The Trail History and Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions – Akbar
A. Fill in the blanks :
- In the Second Battle of Panipat which took place in November 1556, the Mughal army under the leadership of Bairam Khan defeated General Hemu.
- Akbar held regular meetings with his senior officers in the Diwan-i-Khas and he met his subjects in the Diwan-i-Aam.
- The Mughal empire was divided into fifteen provinces and subas which were further subdivided into districts or Sarkars.
- The land revenue system introduced by Akbar was known as the Toda Mai’s Bandobast system.
- The minimum age of marriage was raised to fourteen years for girls and sixteen years for boys.
- Two great poets patronized by Akbar were Faizi and Raja Birbal
B. Match the following :
C. Choose the correct answer :
1. Akbar was 13/15/17 years old when he was proclaimed emperor.
Ans. Akbar was 13 years old when he was proclaimed emperor.
2. Rana Udai Singh/Jai Mal/Rana Pratap Singh was defeated by the Mughal forces in the Battle of Haldighati.
Ans. Rana Pratap Singh was defeated by the Mughal forces in the Battle of Haldighati.
3. In 1575 CE, Akbar built the Ibadat Khana in his new capital for discussions on politics/religious/warfare.
Ans. In 1575 CE, Akbar built the Ibadat Khana in his new capital for discussions on religious.
4. Akbar founded a new religious order which he called Din -i-Ilahi/Mahzar/Sulh-i-kul.
Ans. Akbar founded a new religious order which he called Din- i-Ilahi.
5. The court language used in Akbar’s court was Turkish/ Persian/Sanskrit.
Ans. The court language used in Akbar’s court was Persian.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Akbar assumed absolute power and authority at the age of 21.
Correct: Akbar assumed absolute power and authority at the age of 18.
2. Akbar held regular meetings with the senior officers in the Diwan-i-Khas.
3. In each suba, the diwan kept records of the land revenue.
4. Din-i-Ilahi was adopted by all the people in Akbar’s empire.
Correct : Din-i-Ilahi was introduced by all the people in Akbar’s empire.
5. Akbar was illiterate but he had a passion for books.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences :
What role did Bairam Khan play when Akbar ascended the throne?
Bairam Khan managed the affairs of the state on behalf of Akbar.
What is the significance of the Second Battle of Panipat (1556 CE)?
In the second battle of Panipat, Akbar’s army under the leadership of Bairam Khan defeated and skilled Hemu, the general’of Adil Shah who had occupied the city of Delhi. Due to this battle, the Afghan power was crushed and Akbar’s throne became safe from enemies.
Why did Akbar embark on a policy of conquest and annexation?
Akbar embarked on a policy of conquest and annexation. His aim was to bring the entire country under his control.
Why did Akbar follow a policy of friendship with the Rajput?
Akbar realized that Delhi and Agra could never be safe until the Rajputs were subdued. He also realized that the friendship and support of the Rajputs would be of great help in strengthening and expanding the Mughal empire.
Why is the memory of Rana Pratap Singh still honoured in Rajasthan?
People in Rajasthan still honour the memory of Rana Pratap Singh because his whole life he fought for throwing the Mughal’s out of their territory.
What do you understand by the term ‘mansab’?
The term ‘mansab’ means office or rank.
Who had the power to appoint and dismiss the mansabdars?
The mansabdars were appointed, promoted or dismissed by the emperor.
Mention any one tax abolished by Akbar as a part of his policy of religious tolerance.
Akbar abolished the jaziya (poll) tax and the pilgrim tax.
What power did Akbar gain through the Mahzar?
Akbar issued a declaration called Mahzar, which gave him the power to choose between different interpretations of Islamic law.
Why did Akbar encourage the study of secular subjects?
Akbar encourage the study of secular subjects like Mathematics, Agriculture, Logic, History and Astronomy to increase the knowledge of people and to promote religious harmony.
F. Answer the following questions briefly :
Why was Akbar’s position unstable and insecure when he ascended the throne of Delhi?
Akbar’s position was unstable and insecure, when he ascended the throne of Delhi because his empire was surrounded by enemies on all the sides. Adil Shah who was the nephew of Sher Shah was determined to capture Delhi and re-establish the Afghan rule. Even the Rajputs were waiting for suitable opportunity to throw the Mughals out of India.
Rana Udai Singh of Mewar rejected Akbar’s offer of friendship and refused to submit to him. In this context, discuss :
(a) Subjugation of Rana Udai Singh
(b) Conflict with Rana Pratap Singh
(a) The Rana of Mewar was considered to be the head of the Rajput clans. He refused to submit to Akbar and rejected his proposal of a matrimonial alliance. Akbar marched against Chittor, the capital city of Mewar. Udai Singh escaped to the hills, leaving the defence of Chittor to Jai Mai, the commander of the Rajput forces. For 4 months, the Mughal army tried in vain to capture the fort of Chittor.
Resistance collapsed when Jai Mai was killed. All the Rajput women performed jauhar. The heroic Rajputs rushed out in a desperate bid to destroy the enemy. They perished fighting.
The capture of Chittor was followed by the fall of Ranthambore. By 1570 CE, practically all the Rajput princes had accepted Akbar as their overlord.
(b) The Rajputs of Mewar, however, refused to submit. Having lost Chittor, their capital city, they rallied around Rana Pratap, the valiant son of Udai Singh. After his escape to the hills, Udai Singh had built a new capital called Udaipur.
After Udai Singh’s death, Rana Pratap carried on the struggle against the Mughals. With a great deal of difficulty, Rana Pratap organized and army and clashed with the Mughal forces in the Battle of Haldighati 1576 CE. The Mughal forces were led by the Rajput chief, Raja Man Singh of Amber.
The Rajputs were outnumbered and defeated by the Mughal army. Rana Pratap took shelter in a mountain fortress and continued his efforts to recover Chittor. He was able to recover parts of his territories before his death, but not Chittor.
Discuss the power and position of the emperor in the central administration.
- The emperor was an extremely powerful figure. His decisions on all matter-military, political, administrative and judicial-were final. His word was law. He was the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the supreme ‘ judge on all matters of justice.
- He was assisted by a team of ministers and officials. The appointment, promotion and dismissal of all officials,including commanders of the army, was the sole right of the emperor. The success of this system depended largely on the personality of the emperor and his wisdom to choose the right person for the right job.
Who assisted the emperoi\in the administration of the empire? What were their responsibilities and functions?
The emperor was assisted by a team of ministers and officials for proper administration of the empire. Their names and functions are as follows :
- Wazir Dewan : He was the head of the revenue department.
- Mir Bakshi : He was the head of the military department and the paymaster of all mansabdars.
- The Qazi : He was the chief judge.
- Chief Sadr : He was the supervisor of the royal household.
- Vakil : He was the head of the advisory board.
Explain any five main features of the mansabdari system introduced by Akbar.
Under this system, every official was given a rank or a mansab. The rank depended on the nature and importance of the job. The lowest rank was that of an officer in charge of ten horsemen, while the highest mansab was that of an officer maintaining 7,000 horseman. The mansab’s were given salary in accordance with their rank. They were usually paid in the form of jagirs.
What measures did Akbar adopt to reorganize and strengthen the army?
- Every official in the imperial service was given a rank or a mansab. The rank depended on the nature and importance of the job. The lowest rank was that of an officer in charge of ten horsemen, while the highest mansab was that of an officer maintaining 7,000 horseman. The higher mansabs were reserved for the members of the royal family.
- The mansabdars were appointed, promoted or dismissed by the emperor.
- They were given a salary in accordance with their rank. Later, they began to be paid in the form of jagirs. They were entitled to a fixed amount of revenue from the jagir as salaiy for themselves and their troops.
- A mansab or rank was not hereditary. After the death of the mansabdar, the jagir reverted to the king, who granted it to someone else.
- The mansabdars did not have any authority or responsibility of administering the jagir.
- The system of branding horses and maintaining a descriptive roll of the soldiers was adopted by Akbar.
- Akbar also maintained a standing army. The cavalry was the most important branch of the Mughal army. The troops were mainly supplied by the mansabdars. The emperor also directly recruited and maintained a battalion of loyal and trusted soldiers. He maintained a corps of royal bodyguards and armed palace guards, a large number of war elephants and a well-organized artillery.
Explain the important features of the land revenue system introduced by Todar Mai.
Todar Mai introduced a land revenue system known as Todar Mai’s Bandobast.
- Land was surveyed and measured with a bamboo jarib joined together with iron rings instead of the hemp rope used earlier.
- The land was grouped into four categories depending on whether it was regularly or occasionally cultivated. It was classified further into good, middling and bad categories.
- The average produce and the average price over the past 10 years were calculated. The revenue was calculated on the basis of these averages. One third of the average produce was the king’s share. It could be paid in cash or kind, though cash was preferred.
- The revenue officers were instructed to treat the peasants well.
- Loans which could be paid back in easy instalments were advanced to the peasants to buy seeds, cattle and implements.
- If the crops failed due to drought or flood, the state granted remission of revenue.
What policies did Akbar follow to transform the Islamic state into a secular one and unite the diverse races in the country into a single nation based on equality?
Akbar took following steps to transform the Islamic state into a secular one and unite the diverse races in the country into a single nation based on equality :
- He abolished the Jaziya tax which was imposed by earlier Muslim rulers on all non-Muslim subjects and pilgrim tax imposed on Hindus visiting places of pilgrimage.
- He allowed Hindus to build temples, celebrate festivals and worship freely. He even allowed his Hindu wives to celebrate festivals like Holi and Diwali.
- He gave high posts to talented and competent Hindus in his court, examples are : Todar Mal, Birbal and Raja Bhagwan Das.
- He married Rajput princesses and allowed them freedom of worship.
- He granted land to all persons irrespective of their religious faith
Briefly explain the features and objectives of the Din- i-Ilahi?
Akbar formed a new religious order which was called Din- i-Ilahi or divine faith. The main features of this religion were belief in one God and recognition of the emperor as God’s representative on earth. Din-i-Ilahi was more like a code of conduct and there was no sacred books, no priestly classes, no places of worship and no rituals in it.
The main objective of establishing it was to provide a religious order which would be acceptable to the Hindu, Muslims and other communities and to promote universal brotherhood and national unity.
Mention the important features of Akbar’s Rajput policy. Why did he adopt this policy and what were its results?
Akbar realized that the support of the Rajputs was necessary to build a powerful empire. For this he adopted the following policy :
- Akbar treated the Rajputs with honour and equality and won their respect and loyalty.
- He married Rajput princesses to strengthen his ties with Rajputs.
- He appointed Rajputs on High posts in his court to win their friendship, loyalty and cooperation.
- He abolished the Jaziya and pilgrim tax levied on Hindus.
- Akbar did not annexed the kingdoms of the Rajput rulers but only asked them to recognize him as their overlord and pay him regular tribute. The result of adopting this policy was that Akbar won the loyalty and support of the Rajputs, Who formed the backbone of a strong and stable empire.
Mention any two important social reforms introduced by Akbar?
Akbar introduced a number of social reforms to rid Indian society from some cruel practices like :
- He abolished the sati pratha and legalized remarriage of widows.
- He discouraged child marriage. He raised the minimum age of marriage of girls to fourteen years and of boys to sixteen years.
Give an account of Akbar’s cultural achievements with reference to :
(a) Abul Fazl was Akbar’s court historian. He wrote the Akbarnama, which is an excellent historical work in Persian.Hindi was also used in the Mughal court. Raja Birbal was made the Hindi Kavi Raj or poet laureate in Akbar’s court. The Ramacharitamanas was written by Tulsidas, the greatest Hindi author in those tunes.
(b) Initially, the style of architecture was Persian, for instance. Humayun’s Tomb. However, with the passage of time. Akbar’s architectural style became more and more Indian. Inspired by the palaces of Hindu rajas. Akbar’s later buildings reflect Rajput traditions.
Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar’s new capital city, contains many interesting Rajput-style buildings made of sandstone. It is referred to as a dream in stone. Among the many fine buildings are the Diwan-i-Khas. Panch Mahal. Jodha Bai’s Palace and the Buland Darwaza.
G Picture study :
The picture depicts a Mughal emperor holding discussions on religious matters in the Ibadat Khana.
Identify the emperor.
Which religious communities participated in the discussions?
Muslim clerics, Hindu scholars. Buddhist and Jain monks. Parsi priests. Christian missionaries, etc. assembled in the Ibadat Khanna.
Why did the emperor organize these assemblies?
The Emperor organize these assemblies to explain the principles and teachings of all the religion.
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Why did Akbar introduce the policy of establishing matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs?
Having understood the advantages of a friendly relationship with the Rajputs to acquire more power and kingdoms, he introduced the policy of establishing matrimonial alliances with them.
Why did Akbar conquer Gujarat and Bengal?
- Gujarat : Akbar conquered Gujarat because it was a rich province with fertile cotton fields, flourishing seaports and good trade market.
- Bengal : He also set his eyes on Bengal because it was also one of the most fertile and richest provinces in India. It had also good trade links with other countries.
What was the position of the emperor in the administrative set-up?
The emperor enjoyed extreme powers. His decisions on all matters like military, political, administrative and judicial were final. His word was law. He was the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the supreme judge on all matter of justice.
How was a uniform system of administration maintained throughout the empire?
The big empire was divided into fifteen provinces or subas. A governor or subedar was in charge of each province. The subedar had control over both military and civil affairs. The provinces were subdivided into districts or Sarkars, which were further subdivided into smaller units of administration called parganas. Each of these units had a team of government officials to manage all the affairs and the villages were managed by the village panchayats.
What happened to a mansabdar’s jagir after his death?
The mansabdari system was not hereditary. After the death of the mansabdar his jagir came back to the king, who granted it to someone else.
Discuss Akbar’s revenue system with reference to :
- Survey and assessment of land
- Revenue calculation
- Relief measures
- Survey and assessment of land : The land was surveyed and measured with a bamboo jarib joined together with iron rings. The land was grouped into four categories depending on whether it was regularly or occasionally cultivated. It was further classified into good, middle and bad categories.
- Revenue calculation : Revenue was calculated on the basis of average produce and average price of the past ten years. One third of the average produce was the king’s share.
- Relief measures : Many relief measures were adopted by the state like loans were granted to peasants which could be paid back in easy instalments and if the crops failed due to drought or flood the state even granted remission of revenue.
How did the revenue system benefit the state and the farmers?
The revenue system benefited both the state and the farmers. This system provided the state with a fixed and steady source of income whereas to farmers it helped in many ways like the farmers were able to get loan on easy instalments for buying seeds, cattle and implements. The calculation of revenue was also based on the type of land i.e. good, bad or middle. If the crops of the farmers failed due to drought or flood the revenue was also remitted by the state.
Why did Akbar build the Ibadat Khana?
Akbar built Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri for discussions on religious matters. Scholars, philosophers, priests, missionaries and religious leaders were invited here to hold discussions. These Dignities assembled in the Ibadat Khana and explained the principles and teachings of their respective religions.