ICSE Solutions for Class 8 History and Civics – The Growth of Nationalism
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I. Fill in the blanks:
- The Congress of Vienna was hosted by The Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
- The American Revolution began in 1776.
- The first clear expression of nationalism came up with the French Revolution.
- The French Revolution began in 1789.
- England had Thirteen colonies in North America.
- American thinker Thomas Jefferson, asked the people to rebel against the tyrannical rule of England.
- A new country called The United States of America was bom after the American Revolution.
II.Match the contents of Column A and Column B:
Column A Column B
Column A Column B
III.State whether the following statements are true or false:
- The 13 colonies of North America were dissatisfied with the rule of the master country, England.
- The French society was divided into three classes, each enjoying similar rights and privileges.
- The French Revolution began with the storming of Bastille in 1789.
- A new constitution was framed by the French Assembly in 1785.
- The French Revolution led to rise of nationalism in Europe.
- India was greatly inspired by both the American and French Revolutions.
IV.Answer the following questions:
What do you know about the Congress of Vienna?
With the final defeat of Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo (1815) the European rulers met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor, Duke Mettemich. The Congress of Vienna (1815) drew up the Treaty of Vienna in 1815 with the aim of undoing the changes ushered during the Napoleonic wars. All the kings that were ousted by Napoleon were given back their kingdoms. Austria, Russia, Prussia received many territories, so did Great Britain, Sweden and Holland. The Congress of Vienna redrew the map of Europe
What is nationalism? Discuss.
Nationalism can be described as a strong feeling of love and loyalty which people have towards their own country. Nationalism arises when people share feelings and experiences. It may include common language, culture, religion, social order, historical tradition and physical descent. Patriotism is also a part of Nationalism.
What were the causes for the American War of Independence?
The causes for the American War of Independence were:
- The Americans were not allowed to start any industry.They were not allowed to trade with any country except England. They did not have the same rights as the English enjoyed in England. The Americans did not have any representation in the British Parliament. They had to pay more taxes than the English paid in England.
- The English settlers in America were inspired by the European philosophers like John Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu who believed in freedom, equality and rights of people.
- In 1765, the English Parliament passed the Stamp Act which imposed stamp taxes on all business transactions. This Act aroused violent resentement among colonists.
- American thinkers like Jefferson asked people to rebel against the tyrannical rule of England.
- The most prominent protest against the British is known as ‘Boston Tea Party’. A group of people raided British ships in Boston Harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea to protest against the new taxes. The 13 colonies in America revolted against the British. This is known as American War of Independence.
Explain the significance of the American Revolution.
The American Revolution is an important landmark in the History
of the World. It inspired the people of other colonies, including India, to overthrow their colonial masters and showed the path of democracy.
Why did the French Revolution take place?
The French Society at that time was divided into three distinct classes or estates.The First Estate was made of the Clergy. The Second Estate was made up of the Nobility. The nobles were absolute landlords.The Third Estate consisted of the common people. They were the middle class members (merchants, lawyers, teachers, doctors, etc.) and the peasants and artisans. The first two Estates enjoyed all the luxury and privileges, owned all the land between them and paid no taxes. The Third Estate was heavily taxed and lived a life of hardship and misery. King Louis XVI was indifferent to the plight of the common people and lived a life of luxury himself.The common people of France were inspired by the revolutionary writings of famous french philosophers like Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire. They attacked the church and the nobility in their writings. Rousseau wrote that subjects have the right to overthrow a king who does not rule according to the general will. The Philosophers propagated the ideas of liberty, fraternity and equality. The French people were also inspired by the American War of Independence. It made them ready to fight for their rights and justice.
Discuss the significance of the French Revolution.
The French Revolution was an event of great importance in the history of the world. It introduced democratic ideas and ended the supreme rule of the kings.The nobles and the church lost their property and their lands were distributed to the peasants. Slaves in French colonies were set free. The watchwords of the French Revolution such as liberty, equality and fraternity led to the rise of a new democratic social order in Europe.The most patent effect of the French Revolution was that it roused national feelings. The common people were prepared to die for the sake of protecting the rights and privileges they had got due to the French Revolution. It also inspired other European people to overthrow their oppressive governments.
