintings started. Out of 17 eminent artists employed by Akbar 13 were Hindus. The painters .were given the task of illustrating the Persian text of the Mahabharata and Akbarnama. An unusual manuscript ‘Hamzanama’ has nearly 1200 paintings.
Mention any two factors which promoted composite culture during the Mughal Age.
The following two factors were responsible for the growth of a composite culture during the Mughal period :
- The immense wealth and the unlimited power in theHiands of the Mughal emperors enabled them to continue their patronage of fine arts and literature. They used their wealth and leisure to build palaces, forts and monuments.
- The Mughal Emperors had a great sense of beauty and art. Each of them was anxious to find an outlet for their expression in some visual arts.
What is Bijak ?
Bijak : Bijak is the compilation of the verses of Kabir. It comprises three main sections called Sakhi, Ramaini and Shabda.
Who compiled Guru Granth Sahib ?
Guru Granth Sahib : The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev compiled Guru Nanak Dev’s hymns along with those of his four successors and other religious preachers like Baba Farid, Ravidas, and Kabir in the Adi Granth Sahib in 1604 in Amritsar, Punjab. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, included the compositions of the ninth Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur and a couplet of his own and this scripture was called the Guru Granth Sahib.
Which Sufi Saint’s tomb is enshrined in the Ajmer Sharief Dargah ?
Ajmer Sharief is the holy shrine of the sufi saint, Khwajah Moinuddin Chishti, located at Ajmer in Rajasthan. Khwajah Moinuddin Chishti came to India with Mahmud of Ghazni in AD 1161 and made Ajmer his headquarters till his death in AD 1236.
Who was St. Francis Assisi ?
Francis Assisi was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and preacher. He was born in 1182 to a prosperous silk merchant. He lived the life typical of a wealthy young man even fighting as a soldier for Assisi.
In 1204, on the eve of setting out for a battle, he experienced a vision which caused him to abandon his ambition for military glory and to espouse a life of poverty. Francis died on October 3,1226. On July 16,1228, he was pronounced a saint by Pope .Gregory IX and the next day, the Pope laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi.
Name the first work on Indian music compiled by a Islamic scholar.
The first work on Indian music compiled by a Islamic scholar is ‘Gunyat-ut-Munya’.
Name the two Indian motifs used in Islamic architecture in India.
The two Indian motifs used in Islamic architecture are swastika and lotus.
Name a temple built on the arch and dome principle of Islamic architecture.
The Golden Temple at Amritsar, was built on the arch and dome principle of the Islamic architecture.
Mention any two doctrines of Bhakti cult.
- God is one and must be worshipped with love and devotion.
- Guru, an enlightened teacher is indispensable for realising God.
What is meant by Sufism ? Name two Sufi saints.
The word ‘Sufi’ has come from the Arabic word ‘Sufi meaning wool and was used for the mystics who used to wear only a coarse woolen garment some scholars say, it is derived from ‘Safa’, meaning purity. Sufis came to India with the Turkish invaders. Sufism is a sect of religion preaching tolerance, brotherhood and oneness of God.
Two Sufi Saints were :
- Hazarat Khwaja Muin-ud-Din Chisti.
- Hazarat Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Auliya of Delhi.
Mention any two doctrines of Sufism.
- unity of all religions.
- Equality and brotherhood of all human beings.
Who was St. Francis Xavier ? What did he do to spread Christianity among Indians ?
St. Francis Xavier was born on April 7, 1506 in the castle of Xavier in Spain. In 1537 he received the Holy orders. In 1541 he storted his missionary Journey towards India and landed at Goa in 1542. He would go through the streets ringing a little bell and inviting the children to hear the word of God. When he had gathered a large number of people, he would take them to a church and explain the beliefs related to Christianity to them.
What is known as Chishti Silsila ?
The word ‘siisila’ literally means a chain, signifying a continuous link between the master and the disciple. The leader of the order was called the pir and the followers were called the murids. A wali was nominated by the pir as his successor. Each Sufi order had a hermitage where the sufi saints resided with their disciples. The sufi saints who settled in India belonged to Chisti and Suhrawardi orders.
