Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 1 The Harappan Civilisation.
These Solutions are part of Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions. Here we have given. Total History and Civics Class 9 ICSE Morning Star Solutions Chapter 1 The Harappan Civilisation.
I. Short Answer Questions :
What is meant by the term, ‘Civilisation’ ?
Civilisation is defined as an advanced stage of human cultural development. It implies the use of superior technology and complex economic relationships. There are a number of traits which mark a civilisation. Some of these are :
- Evolution of cities
- Surplus food
- Division of labour
- System of writing
- Monumental public buildings
- Development of technology.
Mention any three features that led to the emergence of civilisation.
- The ruins of the sites reveal that the Harappan people were primarily urban and their cities were designed skillfully.
- The unique features of the city was its elaborate drainage system. A brick-lined drainage channel flowed alongside every street.
- The Great Bath was also unearthed. The pool was filled with water taken from a well nearby.The walls of the pool were made watertight using specially-made bricks and gypsum mortar.
- The Great Granary consisted of two blocks with an aisle between them. Each block had six halls with corridors. It was used for storing food grains.
What are known as Bronze Age Civilisations ?
Man learnt the art of mixing copper with tin or zinc to produce the alloy called Bronze. Bronze is hard and more ductile than copper and is, therefore, more suitable for the manufacture of tools and weapons. Because of the importance of bronze in the growth of the civilisations, these civilisations are known as the Bronze Age Civilisation.
Name two important sources of information on the Harappan Civilisation.
The discovery of Indus Valley Civilization by 2500 BC, the evidences of Harappan Civilisation were obtained, because Harappan site was first to be discovered in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of west in Punjab in Pakistan.
Due to the bronze things of that time, it is also called the Bronze Age Civilisation. Such knowledge and skills enabled people to advance to a new stage in the progress of civilisation.
Why did ancient man start using bronze for making tools and weapons ?
Ancient man started using bronze for making tools and weapons because bronze is harder and more ductile than cooper. There fore, it is more suitable for the manufacture of tools and weapons.
Why is the Harappan Civilisation called so ?
The Harappan civilisation is called so because the Harappan site was the first to be discovered in 1921 at the modem site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan.
What types of weights and measures did the Indus people use ?
The Indus people used sets of Cubical Stone weights. The basic unit was 16 (equal to modern 14 grams). The larger weights were multiples of 16 like 32, 48, 64, 128 and so on. The smaller ones were all fractions of 16.
Name one important public building of IndusValley Civilisation and its importance.
Citadel: The raised area of each city was called the ‘Citadel’. The platform was built of mud-bricks. All important buildings like the Great Bath, the granary, the assembly hall and workshops were located on the Citadel.
Name the process by which sculpture in metal was done.
The cities like Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and Lothal were important centers of metallurgy. With the help of mud frames, the people built metal statues and other items like jewellery, e.g. dancing girl statue.
What do you know about the Indus Script ?
The Indus Script has not been deciphered as yet. So, the only source of script are some seals and copper tablet. Seals display some sort of pictorial writing. Besides this, similar inscriptions have been found engraved on copper tablets with figures of men and animals.
Mention the types of dress worn by the Indus Valley people.
Answer:Most people used cotton clothes. Rich people also used woollen clothes in winter. The women’s dress included skirts, cloaks and scarfs and the men’s dress was dhoti and shawl. Spinning wheels and needles of that time prove the art of spinning was practiced by the people.
State two features of the trade in the Indus Valley Civilisation.
The elaborate social structure and standard of living confirmed the presence of Trade in the Indus Valley Civilisation, e.g., the cities like Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Lothal were important centers of metallurgy. Balakot and Chanhudaro were centres for shell-working and bangle-making.
Name any three animals depicted on the Pashupati seal.
Seals of Pashupati shows a three-faced deity wearing a buffalo¬horned head dress, seated cross-legged on a throne and surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a buffalo and a rhinoceros, with two deer at his feet.
State any two causes that led to the decline of the Harappan Civilisation.
(a) Deforestation: Enormous quantity of wood was used in the first civilisation to produce bronze. Jewellery was also made by wood. Wood was needed to bake bricks, pottery, stoneware and to make boats and furniture. These activities lead to
deforestation resulting in changes in the climate.
(b) Earthquake: Earthquakes caused changes in the course of the Indus river which led to the inundation of the hinterland of Mohenjo-daro.
In what two respects is Harappan Civilisation our greatest heritage ?
The Harappan Civilisation present a basic ground of indispensable heritage which imparts a solid imprint on the latter civilsations, e.g. the way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery etc. The cultivation of cotton was adopted by the Egyptians after several centuries.
By whom was the city of Mohenjo-daro discovered ?
In 1922,R.D. Banerjee, discovered the city of Mohenjo-daro,by excavating a mound, thinking it to be a Buddhist Stupa. This was the city of Mohenjo-daro, the ‘mound of the dead’, as the name implies.
Who discovered the city of Harappa ?
Under Lord Curzon in 1901, Sir John Marshall was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, who revealed the Harappan Civilisation around the city of Harappa.
State two chief features of residential houses in Mohenjo-daro.
The residential houses were made on high mound to protect them from floods. The houses were equipped with spacious rooms, wells, bathrooms with covered drains.
How do we say that the Harappan people had certain religious beliefs ?
Although no remains of temples or worship-places have been found except the fire-altars at Kalibangan ; but the seals and figurines etc. reveal many features of Hinduism such as the worship of the Mother Goddess, Pashupati Shiva, sacred animals and trees etc.
How do we know that the Harappans believed in animal worship ?
The Harappans worshiped the animals. Animal worship as a part of religious beliefs is indicated by the representation of animals on the seals and in terracotta and stone figurines.
Mention the evidences which suggest that the Harappan people had trade relations with other countries.
The Harappan people had commercial relations with southern and eastern. India, Kashmir and with other countries of Asia. They imported various metals, precious stones and other articles. They also carried on their trade with Egypt and Crete. Objects of Sumerian origin found at the ruins of the Indus cities indicate that their trade relations between these countries were actively practiced into. Trade was carried on both by land and sea-routes. The seal bearing a mastless ship holds the eviden of the popularity of the sea-routes.
Describe the famous sculpture in metal which was found among the ruins of the city of Mohenjo-daro.
The most outstanding work in metal is the bronze figure of a dancing girl with her right hand on her hip in a dancing posture. She is shown, wearing necklaces and her left arm is covered with bangles, made of ivory or bone. Her hair is neatly fashioned in the form of a bun and her head is tilted slightly backward.
Give one evidence to show that the Harappan people excelled in the art of sculpture in the following:
(a) in metal
(b) in stone
(c) in terracotta
Evidence of Harappan people’s excellent artistry regarding the mentioned heads are as follows :
(a) The figure of the dancing girl carved out of bronze metal.
(b) The two stone-status, one that of a nobleman or a priest and the other that of a Male Torso in red stone stand sufficient evidence of skill of the Harappan people’s sculpture in stone.
(c) The terracotta figurine of the Mother-Goddess and other terracotta figures of a bull, dogs, sheep, birds, men and women.
What evidence has been found to suggest that the Harappan people were familiar with the art of writing?
The seals discovered at Harappan and Mohenjo-daro are engraved with some sort of pictorial writing. Similar inscriptions have been found engraved on copper tables with figures of men and animals.
Mention any two features of the Harappan script.
Two features of the Harappan script are:
- The Harappan script is pictorial.
- The script has been engraved on the seals and on copper tables.
Mention three different kinds of Seals discovered of the varioius sites of the Harappan Valley Civilization.
Three different kinds of Seals discovered are:
- The Animal Seals.
- The Unicom Seal.
- The Shiva Pashupati Seal.
Mention the evidences which suggest that the Harappan people worshipped :
(a) the Mother Goddess,
(b) the Shiva Pashupati, and
(c) the trees and animals.
On the basis of the following evidences we can say that the Harappan people worshipped different deities and objects :
(a) Many terracotta figuriness and seals discovered, bear the picture of a female deity, identified as the Mother Goddess. The female figures are seminude, they wear elaborate head dresses and ornaments. Some of the figures are smoke- stained which may mean that the people burnt incense before the deity at the time of worship. People worshipped this Goddess believing in the female energy as the source of all creation.
(b) A particular seal discovered, bears remarkable figure of a male deity, identified as Lord Shiva. The figure is tri-faced with horns one either side of his head dress, is seated in
a yogic posture on a throne surrounded by animals.The discovery of a large number of conical and cylindrical stones that resemble the Shiva Linga, suggest that the Harappan people worshipped Lord Shiva.
(c) A certain religious seals discovered are found to bear designs, which means that they worshipped trees and animals. They considered Pipal tree sacred as it was a source of wisdom as they believed.
Also, they worshipped the bull, the rhinoceros, the tiger and the crocodile. The figure of a deity with a hooded cobra over its head and a worshipper on either side signifies that some form of Naga-worship was in fashion.
What is the evidence to suggest that the Harappan people worshipped trees and animals?
The seals are valuable source of information regarding the physical features of the people, their religious beliefs etc. The designs on certain religious seals show that people worshipped trees and animals.
Mention any two probable causes for the decline and disappearance of the Harappan Civilization.
Roods or earthquakes might have caused the destruction of the cities.
What is meant by the word ‘Mesopotamia’?
The word ‘Mesopotamia’ means the region between the two rivers.
Mention any two features to suggest that the Harappan people enjoyed a higher standard of civic amenities than those Mesopotamia.
Harappan people enjoyed a higher standard of civic amenities than those of Mesopotamia. The Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro and also its many houses with their own water supply, bathrooms and excellent drainage system, all go to say that “the masses enjoyed a degree of comfort and luxury unknown in other parts of the civilized world.”
What evidences are found for us to know about the following:
(a) Food of the Indus Valley people.
(b) Dress and Ornaments worn by the people.
In context of the mentioned headlines in the questions evidences that are found are described below :
(a) The principal diet of the Indus Valley people consisted of _ wheat and barley which were regularly cultivated. Rice and dates were also eaten. Milk, vegetables and fruits were also eaten. Milk, vegetables and fruits were also there. Beef, mutton, poultry, turtle, tortoise, river-fish and shell-fish were commonly used.
(b) The various sculptured figures show that people used to wear simple dress. Men used two pieces of cloth i.e., the upper garment, that was a shawl which was drawn over the left shoulder and under the right arm; the lower garment resembled a modem dhoti. Female dress did not differ much from that of the male. Women used a loin cloth bound by a girdle. Common fabrics were commonly used, perhaps wool was also used.
Male and female both were fond of wearing ornaments. Gold, silver, copper, other metals and precious stones were used for making various ornaments of different designs. Men and women used to wear necklaces, finger-rings and armlets. Women decorated themselves with a head-dress, earrings, bangles, bracelets, girdles and anklets.
Why did the Indus Valley Civilization come to be known as Harappan Civilization?
The archaeologists made various excavations in the north-western region of India which led to the discovery of the ruins of the pre-historic cities of Harappan in West Punjab and Mohenjo-daro in Sind. The sites of early excavations were found on the river Indus and its tributaries. Therefore, Indus Valley Civilization came to be known as Harappan Civilization.
II. Structured Questions :
With reference to the emergence of civilisation, answer the following questions :
(a) What is meant by Civilisation ?
(b) What are the main traits which mark a civilisation ?
(c) Explain briefly man’s progress from the stone age to Bronze Age civilisation.
(a) Civilisation is defined as an advanced stage of human cultural development. It implies the use of superior technology and complex economic relationships.
(b) There are a number of traits which mark a civilisation. Some of these are :
- Evolution of cities
- Surplus food
- Division of labour
- System of writing
- Monumental public buildings
- Development of technology.
(c) The period between 4000 and 3000 BC saw remarkable progress. Man acquired greater knowledge and skill in mastering the forces of nature. He took to agriculture and began to make more efficient tools and started living more or less a settled life on the banks of rivers. So a number of dispersed farming villages evolved first into towns and then into cities. The river valleys had the agricultural potential needed to support a dense population and produce surplus food. The surplus food freed some people from the task of producing their own food. Such individuals gradually became specialists and developed a substantial range of new skills such as writing, using metals and making their alloys, seal-making and large-scale construction. Such knowledge and skills enabled people to advance to a new stage in the progress of civilisation.
With reference to the sources of information about the Harappan Civilisation, describe the significance of each of the following :
(a) Great Bath
(a) The Great Bath : The Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro is a massive structure which throws light on the life of the people and culture of the Harappan Civilisation :
- The construction of the Great Bath indicates that the art of building had reached a high degree of perfection at that time.
- The massive structure points out that there might have existed a ruling class that could mobilise labour, collect taxes arid build such a huge structure for the public.
- Most of the scholars agree that the Great Bath might have been used for religious purposes. This indicates the importance attached to ceremonial bathing in sacred tanks, pools and rivers since time immemorial.
- The design of the Great Bath portrays the efficient planning in the structural features relating to water supply and sewage disposal.
(b) Seals : The seals were used by traders to stamp their goods.After a bag with goods was tied, a layer of wet clay was applied on the knot, and the seal was pressed on it. Because of the trade, these seals were found in different regions. These seals indicate that the Harappan trade had spread over a vast area.
(c) Script : The Harappans used a script which is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish and varieties of the human form. The number of signs of Harappan script is known to be between 375 and 400. The script is found inscribed on a number of seals, copper tools, rims of jars, copper and terra-cotta tablets, jewellery and on an ancient signboard.
With reference to Harappan Culture, answer the following questions :
(a) Discuss briefly how the Harappan Civilisation was discovered.
(b) Describing the extent of civilisation
(c) ISame any tour cities of Harappan Civilisation
(a) Under Lord Curzon in 1901, Sir John Marshall, the Director General of Archaeological Survey of India, revealed the Harappan Civilisation near Harappa in Punjab. In 1921, Dayaram Sahni, an officer in the Archaeological. Survey of India got ruins dug out, around Harappa. In 1922, R.D. Banerjee along with a Buddhist monk found the city of Mohenjo-daro under a mound. Later, Sir John Marshall ordered large-scale excavations,
(b) The entire area of the Harappan civilisation is triangular in shape covering an area of about 1, 299, 600 sq. km,
extending from Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in tlje west to Alamgirpur, in Ganga Yamuna Doab and from Manda in Jammu in north to Bhagatrav in Narmada estuary in the south.
(c) Manda, Banawali,Kalibangan, Alamgirpur, Lothal, Rupar and Rangpur are among the chief cities of Harappan Civilisation.
4. With reference to the chief features of the Harappan Civilisation, write short notes on each of the following:
Town planning: It is the most remarkable feature of the Harappan Civilisation. The Indus cities were set up on a grid-pattern, consisting of regular planning with divisions, alignment of streets, planning of the houses and public buildings with the provision of thorough fares.
Special features of the houses of the people.
The houses at street corners were rounded to allow carts to pass easily and the house drains emptied all waste water into the street drains.
Common elements between Mohenjo-daro and Harappan Civilisations.
Common elements between Mohenjo-daro and Harappan Civilisation are as follows:
- Both are located on the banks of the Indus river i.e. Mohenjo- daro on the right and Harappa on the left banks.
- Both acquire a circuit of 5.0 km.
- Ground plans of construction were the same.
- Water supply, drainage, granaries were common in management.
- Some of the unique features were common, e.g. indoor plumbing, brick-lined drain pipes and sewage channels.
With reference to public buildings of Harappan Civilisation, answer the following questions :
(a) State the importance of Great Bath.
(b) How were the granaries built and what was their importance?
(a) Great Bath : It is one of the largest public-buildings of Mohenjo-daro, measuring 108 x 180 feet with a bathing pool 39 feet long and 28 feet wide and 8 feet deep with two organisation of steps on the north and south side. The water was provided by a well in an adjacent room. There were porticos and rooms and a stairway leading to an upper storey, which are supposed to be used for some priesthood or changing the clothes. It might be used for a ritual bath.