Write a short note on Napoleon.
In 1799 Napoleon overthrew the Directorate and framed a Consulate in France, which consisted of three Consuls (17991801). He himself was the First Consul and later he became Consul for life in 1802.
Napoleon defeated Austrians in Italy, defeated Britain in 1802. He established numerous small republics in Italy, Germany and Belgium. After these victories he became the Emperor of France and the Pope attended his Coronation Ceremony in 1804. He was at the height of his political and military glory between 1808-1810. He was finally defeated in 1815 in the Battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to St. Helena Island where he died in 1821.
V.Write short notes on:
The role of philosophers and thinkers of the 18th century.
The common people of France were greatly inspired by the revolutionary writings of the famous French Philosophers like Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire. They attacked the church and the nobility in their writings. Rousseau wrote that subjects have the right to overthrow a king who does not rule according to the general will. They propagated the ideas of liberty, fraternity and equality.
Storming of the Bastille
On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the prison of Bastille. They freed all the prisoners.
Monarchy was overthrown. King Louis XVI and his queen Marie Antoinette were first imprisoned and later guillotined (Put to death) in 1793. There was chaos for some time and a reign of terror began which lasted from 1793-1794.Thousand of nobles, clergy and even innocent men were executed.In 1795 the National Assembly of France adopted a Declaration of the Rights of Man which declared that men are bom free and equal. A new Constitution was framed.
Boston Tea Party
Anti British protests could be seen all over. The most prominent protest was the incident known as the ‘Boston Tea Party’. In 1773, a group of people raided British ships in the Boston harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea. This was to protest against the new taxes which the British Government had imposed upon the colonies, especially the tax imposed on tea.
Fill in the blanks:
- The American War of Independence was the first Organized political revolution in the history of the world.
- The discovery of the American continent was followed by the establishment of Permanent European settlements in the 16th century.
- The colonists argued that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonists because they had no representatives in the parliament
- George Washington was chosen as the commander of the American troops in the war against the British.
- In 1776, the representatives of the colonists met at Philadelphia and adopted a Declaration of Independence.
- In about 200 years, the United States of America transformed itself into the most powerful country of the world.
- The Constitution of the United States has served as a model and an inspiration to several countries.
- French society was divided into three main classes, namely the first, the second and the Third Estate
- The revolutionary writings of political philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu greatly influenced the middle-class intellectuals in France.
- The French administration was Corrupt and inefficient
B.Match the following:
C.Choose the correct answer:
- By the mid-18th century 11/13/19 British colonies had been established on the east coast of North America.
Ans. By the mid-18th century 13 British colonies had been established on the east coast of North America.
- 4 July/14 July/17 June is celebrated as American Independence Day.
Ans. 4 July is celebrated as American Independence Day.
- The Second Estate consisted of the clergy/peasants/nobles.
Ans. The Second Estate consisted of the nobles.
- Marie Antoinette was the queen of England/France/Austria.
Ans. Marie Antoinette was the queen of England.
- 14 July/4 July/20 June is celebrated as a national holiday in France.
Ans. 14 July is celebrated as a national holiday in France.
D.State whether the following are true or false:
- By the middle of the 18th century eleven British colonies had been established along the east coast of North America.
Correct : By the middle of the 18th century 13 British colonies had been established along the east coast of North America.
- The American colonists were rigid and conservative.
Correct: The American colonists were simple and liberal.
- The American revolutionaries were greatly impressed by the ideas of European philosophers.
- George Washington was the first elected President of the United States of America.
- The French Revolution laid the foundation of a democratic government.
E.Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
Which particular incident sparked off the American War of independence? What is the importance of this event?
The American War of Independence, was sparked off by an incident known as the Boston Tea Party.