Mention any three teachings of Guru Nanak.
The teachings of Guru Nanak are as follows :
- Guru Nanak preached the unity of God and the unity of mankind.
- He advocated devotion to God in place of ritualism.
- He believed that “there is one God, His name is Eternal Truth. He is the maker of all things”.
- He condemned idolatry in all its forms.
Name the two famous Sufi Saints of India.
Hazrat Khwaja Muin-ud-Din Chisti and Nizam-ud-din Auliya.
Mention the two main principles of Sufism.
The two main principles of Sufism are :
- One could reach God through love and devotion and not through blind observance of rituals.
- God is one and all people are the children of God. Love of God meant love for humanity.
Mention the impact of Sufism on India society.
Sufism proved very helpful in birdging the gap between the followers of Hinduism and Islam and encouraged the feeling of Hindu-Muslim unity to a considerable extent.
Mention the two main features (principles) of the Bhakti Cult.
The two main features of the Bhakti Cult are :
- There is none too high or low with God. All are alike to God.
- Denouncement of idol worship and condemnation of formal rituals in religion
Who spearheaded the Bhakti movement in South India?
Chaitanya 21ahaprabu spearheaded the Bhakti movement in South India.
Mention the contribution made by Sant Dhyaneshwar to Marathi literature.
Sant Dhyaneshwar wrote in Marathi a famous commentary, called the Dhyaneshwari, on the Bhagavad Gita. He translated many Sanskrit works into Marathi including Amritanubhava, Atmanubhava and Bhavartha Dipika. The religious poems written by him are called Abhangas.
Mention the two important teachings of Guru Nanak.
Guru Nanak preached the gospel of Universal Brotherhood and religious tolerance. He exhorted the Hindus and the Muslims to forget their differences, because he believed in the equality of all religions.
Mention the two main teachings of Kabir.
The two main teachings of Kabir are :
- He denounced idol-worship, meaningless rituals and pilgrimages to holy places.
- Devotion to God was regarded as an effective means of salvation.
Who was Mirabai? What has she to say in her devotional songs?
Mirabai was a Rajput princess married into the ruling family of Mewar (Udaipur). A devotes of Lord Krishna since childhood, she continued to devote her whole time to the Lord’s worship even after her marriage. She, in her devotional songs says, “People say, Mira has gone mad.
I have myself become the eternal maid-servant of my Narayana.” Her message was : “There is but one* means to experience Lord’s Divine Presence—that is Bhakti. ”
How did the Bhakti Movement promote harmony between Hindus and Muslims in India?
The Saints and reformers of the Bhakti Movement tried to reform Hinduism so that it could successfully withstand the challenges of Islam and they tried to ensure harmony between the two communities in an atmosphere of toleration and co-operation.
How did the Bhakti reformers contribute to the growth of vernacular literature?
Most of the Bhakti reformers preached to the people in their mother-tongue and it provided an impetus for the development of regional languages such as Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Maithili, Gujarati etc.
When and by whom was Christianity believed to have been introduced in India?
St. Thomas came to South India in the first century AD.
Who was Francis Xavier?
He was one of the founders of the Society of Jesus. He toured many regions of Asia, especially those areas that were controlled by the Portuguese at that time. He had gone to Japan and the islands of Borneo and Moluccas (now in Indonesia). However, as a missionary his most notable successes were only in India.
Name the most important Church for the construction of which Francis Xavier raised money.
Francis Xavier raised money for the construction of nearly 40 Churches along the Eastern Coast. For this he received a large donation from local headmen as well as rulers to these regions. The most important among the Churches was the St. Stephen’s Church, Kombuthurai.
Why did Francis Xavier seek an audience with the King of Travancore?
He sought an audience with the King of Travancore, with the hope of converting the King and his subjects to the Christian Church.
What did Francis Xavier do to save the children from the slur of being called illegitimate children?
In order to save the Child from the slur of being called ‘an illegitimate child’, he tried to see that the child’s parents united themselves in holy matrimony.
What does Roberto de Nobili’s method of Adaptattion mean?
