ICSE Solutions for Class 7 History and Civics – The Turkish Invaders
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- Ghazni and Ghor were the two important states established by the Turks.
- Sultans were the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate who ruled from Delhi, their capital city.
- Shahnama was written by the Persian poet Firdausi. It is the biography of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.
- Lakhbaksh means ‘giver of lakhs’. Qutbuddin Aibak was given this name because of his generosity.
- Muezzin is a man who calls Muslims to prayer, usually from the tower of a mosque.
- Iqtas were the provinces into which the empire was divided. Each was administered by an officer called the
- Divine kingship means that the king is considered a representative of God on earth.
Time To Learn
I. Fill in the blanks:
- Mahmud Ghazni invaded India to 17 times its wealth.
- Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj in the second battle of Tarain.
- Alberuni, spent 10 years in India and wrote a book Kitab- ul-Hind.
- Firdausi wrote a famous epic named Shahnama.
- Mahmud Ghazni plundered Somnath temple in 1025 AD
II. Match Column A with Column B:
Column A Column B
III. State whether the following statements are True or False:
- Muhammad Ghori established the Muslim rule in India.
- Mahmud was interested in setting up an empire in India.
Mahmud was interested in wealth rather than setting up an empire in India.
- The Rajputs united to face the Turks or Muslims but failed.
- Jaichand defeated Muhammad Ghori.
False.Jaichand was defeated by Muhammad Ghori.
- Firdausi wrote Kitab-ul-Hind.
False. Alberuni wrote Kitab-ul-Hind.
IV. Answer the following questions briefly:
Mention three most important invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.
The important invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni were:
- Mahmud of Ghazni raided India for the first time in 1000 AD. After that, he is said to have conquered India 17 times, till his death. He was resisted by King Jaipal and then by his son Anandpal but both of them were defeated.
- Between 1009 AD and 1026 AD, the places that Mahmud of Ghazni invaded were Kabul, Delhi, Kanauj, Mathura, Kangra, Thaneshwar, Kashmir, Gwalior, Malwa, Bundelkhand, Tripuri, Bengal and Punjab.
- In 1027 AD, he invaded the Somnath temple in Gujarat, on the coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. This was supposed to be his biggest invasion as he had looted all treasures and precious items of the fortified temple.
When and between whom were the Battles of Tarain fought?
The battles of Tarain were fought between Ghori and Prithviraj in the year 1191 i.e. The First Battle of Tarain in which Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj, and second in the year 1192 i.e. The Second Battle of Tarain in which Ghori won the battle.
How were the raids of Mahmud Ghazni different from the raids of Muhammad Ghori?
During the thirty-three years of his reign, Mahmud Ghazni carried out seventeen raids on India. He was interested in wealth rather than setting up an empire in the Indian subcontinent.
After 150 years of Mahmud’s invasions Muhammad of Ghor (hence called Ghori) attacked India. This laid the foundation of Turko-Afghan rule in India. At the time of his invasion five Rajput kingdoms were in power. They were the Rathors of Kanauj, Solankis of Gujarat, Chandelas of Bundelkhand, Parmars of Malwa and Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer. Muhammad first captured Multan in AD 1175 and then moved on to Gujarat. He defeated the Solankis there. He also captured Punjab, Peshawar and Sialkot.Hence, Muhammad of Ghori was interested in setting up an empire in the Indian Subcontinent.
V. Give Reason why:
Mahmud of Ghazni attacked India
Mahmud of Ghazni attached India as he was in wealth rather than setting up an empire in the Indian subcontinent.
Turks succeeded against Rajputs
- The Rajputs were brave soldiers and skilled swordsmen. But they suffered defeat after defeat. The reasons for their defeat or, in other words, causes for Muslim success were the following:
- The Rajputs lacked unity. They were always fighting with each other. Prithviraj Chauhan and Jaichand could not unite against Muhammad Ghori.
- Rajput chiefs were jealous of each other.
- The Rajputs had no standing army of their own, and hence had to depend on the feudal lords for contingents.
- The Rajputs were no match for the quick and swift army and cavalry of the Central Asian warriors.
VI. Guess who it is:
- wrote a book Kitab-ul-Hind.
- First Turkish invader to enter India north-west side.
Ans. Mahumd of Ghazni.
- Beautified his city the most beautiful one, with the wealth gained in India.