In 1773, a group of colonists, disguised as Red Indians, raided British ships in Boston harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea. This incident was a protest against the new taxes including a tax on tea, imposed on the colonies .The importance of this act was that it was an act of open defiance of the colonists against British authority.
Name any two European philosophers whose ideas inspired and influenced the American revolutionaries.
The American revolutionaries were greatly influenced by the ideas of European philosophers Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau who inspired them to fight for liberty.
What is the significance of the 4th of July in American history?
The 4th July is celebrated as the American Independence Day.
Mention two characteristic features of the French monarchy.
The French king was an autocrat. He enjoyed absolute powers and his will was law. There was no check on his powers by any parliament. He ruled by Divine Right and was answerable to God and not to the people.
In what way did the American Revolution influence the Indian Constitution?
The Constitution of the United States of America has served as a model and an inspiration to several countries including India. The framers of the Indian Constitution adopted various features like the federal form of government, the incorporation of Fundamental Rights like the American Bill of Rights and the system of checks and balances.
Why is the French Revolution of 1789 considered a turning point in human history?
The French Revolution of 1789 was a milestone and a major turning point in human history. It revolutionized the social, economic and political fabric, not only of France but of all Europe and subsequently of almost the entire world.
Mention the role of the political philosophers in the overthrow of the French monarchy.
The revolutionary writings and ideals of great political philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu created an intellectual ferment in France. The middle class was greatly inspired by the revolutionary ideas. Through their writings, the philosophers exposed the evils of French society and government and inspired the people to revolt and fight for their rights.
What effect did the American Revolution have on the French people?
The French generals and soldiers, who had fought in the American Revolution, returned to France with revolutionary ideas and inspired the people to fight against their unjust, despotic government. The American Revolution enthused the French people and encouraged them to rebel.
F.Answer the following questions briefly:
The American War of Independence was the first organized political revolution in the history of the world. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) How was an American colony governed? Why were the colonists resentful?
(b) How did the American colonists differ from the British?
(c) Why did the American colonists refuse to pay taxes imposed by the British Parliament in London? Give an account of the Boston Tea Party incident.
Each American colony had its own Assembly elected by the people of the colony but the governor of the colony was appointed by the British government. The Governor was not responsible to the Assembly. He governed the colony in the interest of England, the mother country, and not the colonists. This cuased great resentment among the American settlers who worked very hard but could not enjoy the fruits of their labour.
Socially and culturally, the American colonists were different from the British. The colonist were simple and liberal, unlike the British puritans who were rigid and conservative. The American colonists had a distinct identity i.e an American identity that aspired for freedom to grow and develop as a separate independent nation.
The American colonists refused to pay taxes as they argued that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonists since they had no representatives in the Parliament.In 1773, a group of colonists, disguised as Red Indians, raided British ships in Boston harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea. This incident was a protest against the new taxes including a tax on tea, imposed on the colonies.The importance of this act was that it was an act of open defiance of the colonists against British authority.
The British monarch, King George III, refused to withdraw the unjust and oppressive Acts imposed on the colonists and declared war on them. In this context discuss:
(a) The revolutionary principles and ideas in the Declaration of Independence of 1776
(b) The terms and long-term impact of the Treaty of Paris
(C) The important features of the newly established United States of America
The Declaration of Independence, 1776 clearly stated that the American colonists had the right to free themselves from the oppressive and explorative British government and form their own government. This declaration proclaimed that all men are bom equal and are endowed with certain rights such as the right to life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
According to the Treaty of Paris signed in 1783 between the British government and the colonists, British government recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies which came to be known as the United States of America.
Features of the newly established United States of America are as:
- A written constitution was framed and a federal, democratic, republican government was set up.
- The new government guaranteed to all its citizens the rights to freedom of speech, press, religion and justice under the law.
- The country would be ruled by an elected President who would govern according to the laws written down in the Constitution.
The French Revolution of 1789 was a milestone and a major turning point in human history. In this context discuss the.