He used an altogether different method to preach Christianity in India. He decided to adapt himself to the local situation, in order to be able to deal with it successfully, especially by altering his way of life.
Give two evidences to suggest that Roberto de Nobili lived like an Indian Sanyasi.
He dressed like a Hindu ascetic (Sanyasi). He adopted also the Indian Sanyasi custom to have his head shaved and to keep only a small bunch of hair at the base. He used to wear a white dhoti and used wooden sandals as footwear.
What interpretation did de Nobili give to wearing a three-stringed thread across the chest?
Nobili took to wearing a three-stringed thread across the chest. He had his own interpretation of this symbol. He said, “it represented the Holy Trinity in the Christian religion, i.e., the union of Father, Son and Holy Spirit in one God.”
Name the two Tamil words used by de Nobili for the word ‘Grace’ in Christianity.
Roberto used the words ‘Arul and Prasadam’ for Grace.
What was Roberto de Nobili’s contribution to the growth of Christian literature in Tamil?
He prepared a series of questions and answers in Tamil about the Christian religion. These are called ‘Catechisms’.
He also prepared ‘Apologias’ i.e., statements by means of which he defended Christian doctrines. He wrote ‘discourses’ which were intended to explain the teachings of Jesus Christ in Tamil. These works in prose rank very high in religious literature in Tamil language.
Why was a matter in dispute referred to Pope Gregory XV to solicit his views about it?
De Nobili’s ‘Method of Adaptation’ aroused much controversy. Some fellow Jesuits and the Archbishop of Goa questioned the property of his behaviour just to gain popularity with the local community. The Constitution Romanae Sedis Antistes issued on 31 January 1623 by the Pope settled the matter. Roberto’s customs of wearing a three-stringed thread or the application of Chandan (Sandalwood paste) on the forehead were not found objectionable, because they did not mean that he was a superstitious man.
Who spearheaded the Bhakti movement in South India?
Chaitanya Mahaprabu spearheaded the Bhakti movement in South India.
What were the main beliefs of Shri Ramanuja?
Shri Ramanuja belived that the path of Bhakti (Self¬surrender to God) is open to all and also the quickest path for the purpose of realising God.
What was the main Contribution of Shri Madhavacharya?
Shri Madhavacharya wrote a commentary on the Brahma Satra and on some hymns of the Rig Veda. He believed in Salvation through God’s Grace.
What was the main contribution of Nambiandar-Nambi?
He collected all the hymns of the Shaivite saints and compiled them in the form of books. These books (called Trimurai) have a very high place in the devotional literature of India. They are addressed to Shiva as the Lord and Lover of Human Souls.
II. Structured Questions :
With reference to the sources of composite culture in India, state the significance of the following :
(b) Guru Granth Sahib
(c) Ajmer Sharief
(a) Bijak — Bijak is the compilation of the verses of Kabir. It comprises three main sections called Sakhi, Ramaini and Shabda and a fourth section containing miscellaneous folk song forms.
- The sakhi is composed in the doha or couplet form.
- The Ramaini form is usually written in the meter called chaupai and is usually based upon a musical raga.
- The third form, the Shabda is metrically the loosest form. Since it is the popular song form it has been altered from region to region and from singer to singer.
Kabir has drawn inspiration from various traditions — Islam, Vedas andyogic traditions to describe the Ultimate Reality. For example, he has used the terms like alakh (the unseen), nirakar (formless), Brahman and Atman, from Vedantic traditions.
(b) Guru Granth Sahib — Guru Granth Sahib is the only scripture of its kind which contains the songs, hymns and utterances of a wide variety of saints, sages and bards. This shows that Guru Arjan Dev wanted to affirm the fundamental unity of all religions and the unitary character of all mystic experience. It is indeed, a magnificent compendium of religions, mystic and metaphysical poetry written or uttered between the 12th and the 17th century in different parts of India. It is, also, at the same time, a mirror of the sociological, economic and political conditions of those days.
Guru Granth Sahib is regarded by the Sikhs as a ‘Living Guru’ and as a spiritual guide not only for them but for the entire humanity. They regard it as a ‘Living Guru’ that has all the answers regarding religion and morality.
