Selina Concise Biology Class 8 ICSE Solutions – Food Production
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Selina Concise ICSE Solutions for Class 8 Biology Chapter 9 Food Production
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. Put a tick mark (✓) against the correct alternative in the following statements:
(i) Which one of the following is an indigenous breed of dairy cows ?
(ii) Which one of the following is the common breed of buffalo found in Gujarat ?
(iii) Identify the indigenous breed of poultry of India:
- White leghorn
(iv) Which one of the following is a rabi crop
(v) Identify the Kharif crop:
(vi) One of the following is a bacterial disease of sheep and goat. Identify it.
- Sore mouth
- Goat pox
(vii) Which one of the following is a bacterial disease of cattle in which the animal gets swelling on body parts, especially on the neck ?
- Cow pox
(viii) The plants that live for more than two years are called:
(ix) Which one of the following is a viral disease of poultry?
- Ranikhet disease
Short Answer Questions:
1. Fill in the blanks:
- Cattle feed made from cereals and wheat is called concentrates.
- Rearing of birds for egg and meat is called poultry.
- Animal food is rich in proteins.
2. Name the following:
- The popular indigienous breed of poultry of India …..
- Rearing of honey bee …..
- Architect of white revolution in India …..
- A kashmiri goat which gives expensive wool ….
- Scientist responsible for green revolution in India ……
- The popular indigienous breed of poultry of India Aseel.
- Rearing of honey bee is called apiculture.
- Architect of white revolution in India Mr. Verghese Kurien.
- A kashmiri goat which gives expensive wool kashmiri pashmina.
- Scientist responsible for green revolution in India M.S. Swaminathan.
3. Match the columns
4. Answer the following questions:
Name any four animals which provide us food.
Buffalo, goat, pig, hen, fish give us food.
Name any two dual purpose breeds of cattle.
Dangi and Tharparkar are dual purpose breeds of cattle.
Give two examples of milch animals.
Cows, buffaloes, goat are milk yielding animals.
Name any two high-yielding indigenous breeds of cow.
Gir, Sahiwal, Red sindhi are high yielding breeds of cow.
Name four varieties of edible fishes of India.
Eel, Hilsa, Salmon, Sardine, Pomphret are edible fishes.
Name two breeds of buffaloes.
Murrah, surti, mehsana are breeds of buffaloes.
Name any two diseases of cattle caused by viruses.
Cow pox, foot and mouth disease.
Name any two bacterial iiseases of cattle.
Anthrax and rinderpest are bacterial diseases of cattle.
What are the symptoms of foot and mouth disease ?
Blisters on the foot and mouth, high body temperature, reduced appetite are symptoms of foot and mouth disease.
Name two bacterial diseases of poultry.
Fowl cholera, salmonellosis, coryze are bacterial diseases.
5. Briefly explain the following terms:
- Animal husbandry: The branch of Biology which deals with feeding, shelter, caring and breeding of domesticated animals is called animal husbandry.
- Sericulture: Artificial rearing of silk worm and getting of silk from the silk worms is called sericulture.
- Aquaculture: The production and farming of aquatic animals as fishes, prawns, shrimps, molluscs, lobsters etc. is called aquaculture.
- Hatcheries: We raise small nurseries where water is stored in small pits where we put fish seeds (fish eggs). From these fish eggs very small fish come out after hatching. Then these small fish are transferred to big ponds. These small nurseries where eggs hatch to give small fish are called hatcheries.
- Pisciculture: It deals with production and management of fishes. It is a scientific, systematic way of raising of fishes, their multiplication, their production and management. So it is used as food in a sensible way.
6. What is organic farming?
Organic farming is the practice of raising crops without using inorganic fertilisers and pesticides. Farmers use organic manure that has been prepared scientifically. In order to maintain soil fertility, and for weed and pest control, they use a combination of crop rotation, hand weeding, mixed cropping and biological control.
Long Answer Questions:
Differentiate between an egger and a broiler.
Following are the differences between the egger and the broiler:
- Egg laying chickens are called eggers or egg layers.
- The chicks are given calcium (bones, seeds) and are reared to produce eggs.
- Eggers should give large number of eggs as white leghorns give many eggs. Rhode island red breeds like HH-260, IBL-80, B-77.
- Chickens which give us meat are called broilers.
