Selina Concise Biology Class 6 ICSE Solutions – Health and Hygiene
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Selina Concise ICSE Solutions for Class 6 Biology Chapter 6 Health and Hygiene
Multiple Choice questions:
1. Put a tick mark (✓) against the correct alternative in the following statements:
(a) Malaria is caused by:
(b) Deficiency of calcium causes
(i) Poor growth of teeth and gums
(c) Hay fever and asthma are
(i) Deficiency diseases
(ii) Genetic diseases
(iii) Organic diseases
(iv) Allergy diseases
PQ. Cataract is a disease of:
(d) Infectious diseases can be prevented by:
(ii) Proper food
(e) Which one of the following is a genetic disease?
(f) Which one of the following is a degenerative disease?
(g) Pellagra is one disease caused by the deficiency of:
(i) Vit. B3
(ii) Vit. B1
(iii) Vit. C
(iv) Vit. D
(h) Deficiency of Iodine in one’s food can cause:
(i) Which one of the following mineral deficiency diseases can be cured by eating a diet which include green leafy vegetables, banana, cereals, egg-yolk?
(iii) Brittle bones
(iv) Pain in muscle contraction
(j) Which one of the following vitamin deficiency diseases can be cured by eating a diet which includes carrot, yellow fruits, vegetables, butter, milk, fish ?
(iii) Night blindness
(k) Which one of the following is a communicable disease?
(iii) Heart stroke
Short Answer Questions:
What is a non-communicable disease ?
The diseases which are caused due to improper functioning of the body organs e.g. diabetes, heart attack. They are not caused by germs and not transmitted from one to another.
What is a deficiency disease
These disease are caused by lack of nutrients, vitamins, minerals as a anaemia, goitre.
What are communicable diseases ? How can they be avoided ?
Those disease which spread from one person to another by the entry of microorganisms are known as communicable diseases. The disease-causing germs are called Pathogens. These disease can be avoided by proper vaccination, healthy food and hygenic surroundings.
Biting nails should be strictly avoided. Give reason.
Nail biting may cause many disease as the dirt has many
bacteria causing diseases. Nails should be cut from time to time to save from diseases.
Regular exercise and proper rest is a must. Give reason.
Regular exercise keeps our body strong and immune to many
diseases, rest refreshes our body.
Children eating more of fast food tend to suffer from obesity (overweight). Comment.
Fast food like pizza, burger, patty, oily foods etc. have much carbohydrates and fats. Children eating these become more and more fat and gain weight soon as they do not do much of physical work.
How can we control spreading of diseases by mosquitoes and houseflies ?
We can control spreading of diseases by mosquitoes and houseflies by using repellants, throwing garbage in covered bins, avoiding stagnation of water and checking breeding of these insects.
2. Name the following:
(a) A bacterial disease caused due to contaminated water
Ans. A bacterial disease caused due to contaminated water Cholera.
(b) A disease caused due to Plasmodium
Ans. A disease caused due to Plasmodium Malaria.
(c) A disease caused due to the bite of female Culex mosquito
Ans. A disease caused due to the bite of female Culex mosquito
(d) A viral disease spread by the bite of a dog
Ans. A viral disease spread by the bite of a dog Rabies/ Hydrophobia
(e) Two diseases caused due to deficiency of protein in the diet of a child.
Ans. Kwashiorkor and marasmus.
(f) Any three water-borne disease.
Ans. Amoebiasis, Cholera, Hepatitis A.
(g) A viral disease caused due to unhealthy sexual contact
Ans. A viral disease caused due to unhealthy sexual contact AIDS.
(h) A disease caused due to choking of coronary artery
Ans. A disease caused due to choking of coronary artery Atheraosclerosis.
3. Write short (1-2 sentences) notes on the following:
Disease, immunisation, pathogen, allergy, AIDS.
- Disease: Disease is a departure from normal health due to structural or functional disorder of the body. Disease may be due to deficiency of nutrients or malfunctioning of organs or genetic disorders, improper metabolic activity, or allergies, or cancer and mental illness as diabetes, haemophilia, leukemia, schizophrenia.
- Immunisation: It means, we make the body immune to certain diseases by introducing respective weakened germs into the body. Thus we develop resistance to the concerned disease this process is called immunisation. The germs or the material introduced into the body to make it resistant to the concerned disease is called vaccine. This produces antibodies in the body of the person and the person can be saved by these antibodies. The vaccine can be given by the injection or orally as polio drops, tap vaccine for typhoid, BCG vaccine for tuberculosis.
- Pathogens: The germs that cause diseases to human beings and to other animals and plants are called pathogens. They spread the diseases from person to person or through the air or through the articles of the diseased persons. Pathogens may be different kinds of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans or worms.
Allergy: Allergy is an unpredictable reaction to a particular substance. This type of substance is called allergen. Different people are allergic to different substances. A few common allergens are dust, spores, pollen, certain clothes, particular cosmetics, etc. The common areas of the body parts which are affected by allergies are skin, respiratory and digestive tracts. Asthma, eczema, diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, etc. are some of the common allergic reactions.