The philosophy embodied in Guru Granth Sahib is that of action, deed and consequence. It lays emphasis on shared communal experience and the extinction of the ego or self is the corner-stone of its philosophy. It regards God as omnipotent and omniscient.
(c) Ajmer Sharief — The dargah of Khwajah Moinpddin Chishti i s one of the most revered sites in India not only for the Muslims but also for the people of other faiths, who hold the saint in high esteem. Every year thousands of people visit Ajmer Sharief to pay reverence at the sanctified dargah. A yearly carnival, known as Urs is held for six days in the honour of the beloved saint.
With reference to the composite culture, state briefly the impact of this culture on the following :
(a) Literature — Language and literature also saw the influence of the two traditions. The language which the Mughal rulers used in the administration was Persian. Through the Persian language, India was able to develop close cultural relations with Central Asia and Iran. In course of time, Persian became the language of administration and the language of the upper classes.
The greatest linguistic synthesis is seen in the development of Urdu, which is a mixture of Perisan, Arabic, Hindi and other regional languages. Urdu was originally known as ‘Zaban-e- Hindvi’ because its grammatical structure is similar to that of Hindi.
(b) Architecture— The fusion of two cultures is more profound in the field of architecture. Though the Indian and Islamic systems of art were fundamentally different in their ideas and techniques, they were mingled together to give rise to a new type of Indo-Islamic architecture.
The significant features adopted by the two from each other were the following :
- The Islamic architecture added to the Indian architecture the special characteristics of spaciousness, massiveness, majesty and width.
- In the sphere of decoration, the Turks avoided representation of human and animal figures in the buildings. Instead, they used geometrical and floral designs, combining them with panels of inscriptions containing verses from the Holy Quran. They also borrowed Indian motifs like swastika, bell, lotus, etc.
- The design of the golden kalash at the top of the shikhara of temples was adopted by the Muslims in placing a stone kilash on the domes of mosques and tombs.
- Many temples of Vrindavan assimilated the Mughal style of architecture.
- The Mughal traditions influenced the palaces and forts of many provincial and local kingdoms. For example, the Golden Temple at Amritsar, was built on the arch and dome principle of the Islamic architecture and incorporated some features of the incorporated some features of the Mughal traditions of architecture.
(c) Paintings — During the reign of Akbar, there was a fusion of Persian and Indian style of painting. Painting was organised in one of the imperial establishments (karkhanas) and a number of painters from different parts of the country were made to paint. Out of 17 eminent artists employed by Akbar, 13 were Hindus. Besides illustrating Persian books of fables, the painters were given the task of illustrating the Persian text of the Mahabharata and Akbarnama. In these paintings, Indian themes and scenes were used along with Indian colours like peacock blue and the Indian red. The most important work produced during the Mughal period is an unusual manuscript, Dastan-i-Amir Hamza or Hamzanama, which has nearly 1200 paintings.
Sufism was a liberal reform movement within Islam With reference to Sufism write short notes on the following :
(a) Devotion to God
(b) Caste distinctions
(c) Unity of all religions
(a) Sufism preached religious tolerance, brotherhood and oneness of God. Inspite of the different rules of various religions, the ultimate aim is to reach the God.So earnest devotion to God is essential.
(b) Equality and brotherhood of all human beings irrespective of caste, colour, cread and religion.
(c) Sufism believed in unity of all religions, because every religion points out the ultimate aim to reach the God and get his blessings.
Summarise the impact of Bhakti movement with regard to :
(a) Equality of all human beings.
(b) Fostering unity and harmony between different communities.
(c) Promoting regional languages and devotional literature.
(a) All are equal before God. Dignity of man depends on his actions. Universal brotherhood was the aim of Bhakti movement.
(b) All Hindus and Muslims devoted Sufi saints. People respected and followed the teachings of Sufi saints like, Kabir, Rahim etc. and worshipped the works of Tulsidas and Surdas. The songs of Mirabai were cherished by Hindus and Muslims too. Akbar also went to hear the devotional songs of Mirabai.