Ans. Mahmud of Ghazni.
- Laid the foundation of Turkish rule in India.
Ans. Muhammad Ghori.
- Invaded India 17 times.
Ans. Mahmud of Ghazni.
(THE TURKISH INVADERS)
A. Fill in the blanks:
- Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India seventeen times in the course of twenty five years
- Mahmud’s raids exposed the weakness of the northern states and paved the way for the conquest of India.
- Qutbuddin Aibak took control of Muhammad Ghori’s Indian possessions and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate.
- Iltutmish defeated the Rajput rulers of Ujjain, Ranthambore, Malwa, and Gwalior and brought the whole of North India upto the river Narmada under his control.
- The Caliph of Baghdad recognized Iltutmish as the sovereign of India. He was succeeded by his daughter Razia.
B. Match the following:
C. Choose the correct answer:
- Mahmud of Ghazni was a powerful/weak/inefficient
Ans. Mahmud of Ghazni was a powerful ruler.
- Mahmud of Ghazni was interested in territorial expansion in South Asia/Central Asia/West Asia.
Ans. Mahmud of Ghazni was interested in territorial expansion in Central Asia. –
- Firdausi was a great mathematician/historian/poet.
Ans. Firdausi was a great poet.
- Nasiruddin Mahmud was a weak and inexperienced ruler and the affairs of the state were managed by in India.
Correct: Muhammad Ghori was the founder of the Turkish rule in India.
- Muhammad Ghori was as great a military leader as Mahmud of Ghazni.
Muhammad Ghori was not as great a military leader as Mahmud of Ghazni.
- BaIbaflJJftugmLçJ,q?qj Sultan on his behalf.
Ans. Nasiruddin Mahmud was a weak and inexperienced rulerand the affairs of the state were managed by Balban on his behalf.
- ¡llutntish/Qu(buddj,, Aibak/Balban never smiled or allowed others to laugh or joke in his court.
Ans. Balban never smiled or allowed others to laugh or joke in his court.
D. State whether the following are true or false
- The kingdoms of Ghazni and (Thor were established by the Abbasids.
False. Correct: The kingdoms of (ihazni and Ghor were established by the Turks.
- During Mahmud’s time, North India was divided and there WaS no unity.
- Iltutmish failed to crush the power of the governor of Bengal.
False.Correct:Iltutmish crush the power of the governor of Bengal.
- Razia Sultan was brave, intelligent and just.
False. Correct: Razia Sultan was brave, intelligent and just woman.
- Balban made the monarchy weak and dependent on the nobles.
False.Correct : l3alban made the monarchy absolute and all powerful.
- Sultan Mahmud annexed Punjab to create a gateway to India for future invasions.
- Mahmud of Ghaznj was the founder of the Turkish Ñle in India.
False. Correct: Muhammad Ghori was the founder of the Turkish rule in India.
- Muhammad Ghori was as great a military leader as Mahmud of Ghazni.
False.Corrent:Muhammad Ghori was not as great a military leader as Mahmud of Ghazni.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
What happened to the Abbasid Caliphate by the 9th century ce?
By the end of the 9th century ce. The once mighty Abbasid empire disintegrated into a number of independent states ruled by the Turks who had earlier served in the armies of the Caliphs.
Name the author of the great epic Shahnama.
The Persian poet Firdausi, author of the great epic Shahnama.
What is the significance of the defeat of Prithviraj in the Second Battle of Tarain?
The defeat of Prithviraj marked the end of Rajput rule in North India. The kingdom of Delhi passed into the hands of Muhammad Ghori. The throne of Delhi was occupied by Muslim rulers from then till 1858.
Who did Muhammad Ghori appoint as his viceroy?
Muhammad Ghori appointed Qutbuddin Aibak as his viceroy before returning to Ghor.
For how many years did the sultans of Delhi rule the country?
Mention one important reason for the decline of Buddhism in India after the Turkish invasion.
Buddhist monasteries and libraries were wantonly destroyed by the Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji. This invasion dealth a death blow to Buddhism in India.
Name the founder of the Turkish kingdom in India.
Muhammad Ghori was founder of the Turkish kingdom in India.
Why was Qutbuddin known as ‘lakhbaksh’?
Lakhbaksh means ‘giver of lakhs’. Qutbuddin Aibak was given this name because of his generosity.
