The Trail History and Civics for Class 6 ICSE Solutions – Jainism and Buddhism
The Trail History and Civics for Class 6 ICSE Answers
- Tirthankaras: were the religious teachers of Jainism who preached before Mahavira.
- Jina: It means conquerer of the self.
- Karma: It means that people’s actions decide their destiny.
- Moksha: It means freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
- Digambara Sect of Jainism: The word means sky clad. They did not wear any clothes and followed the original teachings of Mahavira.
- Svetambaras: were Jain monks who wore white clothes and did not believe in hard penance.
- Purvas and Angas are the religious literature of the Jains. Ashtangika marga It means the eightfold path.
- Ahimsa: means non-violence. Both Jainism and Buddhism preached this principle.
- Nirvana: It means freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
- Sangha: was the order of the Buddhist monks.
- Tripitakas and Jatakas: Are Buddhist religious texts.
A. Fill in the blanks.
- Many evil customs crept into Hindu society.
- The shudras were denied the right to study religious texts.
- In the 6th century bce two great religious reformers, Vardhamana Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born.
- Two famous followers of Jainism were Bimbisara andAjatashatru.
- Jainism was divided into two sects, Digambaras and Svetambaras.
- The religious literature of the Buddhists is contained in the Tripitakas and Jatakas.
- Buddhism was divided into two sects Hinayana and Mahayana.
B. Match the following.
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. Mahavira preached in Pali/Prakrit/Sanskrit.
Ans. Mahavira preached in Prakrit.
2. Purvas and Angas are the religious literature of the Jains/Buddhists/Hindus.
Ans. Purvas and Angas are the religious literature of the Jains.
3. Buddha got enlightened under a pipal/banyan/mango
Ans. Buddha got enlightened under a pipal tree.
4. Buddha preached his first sermon in Deer Park in Sarnath/Mount Abu/Bodh Gaya.
Ans. Buddha preached his first sermon in Deer Park in Sarnath.
5. Buddhism was preached in Sanskrit/Pali/Prakrit.
Ans. Buddhism was preached in Pali.
D. State whether the following are true or false.
- The brahmanas were very popular among the common people.
Correct: Brahmanas led to the exploitation of common people.
- Mahavira was the last tirthankara of the Jains.
- Mahavira believed in the existence of a supreme God.
Correct: Mahavira did not believed in the existence of a supreme God.
- Buddha established an order of monk called the Sangha.
- Buddhism is the main religions of millions in South-east Asia, Tibet. China and Japan.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
How did the rigid caste system in the Later Vedic period affect the shudras?
Shudras were increasingly isolated and persecuted. They were denied the right to study the religious scriptures and were not even allowed to recite the Sanskrit hymns.
Name the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara of the Jains.
Vardhamana Mahavira is regarded as the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara of the Jains.
Mention any one difference between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras.
The main difference between Digambaras and Svetambaras was that the followers of Digambaras did not wear any clothes and followed the original teaching of Mahavira. But the followers of Svetambaras wore white clothes and did not believe in hard penance.
In which parts of India is Jainism still popular?
Jainism is still popular in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Where did Gautama Buddha achieve enlightenment?
Gautama Buddha wandered place to place in search of truth. One day he sat down under a pepal tree in Bodh Gaya and began to meditate. On the 49th day, true light dawned on him and he became enlightened one.
Why is Buddhism referred to as the ‘Middle Path’?
Buddha’s religious philosophy is called Buddhism. It is called the middle path because it avoids the extreme harshness and austerity of Jainism, as well as the extremes of ritualistic Hinduism. The main principles of Buddhism are contained in the four noble truths and the eightfold path or ashtangika marga.
Name the two Buddhist sects.
Buddhism was divided into two sects, Hinayana and Mahayana.
What do you understand by the term eightfold path of Buddhism?
The eightfold path of Buddhism are following:
- Right Belief
- Right Speech
- Right Thought
- Right Action
- Right Efforts
- Right Memory
- Right Meditation
- Right Means of Livelihood
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
By the end of the Epic Age, many evil practices had crept into society in the name of religion. Explain.
In later Vedic period, religion became complex and difficult. Many evil customs crept into society in the name of religion. Costly sacrifices, superstitions, and elaborate and meaningless rituals destroyed the simplicity and appeal of the original religion. The Vedic texts were written in Sanskrit, which the common people could not understand. The brahmanas explained the texts in a manner that increased their own power, wealth and status. The rites and rituals introduced by them led to the exploitation of the common people. Religion became expensive and oppressive. The caste system became rigid. The lower casts, especially the shudras, were increasingly isolated and persecuted. They were denied the right to study the religious scriptures and were not even allowed to recite Sanskrit hymns.
Mention the main teachings of Mahavira.
- Ahimsa or Non-violence is the first great teaching of Mahavira.
- Mahavira did not accept the Veda and opposed all forms of religious rites and rituals.