- Those chicks are reared on a diet of fats so that they gain flesh on their body and these are used as broilers.
- Broilers should give flesh. Indigenous variety Aseel give high yield of meat and less number of eggs.
Name any two exotic breeds of fowl in India, and mention their usefulness
Exotic breeds of fowl in India are as:
- White leghorn: Its size is small and needs less feed for maintenance. So to raise it is economical. It lays oval white eggs.
- Rhode island red: It serves both the purposes as it is a good egg layer and also provide enough of meat. It was raised on a farm in Rhode island of U.S.A. So it is named as Rhode island red.
What are “milch animals”? Give three examples of exotic breeds of cow.
Milk-producing animals are known as “milch animals” e.g. cows, buffaloes, goats and camels. The milk from goats is nutritious and is sometimes preferred to cow milk. But the production of goat milk is much less than that of cows and buffaloes. Cow milk is quite nourishing and easy to digest, but as compared to buffaloes, cows produce less quantity of milk. Buffaloes are the major source of milk in our country.
Exotic (Foreign) breeds. For example. Jersey, Holstein- Friesian, and Brown Swiss.
What is the meaning of the term “aquaculture”? Name any three animals which can be cultured by this method.
The term “aquaculture” is used for production or farming of useful aquatic animals in various types of water bodies. The animals which can be cultured by this method are: fish, prawns, lobsters, molluscous, etc.
Differentiate between food crops and cash crops and give two examples of each:
- These are crops which are grown for food such as cereals: wheat, rice, maize, pulses, oil seeds.
- These grow in the plains generally.
- These are annuals and complete their cycle in one season as in case of wheat, rice maize, gram, beans, peas.
- These are crops which are cultivated for commercial purposes such as tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, spices.
- These grow in the hilly areas on the slopes as water of rain should not stand in the roots as in case of tea.
- These plants are perennials. These plants live for more than two years. Tea, coffee require pruning before winter.
What are Kharif crops ? Give the name of the most important cereal plant of such crops. Briefly describe any three methods for cultivation of Kharif crops.
Kharif crops generally grow in rainy season. Rice is the most important cereal Kharif crop growing in India. It occupies the largest area in India. It needs rainfall from 150 to 200 cms. It requires flooded fields during its growth. It requires alluvial loamy soil.
Cultivation methods of Kharif crops:
- Broadcasting: After preparing the fields for growing the rice crop the seeds are thrown in the fields. This method is adopted in the areas where there is less of rain. The fields are not flooded with water. This method is being adopted in China and Japan.
- Dibbling: In this method seeds are dropped at regular interval in the furrows made by the plough.
- Transplantation: Here the seeds are soaked for 24 hours. The seeds get sprouted. Then these seeds are transferred to nurseries. Here the seeds grow and attain a height of 6” to 9” and then these seedlings are transferred to specially prepared flooded fields which have been properly ploughed. Then those seedlings start growing in the fields. Then the fields are watered and manured from time to time. Then the crop matures and ultimately for ripening they require a temperature ranging from 16°C to 20°C. When the crop become fully ripe and plants become golden yellowish, then the crop is harvested manually or with the help of combines.
Name the two main crop seasons of India. Give three examples of the crops grown during each season.
The two main crops seasons in India are:
- Kharif season: The rainy season is from July to October and is known as the Kharif Season. The chief kharif crops are the milles, known as Bajra and Jowar, Paddy, Maize, Cotton.
- Rabi season: The winter season is from November to April and is known as rabi season. Wheat, Gram, Peas, Linseed and Mustard are important rabi crops.
List the uses of bacteria in the food industry.
The bacterial action is involved in the following industrial processes.
- In the manufacture of vinegar, butter and cheese.
- The process of tanning hides in leather making and preparing sponges.
- The separation of flax and hemp fibres which are used for making linen cloth and ropes.
- Fermentation of green plants for the production of ensilage for animal food.
- Bacteria are used for forming lactic acid, vinegar, citric acid, and vitamins.
- For formation of antibiotics, serums and vaccines, vitamin B complex.
Name any one variety of edible mushrooms.
White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) and paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella) the two varieties of edible mushrooms.
Five major steps in cultivation of the common edible mushroom are as below:
- Composting: The compost is prepared by mixing the following in certain proportions.