(c) The Bhakti saints preached in the language of the people. Languages such as Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Oriya became popular. Among important literary works of this period were Ramcharit Manas by Tulsidas, Gurmukhi literature of the Sikh Gurus and the Vaishnava literature in Bengal.
The teachings of Kabir, Guru Nanak, Ravidas helped reform Indian society. They tried to evolve a new social order by following the principle of equality and by denouncing caste distinctions. By exposing the futility of empty rituals, they did away with the domination of priests. Thus, the Bhakti movement brought in social changes.
5. With reference to the influence of Christianity during the Mughal period, answer
the following questions :
Explain the role played by St. Francis Xavier and Robert de Nobili in spreading Christianity in India.
St. Francis Xavier became the first Jesuit missionary to arrive in India in 1542. He was followed by Robert de Nobili in 1605.
Both these missionaries played a significant role in spreading Christianity in India.
St. Francis Xavier was born on April 7, 1506 in the castle of Xavier in Spain. St. Xavier displayed zeal and.charity in attending to the sick in hospitals. In 153 7, he received the Holy orders. In 1541, he started his missionary journey towards India and landed at Goa in 1542. He spent the first five months in preaching and attending to the sick in hospitals. He would go through the streets ringing a little bell and inviting the children to hear the word of God. When he had gathered a large number of people, he would take them Christianity to them.
Robert de Nobili was born at Tuscany in September 1577. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1597 and sailed for India in October 1604. He arrived at Goa in 1605. After a short stay in Cochin, he took residence in Madurai in November 1606. He learn Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu and studied Indian philosophy and religious literature. He separated himself from his fellow missionaries and adopted the dress, diet and manner of the life of an ascetic. These methods won him a number of followers from the upper castes. His way of life aroused the opposition of his fellow missionaries. He was accused of watering down Christianity and had to defend himself before the Archbishop of Goa. He did this so ably that he received the permission from the Pope to continue his way of life.
Explain the role of Christian missionaries in promoting language, literature and art in India.
The Christian missionaries spread Christianity in India and played a significant role in promoting language, literature and art.
- The missionaries in order to understand and be understood by the Indian people brought out grammars and dictionaries of the Indian languages.
- St. Francis Xavier learnt the language of Malabar and brought out a manual of grammar and a vocabulary which helped the-Jesuits and other missionaries to learn the language of the people of Malabar. s
- The English Jesuit, Thomas Stephens, brought out an epic in Konkani and a grammar book. Diogo Ribeiro, another English missionary, wrote a grammar book and booklets on Christian doctrines.
- The Missionaries, besides working in language and literature, contributed to other arts. They began teaching Western music in Church schools in India. Apart from music, they also taught dance and instrumental music. Many churches had music schools, so that in every church hymns were sung, accompanied by organ and instruments.
- The Missionaries and the Church were also teachers and patrons in India of the arts of painting, carving and sculpture. Most of the paintings were religious in theme and adorned the Churches. These paintings influenced the Mughals. Portuguese, English and Mughal records show the interest of Akbar and Jahangir in Christian works of arts.
- The Missionaries were the best interpreters of India to the Western world with their popular letters from the mission field.
6. With reference to the given pictures, answer the following:
Name the Bhakti Saints given in the pictures. Where were they born ?
Mirabai was the Rajasthani princess of Mewar who lived during the time of Mughal ruler Akbar. Mirabai the only daughter of a Rajput noble was married to Bhoja Raj, the heir apparent of Rana Sanga of Mewar. She renounced the world and became a devotee of Lord Krishna.
Sant Jnaneswar : Jnaneswar or Dnyaneshwar was a 13th century saint, poet and philosopher from Maharashtra. He was the second of the four children of Vithalpant and Rukmabhai.
Mention any two teachings of each of these two saints.
Teachings of Mirabai : A devotes of Lord Krishna since
childhood, she continued to devote her whole time to the Lord’s worship even after her marriage. She, in her devotional songs says, “People say, Mira has gone mad. I have myself become the eternal maid-servant of my Narayana.” Her message was : “There is but one means to experience Lord’s Divine Presnce—that is Bhakti. ”
Teaching of Sant Jnaneswar : His teachings invoked great devotion in common people and his followers walk hundreds of kilometers to the holy place of Pandhapur, to worship Lord Vitthal, form of Hari. In his famous works, known as Abhangas, Namdev has given a graphic description of Sant Jnaneswar’s visit to the holy places.