(b) Granaries : These measured 45.71 meters in length and 15.23 meters in breadth in Mohenjo-daro. In Harappa, there were two rows of six granaries, each measuring 15.23 x 6.09 meters with adjoining working floors meant for threshing grains, as wheat and barley have been found in the crevices of the floors. There were barracks for accommodating labourers.
6. With reference to art and sculpture of the Indus Valley people answer the following questions :
Describe any important objects of sculpture made by the Harappans.
A large number of stone images have been found; out of these the statue of a yogi drapped with a shawl is well- known. Bronze statues of a dancing girl, animals and carts etc. are noteworthy.
How did Indus pottery reflect the potter’s artistic skill ?
Harappans produced their own characteristic pottery which was made glossy and shining. Earthen vessels and pottery, crafted on the potter’s wheel, were decorated with black geometrical designs. The large jars with narrow necks and red pots with black decoration bear evidence of their artistic skill.
Study the picture of the seal and answer the questions that follow :
(a) Identify the seal in the given picture. Why were the seals used ?
(b) Of what material were these seals made ?
(c) What do the seals reveal about the Harappans ?
(a) The seal given in the picture is Pashupati Seal.
The seals were used for trade in vast area of Indus valley, as these have been found from various spots spread over the civilisation sites. The seals with short inscriptions give some messages which cannot be deciphered yet.
(b) The seals were made of terra-cotta, steatite, agate etc.
(c) The seals reveal the mythical and religious beliefs. The figures carved in the seals depict the worship of Mother Goddess and Pashupatinath and various animals, trees etc.
8. With reference to the religious belief of the Harappans, state the following :
The sources of information about the religious beliefs of the Harappans.
The information about the religious beliefs mostly comes from the seals, seal impressions, terracotta and metal figurines, cemeteries, etc. On the basis of the knowledge obtained from the seals, figurines it has been inferred that the Harappan people had many features of later Hinduism.
Their belief in Mother Goddess.
They worshipped the Mother Goddess who bears some resemblance to the one that was worshipped in the Middle East and Europe. The Harappans looked upon the earth as the Goddess of Fertility. A plant is shown growing out of the body of a woman resembling the Goddess of earth.
Worship of Nature.
The Harappans worship the elements of nature. They worship trees, fire and water. Besides, animal worship was also a part of religious beliefs. It is indicated by the representation of animals on the seals and in terracotta and stone figurines.
Describe the social life of the Harappan people with reference to :
(a) Their Diet.
(b) Their Dress.
(c) Their Ornaments.
(d) Their Sports and Games.
The social life of the Harappan people with reference to the given heads is discussed as under :
(a) Their Diet : The principal diet of the people consisted of wheat and barley. Rice and dates were also consumed.Milk, vegetables and fruits were also eaten. Beef, mutton, poultry, turtle, tortoise, river-fish were commonly used.
(b) Their Dress : The Harappan people wore simple dress.The dress of men constituted two pieces of cloth the upper garment was a shawl which was drawn over the left shoulder and under the right arm; the lower garment resembled a modern dhoti. Women used a loin cloth bound by a girdle. The cotton and woollen garments were commonly worn.
(c) Their Ornaments : Both men and women whether rich or poor were fond of wearing ornaments. The ornaments were guilded out of gold, silver, copper and other well- known metals, and precious stones were used for making various ornaments of different designs. Both men and – women wore necklaces, finger-rings and armlets. Women also decorated themselves with a head-dress, earrings, bangles, bracelets, girdless and anklets.
(d) Their Sports and Games : Dicing was a popular game among the people. Marbles and balls were used for games.The Harappan people were fond of music and dancing. Clay-modelling was popular among children. Crude models of men, women, animals and whistles, rattles and dolls have been found in abundance. People loved hunting and Fishing.
What do you know abnout the trade and commercial activities of the Harappan people?
The Harappan People had commercial tie-ups with southern and eastern India, Kashmir and with other countries of Asia. They imported various precious stones and other articles. They also carried on trade with Egypt and Crete. Trade was earned on both by land and sea-routes. The representation of a mastless ship on a seal suggests the popularity of the sea-routes.
With refernce to the art and craft of the Harappan people, explain their achievements in the following fields:
(a) The Art of Sculpture.
(b) The Art of Carving.
The art and craft of the Harappan people with reference to the fields mentioned, is explained below :
(a) The Art of Sculpture : The Harappan people were very skillful at the art of Sculpture. They were very much acquainted with different metals like—gold, silver, copper bronze etc. Also, they had a vast knowledge of precious stones. They used all these metals and stones in making different kinds of statues and figurines. The bronze figure of a dancing girl is one of the commendable pieces of art of sculpture. Then, their sculpture in stone is no less by any means. The statue of a nobleman or a priest and a Male Torso in red stone speak volumes of their art of sculpture. Sculpture in terracotta is yet another master-piece of their art, the terracotta figurine of the Mother- Goddess is an exquisite of sculpture. Several other terracotta figures, of a bull, dogs, sheep, birds, men and women hold evidence of their skill at sculpture.
(b) The Art of Carving : The Indus people excelled in the art of carving. The figures of animals carved on the seals, show a high degree of excellence. A variety of figures of animals such as bull, the buffalo, the bison, the elephant and the mythological unicorn is worth seeing.
India is well-known for her deep-rooted tradition in arts and crafts. Substantiate this statement by a brief mention of the following :
(a) The Harappan Pottery.
(b) Harappan art of Spinning.
(c) Harappan Metal-craft.
Indians have learn quite a lot in the field of art and craft from the Harappan art and craft which is discussed as under :
(a) The Harappan Pottery : The workmanship of the Harappan potters is admirable. They made pottery of various shapes and sizes on a potter’s wheel. Different types of pots, jars and vases were made. Pots meant for daily use were plain and those which were used for preserving valuables, were glazed and painted. The discovery of pottery kilns reveals that pottery was fired with great care and skill.
(b) Harappan art of Spinning : A huge number of spindles have been discovered in their houses which indicates that spinning of cotton and wool was common among the people. Spindles and spindle-whorls were made of terracotta or porcelain.
The discovery of a dyer’s vat on the site reveals that they were familiar with the art of dyeing their fabrics.
(c) Harappan Metalcraft : The Harappan people were quie familiar with the art of using metals like—gold, silver and copper. Smiths of various kinds possessed technical skill in producing beautiful jewellery; in boring camelian beds; in casting metals and in creating alloys. A high aesthetic sense is revealed in the exquisite designs of gold ornaments like—necklaces, armbands, bangles, girdles, silver bracelets and earrings worn by the Harappan women.The artisans smelted bronze and produced vessels of fine quality. Copper vessels were made from sheet-metal.
The Seals may be considered as the most valuable finds of the Harappan Civilization. In this context give:
(a) Details of the Animals Seals, the Unicorn Seal and the Pashupati-Seal.
(b) Reasons why the Seals are important.
The Seals have been considered as the most valuable finds of the Harappan Civilization, their importance is described below :
(a) More than 2000 seals of different types have been discovered from the various sites. These are usually square or oblong and made of terracotta, steatite or ivory. Some seals are engraved with the figures of animals the buffalo, bull, elephant, tiger and antelope. The best engravings are those of the humped-bull, the buffalo and the bison.
Another figure shown on the Seals is that of the Unicom with a single protruding horn. A particular object is placed in front of the unicorn, which may have some religious significance with ceremonial worship.
The Pashupati-Seal depicts three-faced deity, seated in a yogic posture with a homed head-dress and surrounded by animals. Later excavations revealed two more seals of Shiva—one seal depicts a three-faced deity seated on low dais; the other shows only one face with flowers springing from the head between the horns.
(b) The importance of the Seals can not be underestimated. The figures engraved on the Seals provide information about the physical features, dress, ornament and hair-style of the people and also we learn about the animals they kept. They throw light on the religious faith and beliefs of the people. They give us an idea about their commercial activities. They reveal remarkable skill of the artists. They show the script of the people.
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