(a) An unjust, unequal social order of the Ancien Regime
(b) The growing power of the middle class
(c) An inefficient, corrupt administration
An unequal, unjust social order: French society was essentially feudal in nature.
It was divided into three main classes, called Estates:
- The First Estate consisted of the clergy (church officials).
- The Second Estate consisted of the nobles and their families.
- The Third Estate was composed of 95 per cent of the population. It included the peasants, artisans, workers and the middle class (consisting of merchants, manufacturers and professionals such as lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc.)
The First and Second Estates enjoyed numerous privileges. They owned practically all the land in France but did not have to pay any taxes. They were very wealthy and led comfortable and luxurious lives.The Third Estate, on the other hand, shouldered the entire burden of taxation but was not entitled to any of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the nobles. Taxes were imposed on everything, including basic necessities like salt. Life was very hard, especially for the poor peasants who had to pay additional taxes to their feudal lords.
Middle class had acquired great wealth and become economically powerful in the 18th century. However, they were denied of social equality and political rights. This caused great resentment among them. They used their economic power to overthrow the Ancien Regime.
The administration was corrupt and inefficient. The officials were selfish and unconcerned about the welfare of the people.King Louis XVI was pleasure-loving and extravagant. He was completely ignorant of and indifferent to the sufferings of the common people and was greatly influenced by his beautiful and ambitious wife, Marie Antoinette. Together they squandered money on festivities and pleasures and emptied the royal treasury.
With reference to the French Revolution, discuss the following
(a) The Tennis Court Oath
(b) The storming of the Bastille
(c) The adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and its fundamental principles
On 20, June 1789, the members of the Third Estate met at a tennis court and took an oath not to separate until a new constitution was drawn up for France. This is known as the Tennis Court Oath.
The storming of the Bastille symbolized the victory of the people of France and the fall of monarchy. It marked the beginning of the revolution. 14 July is celebrated as a national holiday in France.
The newly formed National Assembly, consisting of the representatives of the Third Estate, took over the control of the affairs of France. It adopted the famous Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen-a landmark in the history of human progress. By 1791, a new Constitution was drawn up for France.
With reference to the consequences of the French
Revolution, answer the following:
(a) Mention any four revolutionary changes that took place in France after the Revolution of 1789.
(b) What effect did the French Revolution have on the rest of Europe?
(c) What impact did the French revolutionary principles have on political developments in India in the middle of the 19th century? –
Revolutionary changes that took place in France after the Revolution of 1789 are:
- This Revolution marked the end of absolute monarchy and paved the way for the establishment of a republic.
- The revolution laid the foundation of a democratic government.
- Feudalism and serfdom were abolished and the power of the Church was brought under the control of the government.
- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity become the guiding principle of the French republic.
The revolutionary ideas of the French Revolution spread to all European countries. The slogans of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity become the guiding principles all over the world. Oppressed people in Europe rose in revolt against their tyrannical, hereditary rulers and established new social and political system. It inspired the spirit of nationalism among people.
The Revolutionary principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity had an impact on India as well. Indian nationalists imbibed these principles and developed a democratic and nationalist outlook. A National movement for freedom was launched, culminating in India’s independence from British rule in 1947.
G Picture Study.
This picture depicts a very important event in world history where in a great mob is shown attacking a state prison.
Name the event.
On 14 July 1789, a great mob attacked Bastille the state prison for political prisoners and a much hated symbol of the Ancien Regime. The prisoners were released and they joined the revolutionaries.
In which country did it take place and when?
The country was France and it take place on 14 July 1789.
What is the significance of this event?
The Prisoners were released and joined the revolutionaries. It also symbolized the Victory of people of France and the fall of monarchy.
Give a brief account of the developments that followed this event.
This incident marked the beginning of the revolutions. The newly formed National Assembly consisting of the representatives of the Third Estate, took over the Control of the affairs of France. It adopted the famous Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens- a landmark in the history of human progress. By 1791, a new constitution was drawn up for France.