How did the Sufi and the Bhakti movements foster the growth of Indo-Islamic culture.
Role of Sufism :
- It fostered the feelings of Hindu-Muslim unity.
- Sufism made its influence on the poets of the period, like Amir Khusro and Malik Muhammed Javasi, who composed poems in Persian and Hindi in praise of Sufi principles.
Role of Bhakti Movement
- Bhakti saints preached universal brotherhood and emphasised equality’of all men.
- The Bhakti saints preached in the language of the people. Languages such as Hindi, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Oriya became popular. Among important literary works of this period were Ramcharit Manas by Tulsidas, Gurmukhi literature of the Sikh Gurus and the Vaishnava literature in Bengal.
Write short notes on the following :
(b) Guru Nanak
(a) Kabir : was a disciple of Guru Ramananda. He was brought up by a Muslim weaver, Neeru and his wife Neema. Kabir’s teachings (Dohe) are recorded in ‘Bijak’ (the seed book), which give great messages to the people; the followers of Kabir are called ‘Kabir-Panthis’.
(b) Guru Nanak : (AD 1469 – AD 1538) He was born in Talwandi now Nankana Saheb in Pakistan. He believed in personal devotion to God. He laid emphasis on Hindu- Muslim unity. He undertook many journeys. He finally settled at Kartarpur on the right bank of the Ravi river and gave instructions to every one, who came there.
(c) Mirabai : She was Rajasthani princess of Mewar. who lived during the time of Akbar. She was married to Bhoja Raj in 1516, the heir to Rana Sanga of Mewar. She renounced the world and became devoted of Lord Krishna. Her devotional songs are still very popular. Her brilliant poetry is known as Padavali.
With reference to the impact of Islam, answer the following:
What was the impact on languages and literature?
Urdu became the common language of people which affected Sufi philosophy. Many Sanskrit books were translated to Persian and Urdu. In Mughal period, various devotional literature was created under Bhakti and Sufi movements. In 16th century (1504) Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote a Hindi epic called ‘Padmavaf on the queen of Mewar, Padmavati. Rahim wrote ‘Satsai’, other famous poets were Tulsidas and Surdas. Delhi and Lucknow became the centers of Urdu literary activity. The famous poet w’as Mirza Galib Urdu was the court language during the British. Still today, many Urdu words are used in settlement offices of the court.
Explain the contribution of the Mughal dynasty to the development of Indo-Islamic culture.
Nearly, all the Mughal rulers e.g. Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, were the lovers of art and literature and patronised music and dance which resulted in remarkable features of Indo-Islamic culture in language, paintings and buildings and common tradition.
With reference to the Mughal art and architecture, explain briefly the following.
(a) Ornamentation : It is the main feature of Islamic architecture with the help of geometrical, floral designs with panels of inscriptions. The design of golden kalash at the top of the temples was also adopted by Muslims.
(b) Tombs : have the common feature of domes at the top with rectangular small door at the opening or doorway with a well constructed outskirts with identical windows.
(c) Minarets : are the significant features of the important mosques, tombs of Mughal period. These add beauty and grand look to the central building, e.g. The Taj Mahal looks magnificent with the minarets.
Explain the rise and growth of the Sufi-Movement in India with reference to :
(a) The Chiest Order
(b) The Suhrawardi Order
(a) The Chiest Order :
The central principles that become characteristics of the Chisti Order in India are based on the teachings and practices of Muin-ud-Din Chisti. He visited nearly all the great centers of Muslim culture and acquainted himself with almost every important trend in Muslims religious life in the Middle Ages. He travelled in Middle East extensively including visits to Makkah and Madina. He lay stress on reunciation of material goods, strict regime of self-discipline and personal prayer, independence from two rulers and two state infcluding rejection of monetary and land grants, generosity to others particularly through sharing of food and wealth and tolerance and respect for religious differences. Nizamuddin- Auliya also known as Hazrat Nizamuddin, was a famous Sufi saint of Chisti Order in South Asia. Nizamuddin Auliya like his predecessors stressed upon the element of love as a means of relisation of God, for him, his love of God implied a love of humanity. His vision of the world was marked by a highly evolved sense of secularist and kindness.