- Wheat or paddy straw,
- Chicken manure
- Some organic and inorganic fertilizer
This compost is kept at about 50°C for a week.
- Spawning: “mushroom seed” consisting of mycelium of the selected type of mushroom is introduced into the compost, and allowed to spread for a couple of days.
- Casting: A thin layer of soil is spread over the compost to give support to the mushroom and provide humidity. It also prevents quick drying of the compost and helps to regulate temperature.
- Cropping and Harvesting: The growth occurs in three stages:
(a) Mycelium (a network of fibrous mass) grows within 2 to 6 weeks.
(b) Tiny pin heads.
(c) Button stage which grows bigger attaining marketable size.
The full grown mushrooms are taken out.
- Preservation: Mushrooms are highly perishable. Their shelf life is increased by a variety of processes
(a) Vacuum cooling
(b) Giving gamma radiation and storing at 15°C
(c) Freeze drying in a solution of citric acid, ascorbic acid and brine, etc.
Mention the benefits of “Green revolution” in our country.
Green revolution: Knowledge of science has brought about manifold increase in the production of grains, pulses and other crops and led to green revolution. Factors leading to it are:
- development of high – yielding varities.
- development of early – maturing varities.
- disease – resistant varities.
- using of fertilizers and pesticides.
- development of drought – resistant and dwarf varities.
Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is known as the father of green revolution in India which has led to manifold increase in the production of wheat and rice using hybrid varities (wheat – Kalyan Sona and Sonalika, Rice – IR – 8 Padma, Jaya and Pusa 215, Maize – Ganga 101 and Rankit).
Mention the benefits of “White revolution” in our country.
The benefits of “White Revolution” in our country:
- The purpose of this programme was to link the rural producer (dairy farmer) with the urban consumer.
- Rural farmer co-operatives were organized at the village level and connected to the urban consumer.
- It ensured that the dairy farmer got a major share of the price of milk which consumers pay.
The “Operation flood” ensured thre objectives:
- increased milk production
- strengthened the dairy farmer’s income.
- easy availability of milk at a fair price to all.
Write briefly the processes of
- wine (alcohol) making and
- bread making.
The steps for making
- Wine (alcohol): Wine is usually made from grapes. The grapes are crushed and the juice is extracted. The juice contains sugar and wild yeast.The yeast ferments the sugar and gradually turns it into alcohol.
- Bread: Mix some flour and water with a small amount of sugar and yeast. This makes dough. Then leave the dough for an hour or so in a warm place. During this period the living yeast cells multiply and fermenting sugar to form alcohol give off carbon dioxide gas. The gas so produced makes the dough rise, more or less doubling its size. Then when you bake the dough in a hot oven: the heat kills the yeast and evaporates the alcohol.
Give any five features of good shelter for milch animals.
- Animal shelter should be very clean, well ventilated and well-lit.
- Cattle should have proper sheds, so that animals are safe from rain, cold and heat.
- The floor should have a proper sloping so that urine and excreta can be disposed of easily.
- Animals should have proper feeding and drinking tubs.
- Animal shelter should be spacious and there should not be over crowding.
- It should have arrangements for clean fresh drinking water.
- The shelter should give protection from predators.
- Shelter should be located away from the residential areas and waste disposal sites.
What type of food you would suggest for cattle in order to get good quality of milk ?
Cattle should be given good quality type of food which is proper for their growth, development, health and for their maintenance. Animal food is feed.
This cattle feed has two types of substances.
- Roughage: The animals get roughage from hay (straw of cereals), berseem, cowpea, lucerne, silage, maize, bajra and other green plants.
These plants generally provide fibrous substances and other minerals.
- Concentrates: These are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins, concentrates are given by.
- Grains and seeds of bajra, maize, rye, gram, cotton, jowar, barley. These provide carbohydrates.
Legume seeds and cotton seeds provide proteins and fats.
- Oil cakes: These oil cakes are very good feed for the animals. These are formed from the remains of oil seeds after we get the oil from the seeds. We get oil cakes from the seeds of cotton, mustard.
- Molasses are rich in proteins.
- Wheat bran, rice bran, and gram bran also give concentrates.
- Grains and seeds of bajra, maize, rye, gram, cotton, jowar, barley. These provide carbohydrates.