- AID’S (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): It is a viral disease caused by the virus called HTV (Human immuno deficiency virus) This virus makes the defence mechanism of the human body veiy weak. The immune system in the body as W.B.C. becomes weak. Thus the person catches the infectious diseases very easily. This disease spreads through sexual contact as one of the partner may be carrier of the disease. It may spread through the blood transfusion and infected syringes, blades of the barbers, it may infect the developing baby through the blood by the mother. It is very deadly disease.
4. Fill in the blanks by selecting suitable words given below: (clotting, goitre, insuline, rickets, iron, proteins)
- Anaemia is caused due to the deficiency of iron
- Deficiency of Vit. D causes rickets in children.
- Deficiency of iodine in the diet may cause goitre.
- Kwashiorkor is caused due to the deficiency of proteins
- Diabetes is caused due to undersecretion of insulin.
- Haemophilia is a disease caused due to slow clotting of the blood.
5. Find the odd one out:
(a) Typhoid, cholera, j aundice, tuberculosis, tetanus.
Ans. Jaundice is odd one
(b) Cold, malaria, measles, mumps.
Ans. Malaria is odd one.
(c) Scurvy, rickets, polio, pellagra, nightblindness.
Ans. Haemophilia is odd one.
(d) Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, cancer. ‘
Ans. Cancer is odd one.
6. Fill in the blank in the following table:
7. Given below is a crossword puzzle. Read the clues across and clues down, and fill up the blank squares. Check up your performance with the correct solution given at the end.
1. Category of pathogen that causes diseases, like common cold and mumps.
5. This is the vaccine for preventing tuberculosis.
6. An organ usually affected by tuberculosis.
7. Jumbled spelling of one of the most common insect which visits our exposed foods and contaminates them.
8. Cover this part of your body by a handkerchief while sneezing to prevent droplet infection to others.
9. These may readily grow in your hair, if you do not wash it regularly.
10. A disease that weakens body’s defence system against infections.
- Germ or germ-substance introduced into the body to prevent occurrence of an infectious disease.
- A disease caused by an infected dog, and which affects the central nervous system.
- A disease in which the eyes, the skin and the urine turn yellow.
- The disease pertussis is popularly known as whooping
Long Answer Questions
Describe the ways in which communicable diseases are transmitted through various indirect methods.
Indirect methods of transmission of communicable diseases:
- Using items used by the infected persons:
The healthy persons may be infected by using the articles like towel, hankey, utensils, bedding used by the patient infected by the communicable diseases. Diseases like tuberculosis, ring worm, common cold, influenza are transmitted by this method.
- Contaminated food and water:
Diseases like dysentery, cholera spread through the contaminated food and water. Flies sitting on the food, if taken by a healthy person may be infected by the germs which may cause vomiting and loose motions. Similarly water and food infected by entamoeba may cause dysentery to persons who may take contaminated food.
- Vectors or carriers: Organisms like mosquitoes and house flies, ticks carry germs from the source of infection and pass on the germs to the normal persons and thus they are infected by diseases like malaria, cholera, plague. These organisms which cany the disease are called vectors and are not infected themselves.Mosquitoes suck blood and carry the disease causing protozoans from infected persons to healthy persons. Similarly houseflies carry the germs from garbage and sewage to the food. If this food is taken by the persons they become prey to typhoid and other diseases.
- Air: One sneeze from a person infected by cold may give billions of germs which are carried by air and may infect the healthy person. Tuberculosis passes from one person to other by coughing or sneezing of the infected person.These germs remain suspended in the air and persons may be infected by these spores or germs. Common cold, measles, diptheria, chicken pox.
List 3 ways by which you should keep your environmentclean.
We should keep our environment clean in following ways:
Cleanliness of Environment:
- Maintain a clean environment to prevent the spreading of diseases due to the breeding of mosquitoes, house flies and microorganisms.
- Garbage should be kept in covered bins so that flies do not breed on it.
- Do not allow water to stagnate outside your house and in your neighbourhood. All the drains should also be covered. This will prevent breeding of mosquitoes.
cine’s are prepared, giving the name of one disease for which each type of vaccine is used.
For developing resistance in the body we introduce germs or germ substances in the body to develop resistance in the body against a particular disease. The material introduced into the body is called vaccine, this practice is called prophylaxis. The germ or the germ substance is put into the body orally as polio drops or it is introduced by injection as TAB vaccine. Vaccine or vaccination was attached with small pox, but it is now used in a general sense.
- Killed germs are introduced into the body These act as vaccine for TAB, vaccine for typhoid, Salk’s vaccine for poliomyelitis. Rabies vaccine for dog bite.
- Living weakened germs: The living germs are treated in such a way that they become very weak and as such, they cannot cause the disease. They can induce antibody formation such as the vaccine for measles and the freezed dried BCG vaccine for tuberculosis.
- Living fully virulent germs: These virulent germs in small doses are introduced into the body as vaccine and these produce antibodies in the body and these do not allow the germs of particular type to cause that disease. In this vaccination the person is inoculated with cowpox virus. It is very similar to small pox virus.
- Toxoids: Toxoids are prepared from the extracts of toxins secreted by bacteria. These toxins are poisons and these are made harmless by adding formalin into them. They retain their capacity and as a result when introduced into the body they produce antibodies into the body and do not allow the germs to grow in the body as vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus.