ICSE Solutions for Class 7 History and Civics – Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
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- The chain of justice is said to be a chain installed by Jahangir. It was made of pure gold with 60 bells attached to it, between the palace and the banks of the river Yamuna. Anyone could ring the bell and seek justice.
- Engineer King is the name by which Shah Jahan is known, as his patronage of architecture is one of the most important characteristics of his reign.
- Shahjahanabad was a new capital city build by Shah Jahan. Now, it is known as Old Delhi.
Time To Learn
I. Fill in the blanks:
- Taj Mahal, a symbol of love, shows a variety of cultural influences.
- Jahangir installed a chain of justice for the seekers of justice.
- The treaty of Purandhar was signed between Mughals and Rajput ruler Jain Singh.
- The original name of Nur Jahan was Mehrunnisa.
- Bijapur was annexed in AD 1686.
- Aurangzeb reimposed Jazia and pilgrimage tax.
- Guru Tegh Bahadur, ninth Sikh guru, was executed on Aurangzeb’s order.
- The Sikhs were organised into a military force called the Khalsa.
II. Match Column A with Columb B:
III. State whether the following statements are True or False:
- Jahangir left the administration in the hands of his queen,Nur Jahan.
- Nur Jahan’s influence was good and lasting for theMughal Empire.
- Shah Jahan had to fight for the throne.
- Shah Jahan married Mumtaz Mahal, in whose memory the built the Taj.
- Shah Jahan died in AD 1666, as a captive in the fort of Agra.
- Aurangzeb had friendly relation with the Rajputs and theMarathas.
- The Sikhs were hostile to the Mughal Emperor after the execution of the ninth Sikh guru.
- Aurangzeb died in 1707 in the Red Fort at Delhi.
- Aurangzeb reimposed .
IV. Answer the following questions briefly:
Jahangir is sometimes called a mixture of opposites. Discuss.
Sometimes Jahangir was needlessly cruel and inflicted punishments disproportionate to the offence committed. For this combination of good qualities and bad qualities of his character some historian have rightly called him as ‘the mixture of opposites’.
How did Jahangir deal with the European traders? Name two travellers who visited Jahangir’s court.
Jahangir was on good terms with the Portuguese traders. He gave them some trade concessions.Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe, visited Jahangir’s court.
The age of Shah Jahan is the Golden Age of Mughal rule. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Yes, The age of Shah Jahan is the Golden Age of Mughal rule. The points describing are as follows:
- During the regin of Shah Jahan, there was undisturbed peace within the country. There were no foreign threats and Shah Jahan too devoted most of his time in maintaining peace and order in the country. Trade and commerce flourished bringing in lots of wealth. The land was fertile and revenue flowed into the treasury.
- Shah Jahan carried out many works of public welfare. Roads, canals, bridges, sarais, etc., were constructed for the welfare of the people. Similarly, during the famine and plague he did a lot to relieve the people of their sufferings.
- Shah Jahan had a natural love for magnificence, which was reflected in the buildings that he constructed. His reign is, in fact, called the Golden Age of the Mughal Architecture. One of the most important buildings constructed by him is the Taj Mahal, which was built in the memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
Describe the religious policy of Aurangzeb. What were its results?
Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e:
- To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly.
- To adopt anti-Hindu measures.
The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. It led to several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country.
These conflicts were:
- Conflict with the Jats
- Conflict with the Satnamos
- Conflict with the Sikhs
- Conflicts with the Rajput’s
- Conflict with the Marathas.
All these rebellions destroyed the peace of the empire, disrupted its economy, weakened the administrative structure, diminished its military strength, led to the failure of Aurangzeb to make any impact. Ultimately all these contributed to the downfall of the Mughal enterprise.
Who were the Sikhs? How did they emerge as a political power?
Khalsa’s were the sikhs.
Open wars started between the Sikhs and the Mughals after Ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on Aurangzeb’s order. Aurangzeb and his successors had to face continous trouble from the sikhs. After Aurangzeb’s death, his successors failed to check the rising power of the Sikhs. The Sikhs gradually emerged as a political power.
Briefly describe aurangzeb’s clash with : (a) the Rajputs, (b) the Marathas, (c) the Sikhs.
The Rajputs were not well treated by Aurangzeb. Raja Jai Singh and Raja Jaswant Singh were kept away from the court at Delhi. Raja Jai Singh was a loyal general but he was suspected and insulted after the escape of Shivaji.
Conflicts started between the Mughals and the Marathas over the conquest over the conquest of Bijapur.
The relations between the Sikhs and the Muslims were already strained because of Guru Arjan Dev’s execution at the hands of Jahangir for helping his rebel son. From then onwards, the Sikhs had become the enemies of the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru and son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, continued the policy of his father. He organised the Open wars started between the Sikhs and the Mughals.
Why do you think Aurangzeb reimposed some taxes?
Aurangzeb reimposed Jazia and pilgrimage tax because of his othodox relious policies.
Explain the factors responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire.
The factors responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire are:
- Aurangzeb’s Faulty Policies: Aurangzeb followed an orthodox religious policy. He reimposed Jazia and pilgrimage tax. Thus, he antagonised not only the Hindus but also the Muslims. He also made enemies of communities like the Jats, Sikhs and the Marathas.
- Aurangzeb’s Deccan Policy: The conquests of Bijapur and Golconda made the empire too big to be administered efficiently. Moreover, Aurangzeb’s long stay in the Deccan (almost 25 years) neglected the administration of his empire in the North. His absence also helped the rise of the Maratha power.
- Weak Successors: Aurangzeb’s successors were incompetent and weak, and they could not suppress the revolts or control the nobles. They become too ambitious, and independent. Eventually, the governors of the Deccan, Awadh and Bengal declared themselves as independent rulers.
- Empty Treasury: Aurangzeb maintained a large standing army. But his long wars in the Deccan caused a big drain on the state treasury. Thus, after the death of Aurangzeb (AD 1707), the treasury became empty and the later Mughal rulers were unable to pay the soldiers and officers and meet their expenses.
V. Write a short note on
Aurangzeb’s Deccan Campaigns
Aurangzeb wanted to crush the growing powers of the Maratha’s. As these people were very strong and courageous and they also did not accept the over lordship of the ruler. This empire was also very vast and prosperous, so Aurangzeb wanted to have it under his control.
Abdali’s invasion on India
Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India several times between 1747 and 1767. He gave a crushing defeat to the Marathas in 1761 in the third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas could not regain their past power ever again.
(Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb)
A. Fill in the blanks:
- Nur Jahan became the virtual ruler of the Mughal empire.
- During the final years of Jahangir’s reign, there was a power struggle between Nur Jahan and Shah Jahan.
- Shah Jahan’s reign is often referred to as the Golden Age of the Mughal empire.
- Aurangzeb spent the first half of his reign in the North and the second half in the Deccan.
- Aurangzeb spent the last twenty six years of his reign fighting against the Marathas and the Sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda.
B. Match the following:
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The foundations laid by Akbar/Babur/Humayun were so strong that Jahangir did not have any major problems maintaining the empire.
Ans. The foundations laid by Akbar were so strong that Jahangir did not have any major problems maintaining the empire.
2. Shah Jahan built the magnificent Agra Fort/Taj Mahal/ Red Fort in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
Ans. Shah Jahan built the magnificent Taj Mahal in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
3. Shah Jahan built a new city called Fatehpur Sikri/ Daulatabad/Shahjahanabad.
Ans. Shah Jahan built a new city called Shahjahanabad.
4. Aurangzeb’s reign can be roughly divided into four/ three/two
Ans. Aurangzeb’s reign can be roughly divided into two periods.
5. One of the most serious challenges faced by Aurangzeb came from the Sikhs/Marathas/Rajputs in the Deccan.
Ans. One of the most serious challenges faced by Aurangzeb came from the Marathas in the Deccan.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
- Jahangir defeated the Rana of Mewar.
- Jahangir is said to have installed a chain of justice.
- The Peacock Throne was taken to Persia by Nadir Shah.
- The Jama Masjid is said to be the most perfect of Jahangir’s buildings.
False. Correct: The Jama Masjid is said to be the most perfect of Shah Jahan’s buildings.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
1. Why did Jahangir not face any major problems in maintaining his large empire?
Ans. The foundations laid by Akbar were so strong that Jahangir did not have any major problems maintaining the empire.
2. Name Jahangir’s son who rebelled against him.
Ans. The rebellion of his eldest son, Khusrau.
3.Why is Shah Jahan known as the Engineer King?
Ans.Shah Jahan is known as Engineer King due to his work in the field of architecture. During his time magnificent buildings were constructed which are remembered still now. Some of the finest examples of monuments during his reign are — the magnificent Taj Mahal at Agra, the Moti Masjid at Agra Fort and the dignified Jama Masjid at Delhi.
4. Which fort did Shah Jahan build in the new city of Shahjahanabad?
5. Who succeeded Shah Jahan as the Mughal emperor?
Ans.Shah Jahan’s third son, Aurangzeb.
6. State any one major cause of the decline of the Mughal empire.
Ans.He spent too much money on military expeditions and building magnificent monuments which drained the royal treasury.
7. What was the nature of Aurangzeb’s Rajput policy in the early years of his reign?
Ans.During the early years of his reign, Aurangzeb followed Akbar’s policy of friendship with the Rajputs. He granted the Rajput rulers high mansabs and tried to win their support.
8. What were the objectives of Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy?
Ans.Aurangzeb wanted to crush the growing powers of the Maratha’s. As these people were veiy strong and courageous and they also did not accept the overlordship of the ruler. This empire was also very vast and prosperous, so Aurangzeb wanted to have it under his control.
9. Why did the annexation of Bijapur and Golconda prove harmful for the Mughal empire?
Ans.It became too vast and unwieldy and brought the Mughals into direct contact with the Marathas.
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
Jahangir fulfilled Akbar’s unrealized imperial dreams by conquering Mewar. Explain.
Jahangir sent an expedition against Rana Amar Singh of Mewar who, like his father, Rana Pratap Singh, had refused to acknowledge the overlordship of the Mughal emperor. The Rana of Mewar was defeated. He pledged his loyalty to Jahangir, who treated him with courtesy. He allowed the Rana to retain his territory and appointed his son, Kama, as a military commander in the imperial army. The submission of Mewar established the paramountcy of Mughal authority in Rajputana and marked the fall of the last bastion of Rajput resistance.
To what extent were Jahangir’s Deccan campaigns successful?
Jahangir sent an expedition under Prince Khurram who managed to recapture the fort of Ahmadnagar. Prince Khurram was honoured with the title of Shah Jahan (Lord of the World). The war continued and by the end of Jahangir’s reign, Ahmadnagar reasserted its independence and remained outside Mughal control.
What qualities did Nur Jahan possess to make her worthy of her name?
Nur Jahan means-light of the world and according to her name she possessed all the qualities like she was intelligent, beautiful, educated and cultured. She was a good poet and designer too. She designed new varieties of fabrics and jewellery. She was also strong and courageous and helped Jahangir to take decisions in matters related to the government.
Nur Jahan was very ambitious and eventually became the power behind the throne. Explain.|
Nur Jahan was ambitious and soon became the power behind the throne. Jahangir consulted her on all matters concerning the affairs of the government. Nur Jahan soon became the virtual ruler of the Mughal empire. Graudally, Jahangir left the administration in her hands and spent his time indulging in his addiction to wine and opium. Coins began to be issued jointly in the name of Jahangir and Nur Jahan. Nur Jahan used her positioin and influence to appoint her father, brother and other relatives to important posts in the administration. Her niece, Mumtaz Mahal, was married to Jahangir’s third son, Khurram (Shah Jahan).
Shah Jahan’s reign was an age of splendour and cultural brilliance. In this context, discuss:
(a) Taj Mahal
(b) Red Fort
(a) Taj Mahal: It took more than 20 years to complete the Taj Mahal, at a cost of one crore rupees at that time. It is made of pure white marble and is lavishly decorated with semi-precious stones and lace-like screens. It is an octagonal monument with a splendid dome and four slender minerals, set in a beautiful garden,
(b) Red Fort: This building is made of red sandstone. There are many splendid buildings inside the Red Fort. The Diwan-i-Khas is the most impressive. Its ceiling is made of silver. Its walls are made of marble and decorated with gold and semi-precious stones.
Why did Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaign against the Marathas prove to be a ruinous misadventure? What were the long-term consequences of this campaign?
The Deccan campaign proved to be a ruinous misadventure that showed lack of political wisdom.
Suspicious by nature, he did not trust his sons and nobles. His officials were like puppets on strings. Aurangzeb’s supervision of every department often bordered on interference. His policy of discrimination between his subjects on grounds of faith also made him unpopular. He was a man of unshakeable convictions and tried very hard to reach his goals by doing what he thought was right. As he lay on his deathbed, he wrote several letters to his son. In one letter he wrote, ‘I know not who I am or why I came into the world … I have not done well for the country or its people . . . I know what punishment will be in store for me to suffer.’ During the first half of the 19th century ce, the great Mughal empire decayed and disintegrated. The Mughal emperors lost their power and glory and their vast empire finally shrank to a few square miles around Delhi.
Why did Aurangzeb fail as a ruler?
Aurangzeb possessed qualities of an ideal man but he was failure as a ruler. Like his father he was not able to follow the policy of religious tolerance and friendship. His list of enemies not only included Rajput’s but also Sikhs and the Marathas. He was also very suspicious by nature, which was not liked by his officials. His policy of discrimination with his subjects also made him an unpopular ruler.
Briefly explain the negative aspects of Shah Jahan’s reign that eventually led to the decline of the Mughal empire.
The policy of religious tolerance and friendship with the Rajputs was continued by Shah Jahan.Behind the glamour and the glitter of Shah Jahan’s reign, however, lurked some disturbing shadows.
- Shah Jahan’s military expeditions to Central Asia and Kandahar and the extravagant building projects drained the royal treasury.
- To improve the country’s financial resources, heavier taxes were imposed on the peasantry.
- According to Bernier, the French traveller, many villages were mined and left desolate. This setback to agriculture became a major cause of the decline of the Mughal empire.
- The failure of military campaigns during this period was an indication of the decline of the military might of the Mughals.
- The administrative machinery had grown in size but corruption had crept in.
G Picture study:
This is a picture of a 17th century-CE monument, built in red sandstone by a Mughal emperor.
Identify the monument.
Where is it located?
Who built this monuments?
Name two important buildings inside this monument.
Mention its important features.
Important features are as:
The Diwan-i-Khas is the most impressive. Its ceiling is made of silver and its walls are made of marble decorated with gold and semi-precious stones.
Diwan-i-Aam was Shah Jahan’s Peacock Throne. It had a canopy supported by twelve emerald pillars, each bearing two peacocks studded with gems. This golden throne, which took 7 years to complete, was taken to Persia by Nadir Shah in 1739 ce.