- Mahavira believed that all people are equal.
- Mahavira denied that God was the creator of the universe.
- According to Mahavira the highest goal of a person’s life was to attain moksha.
Explain briefly the Jain principles of
- Ahimsa and
- Karma and Rebirth.
Ahimsa or non-violence is the first great teaching of Mahavira. He preached that no one should harm any living creature, not even insects and plants.
Karma and Rebirth:
A person’s soul is reborn again and again because of his/her karma (actions). Hie highest goal of the person’s life was to attain moksha, i. e., freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth. Moksha could be achieved by following the triratna (three jewels) of Jainism.
The three jewels are:
- Right knowledge
- Right Belief and
- Right Conduct, which includes the practice of ahimsa and hard penance.
What were the ‘four great sights’ that proved to be a turning point in Gautama Buddha’s life?
Once while Gautama Buddha was on an outing in his chariot, he saw an old man, a sick man, a dead man and an ascetic who was unaffected by the sorrow and misery around him. These four great sights proved to be a turning point in Gautama Buddha’s life.
State the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. What were Buddha’s views on the existence of God?
The four noble truths of Buddhism are following.
- The world is full of suffering.
- The cause of suffering is human desire.
- Suffering can be ended by overcoming desires.
- Desires can be overcome and freedom from the cycle ; of birth, death and rebirth can be achieved by nirvana. The eight fold path leads to nirvana.
Buddha was silent on the existence of God. He stressed moral values such as honesty, non-violence, obedience and respect for elders and kindness to all living beings.
Briefly explain the following events in Buddha’s life:
At the ‘four great sights’ Gautam decided to renounce worldly life and go out in search for answers to the mysteries of life and death. One night, at the age of 29, while his son and wife were asleep, he quietly slipped out of the house, breaking all worldly ties. He became an ascetic.
One day Gautam Buddha sat down under a pipal tree in Bodh Gaya and began to meditate. On the 49th day, true light dawned on him. He became the enlightened one. He had at last found the cause of human suffering and knew how to overcome it.
Why and how did Buddhism spread so rapidly in India and abroad?
Buddhism spread so rapidly because of following causes:
- The Simplicity of Gautam Buddha’s teachings and principle of equality greatly appealed to the common people.
- Buddhism was spread far and wide by monks and nuns.
- Buddhist universities established by king Ashoka (like Nalanda) were also other important reasons for rapid spread of Buddhism.
What were the reasons for the decline of Buddhism in India?
Buddhism gradually declined in India for the following reasons.
- Hinduism was reformed and purified.
- The Gupta kings patronized Hinduism.
- India was invaded by the Huns who destroyed Buddhist viharas.
G Picture study.
This is an artwork showing a religious reformer who was born in Lumbini in the 6th century bce.
1. Identify the religious reformer.
Ans. This is a Picture of Gautama Buddha.
2.Name the religion he founded.
Ans. He found Buddhism religion.
3. Why did his teachings appeal to the people?
Ans. Buddha preached in ‘Pali’, which was easily understood by the common people. His teaching appealed to the people because of simplicity and the principle of equality.
4. Name another contemporary religious reformer and the religion he founded.
Ans. Vardhamana Mahavira was a contemporary religious reformer and he founded Jainism religion.
5. Mention any three similarities in the teachings of these two religious reformers?
Ans. Ahimsa, Karma and Moksha are three similarities in the teachings of these two religious reformers.
OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Name the two great religious reformers in the 6th century
Vardhamana Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were two great religious reformers in the 6th century bcf..
When and where was Mahavira Jain born?
Mahavira was born in 599 bce near Vaishali.
When did Mahavira gained spiritual knowledge?
Mahavira wandered from place to place in search of truth.After about 12 years of penance and meditation, he gained spiritual knowledge.
Who helped Mahavira to spread Jainism and in which language they preached?
The Jain monks established by Mahavira helped to spread Jainism to different parts of the country. They preached in Prakrit the language of the common man.
From where the religious literature of the Jains is found?
The religious literature of the Jains is found in the ‘Purvas’and Angas.
When and where Gautama Buddha was born?
Gautama Buddha was born in Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in 567 bce.
Name the wife and son of Gautam Buddha?
The wife’s name was Yashodhara and the son’s name was Rahul.
How did the new customs destroy the simplicity of the original Vedic religion?
Costly sacrifices, superstitions and elaborate, meaningless rituals destroyed the simplicity and appeal of the original vedic religion.
Name the two Jain sects.
Digambaras and Svetambaras are two sects of Jainism.
Explain the following terms:
- Ahimsa—Ahimsa means non-violence. Both Jainism and Buddhism preached this principle.
- Karma— People’s actions will decide their destiny. Good
deeds are rewarded and evil deeds are punished.
- Moksha— The hightest goal of a person’s life was to attain Moksha freedom from the cycle of birth and death.