(b) The Suhrawardi Order : Another well known Sufi-saint was Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan in the 13th century. He came under the influence of a famous mystic, Sheikh Shihab-ud-din Suhrawardi and he founded another order of Sufi saints called the ‘Suhrawardi Order’. They were employed by the Muslim rulers and led lives of comfort as they did not believe in living in poverty.
What do you know about the rise and growth of the Bhakti Cult? Discuss the main features of the Bhakti Cult?
The Bhakti Cult, a reform movement in Hinduism laid emphasis on devotion to God. It originated in the 9th Century AD in South India. When Shankracharya brought a revival in Hinduism. In South India, it was spearheaded by Ramanujcharaya and Madhavacharaya.
The principal deities are : Shiva, Shakti and Vishnu through the two most popular incarnations. Ram and Krishna. Many other devotes focused on a Formless God (Nirguna Mhakti). They, especially Kabir and Guru Nanak, attracted a large following.
The main features of the Bhakti Cult are as such; They preached that God is one and must be worshipped with love and devotion; One can attain salvation through
Bliakti or devotion to God; All men are equal before God and the dignity of man depends on his actions and not on the privileges of birth; Religious rites, rituals and ceremonies are futile and man reaches God only through absolute surrender to Him; They emphasised the need for a Guru to lead a person to the realisation of God.
Explain the impact of the Bhakti movement under the following heads :
(a) Ensuring Harmony between Hindus and Muslims.
(b) Preaching the fundamental Equality of all human beings.
(c) Promoting regional languages and Devotional Literature.
The impact of the Bhakti movement under the given heads is explained as under :
(a) Ensuring Harmony between Hindus and Muslims : The Bhakti movement became popular in the whole of India. The saints and reformers offered the people a simple religion devoid of complicated rituals : a religion, which required only sincere devotion to God. They tried to reform Hinduism so that it could successfully withstand the challenges of Islam and they also tried to ensure harmony between the two communities—Hindus and Muslims in an atmosphere of toleration and co-operation. The message of religious toleration made a profound impression on Several Muslim rulers. They attracted many devotes from both the communities and exercised a stabilizing influence on society.
(b) Preaching the fundamental Equality of all humanbeings:
They tried to evolve a new social order by following the principle of equality and by denouncing caste distinctions. They exposed the futility of external rituals and set free the minds of the people from the domination of the priests. Thus, the movement brought in not only religious reforms, but also social changes.
(c) Promoting regional languages and Devotional Literature:
The Bhakti reformers preached to the people in their mother-tongue and it provided an impetus for the development of regional languages such as Hindi Bengali, Marathi, Maithili, Gujarati etc. Their compositions rank very high in the devotional literature of the world.
Describe Francis Xavier’s missionary activities in India under the following headlines :
(a) His preachings among the pearl-fishers along the East Coast of Southern India.
(b) His love for children born out of Wedlock.
(a) Francis Xavier arrived in Goa in 1542. For the next three years he had been a Christian preacher in India among the pearl-fishers along the East Coast of Southern India as well as in northern areas of the Cape Comorin. His preachings made him immensely popular among the Paravas, Katesars, kadaiyars and Mukkuvars. He had become a missionary of great eminence and respectability among the Pattamkattiyars. Their family-members had been the head of the Fisher Coast.
(b) Many Childred were born of parents (Portuguese sailors and Indian women) who were not legally married at that time. Francis Xavier gave such children instruction about beliefs of the Christian Church. In order to save the Child from the slur of being called ‘an illegitimate child’, he tried to see that the child’s parents united themselves in holy matrimony. Francis Xavier died in 1552. His embalmed body became the object of holy pilgrimages.