How did Iltutmish save India from the threat of a Mongol invasion?
Once Mongol chief, Chenghiz Khan reached the borders of India in search of the Shah of Persia who fled towards India to get shelter but Iltutmish politely refused the Mongol chief to provide refuge and in this way he saved the threat of Mongol invasion.
Why did Iltutmish nominate his daughter Razia as his successor?
Iltutmish nominated his daughter Razia as his successor because his sons were inexperienced, weak and worthless ruler and they spent all their time in fun and pleasure loving things whereas Razia was a brave, intelligent and just woman. She possessed all the qualities of a great monarch.
Give any one example to show that Mahmud was a patron of learning.
He was a patron of art and learning and enjoyed the company of learned scholars and poets. The Persian poet Firdausi, author of the great epic Shahnama, and the great Persian historian and mathematician A1 Beruni, were among the eminent scholars patronized by Mahmud.
Name the famous Rajput ruler of Delhi and Ajmer.
Prithviraj Chauhan, the Rajput ruler of Delhi and Ajmer
Mention one important reason for the victory of Muhammad Ghori in the Second Battle of Tarain.
Prithviraj organized a confederacy of Rajput chiefs to meet the challenge. Unfortunately, the most powerful Rajput ruler, Raja Jaichandra of Kanauj, refused to help him.
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
How did Sultan Mahmud transform his capital, Ghazni? How do we know he was a patron of art and learning?
Sultan Mahmud transform Ghazni into a magnificent capital city. Ghazni was adorned with splendid mosques, libraries and a museum.His court glittered with sparkling pearls, rubis and diamonds. This shows that he was a patron of art and learning.
Discuss the (a) causes and (b) results of the First and Second Battles of Tarain.
Muhammad Ghori wanted to envieled his kingdom with India’s wealth. He decided to conquer India.
(a) First Battles of Tarain: In 1191 ce, Ghori attacked Prithviraj Chauhan, the Rajput ruler of Delhi and Ajmer. Prithviraj inflicted a crushing defeat on Ghori in the First
Give any five reasons to prove that Iltutmish was a shrewd, clever and capable ruler.
- The Turkish nobles who had challenged his claim to the throne were suppressed.
- The revolt of the Khilji governor of Bengal was crushed
- The power of his external rivals, the rulers of Ghazni and Multan, was destroyed.
- A new danger presented itself when the Mongol chief, Chenghiz Khan, reached the borders of India in pursuit ofthe Shah of Persia (Iran). The Shah had fled towards India in search of Shelter. Iltutmish politely refused to give him refuge and by doing so he saved India from the threat of the Mongol invasion.
- After having got rid of his enemies, Iltutmish defeated the Rajput rulers of Ujjain, Ranthambore, Malwa and Gwalior. He brought the whole of North India up to the river Narmada under his control. The Caliph of Baghdad recognized him as the sovereign of India.
Discuss the important developments that took place during the reign of Razia Sultan.
The provincial governors rose in revolt against her. Razia tried to crush the revolt but was defeated and imprisoned. She won over the leader of the rebels, Altunia, by marrying him. Their attempt to recover the throne of Delhi ended in failure and both were killed in 1240 ce.
G Picture study:
This is the picture of a Turkish invader who was involved in the Battles of Tarain.
Identify the person in the picture.
Why did he invade India?
At the end of the 12th century ce, a new kingdom based in Ghor arose in north-western Afghanistan (near Ghazni). The founder was Ghiyasuddin Ghori. His famous brother, Muizuddin Muhammad, is commonly referred to as Muhammad Ghori decided to conquer India and enrich his kingdom with India’s wealth. He first brought the frontier areas of Multan, Sind and Punjab under his control.
The Battles of Tarain laid the foundations of Turkish rule in North India. Do you agree? Why?
Yes. Two years after the Second Battle of Tarain, Muhammad attacked Kanauj and killed Jaichandra. Ghori annexed the Indian territories to his empire and appointed Qutbuddin Aibak as his viceroy before returning to Ghor.
Explain the causes of the success of the Turkish invaders against the Rajputs.
Prithviraj organized a confederacy of Rajput chiefs to meet the challenge. Unfortunately, the most powerful Rajput ruler, Raja Jaichandra of Kanauj, refused to help him. The two armies clashed in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 CE. This time, Muhammad Ghori routed the Rajput army.