Explain Roberto de Nobili’s missionary activities in India under the following headlines :
(a) His method of Adaptation
(b) Development of Christian literature in Tamil
(a) He used an altogether different method to preach Christianity in India. He decided to adapt himself to the local situation, in order to be able to deal with it successfully, especially by altering his way of life.
He dressed like a Hindu ascetic (Sanyasi). He adopted also the Indian Sanyasi custom to have his head shaved and to keep only a small bunch of hair at the base. He used to wear a white dhoti and used wooden sandals as footwear.
(b) He prepared a series of questions and answers in Tamil about the Christian religion. These are called ‘Catechisms’. He also prepared ‘Apologias’ i.e., statements by means of which he defended Christian doctrines. He wrote ‘discourses’ which were intended to explain the teachings of Jesus Christ in Tamil. These works in prose rank very high in religious literature in Tamil language.
No survey of the Bhakti movement can omit the names of great woman figures who left the impression of their preachings upon future generations. In this context, explain briefly the preachings.
The names of the great women figures of the Bhakti movement can never be omitted. In this context, the given heads are explained as follows :
(a) Lallesvari (1317-1372): She was a Kashmiri Saint, whose life is full of legeds and miraculous deeds. She teaches that the path to God-realisationi lies in renouncement of worldly possessions, intense love of the divine and rising above the distinctions of caste and creed. She said, “thought my mind to see the Lord in all my fellowmen. Do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman. Let us give up fraud and untruth.”
(b) Mirabai (1450-1512) : She was a Rajput princess married into the ruling family of Mewar (Udaipur). A devotee of Lord Krishna since childhood, she continued to devote her whole time to the Lord’s worship even after her marriage. She incurred her husband’s displeasure and eventually, their marriage broke up. She wandered from place to place singing her beautiful songs. One of her hymns goes thus : “People say Mira has gone mad. I have myself become the eternal maid-servant of my Narayana.” Mira reached Dwarka, where she composed many songs in Gujarati. Next to Narsi Mehta, she is regarded as the greatest figure to contribute to devotional literature in Gujarati. She had Raidas as her Guru. Her message was : “there is but one means to experience Lord’s Divine Presence- that is Bhakti. ”
Name the book, where Kabir’s teachings are recorded.
Bijak (the seed-book).
Mention two important aspects of the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
The two important aspects of the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu are :
- He believed in on Supreme Being, whom he called Krishna or Hari and exhorted others to have faith in Krishna.
- He preached universal brotherhood and denounced all distinctions based on Caste and Creed. He was opposed to the domination of the priestly class.
Who was Lallesvari? What are her teachings?
Lallesvari was a Kashmiri Saint, whose life is full of legends and miraculous deeds. She teaches that the path to God- realisation lies in renouncement of worldly possessions, intense love of the divine and rising above the distinctions of caste and creed.
Explain the characteristics of Muslim architecture under these heads :
(a) Mosques and Tombs.
(b) Mode of Ornamentation.
(c) Arches, Domes and Minars.
The characteristics of Muslim architecture under the given heads are explained below :
(a) Mosques and Tombs : The Muslim structures are of two types : religious and secular. The religious structures are mosques and tombs. The mosque has an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah. For congregational prayer-hall having a reces alcove called Mehrab in the western wall at the back of the hall. On the right side of the Mehrab, stands pulpit and a minaret or tower above the walls from which Muazzin summons the faithful to worship. Over the sanctuary, is the central dome. The tombs are the resting places for the dead. The Tomb has a chamber, with a Mehrab in the western wall. The whole structure is surmounted by a graceful dome. Underneath the building, is the burial chamber with the grave (Kabr) in the center of it.
(b) Mode of Ornamentation (Islamic Art) : the Islamic art was characterised by simplicity and was devoid of extravagant ornamentation. The buildings were adorned with geometrical patterns and engraved with calligraphy and inlaid work.
(c) Arches, Domes and Minars : In their structures, the technique of arches to cover space, was introduced. They have arched roofs or ceilings, called vaults. The mosques and tombs had gorgeous bulbous domes, beautiful minars and minarets. For the construction of these buildings, red sandstone and marble were extensively used…
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