ICSE Solutions for Class 7 History and Civics – Foundation of Mughal Empire
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- Sarkars were the provinces in Sher Shah’s empire. His empire was divided into 47 sarkars and each sarkar was divided into parganas.
- Shiqdars were the officers responsible for law and order and the general administration of the parganas.
- Mu ns if s were the officers who looked after the collection of revenue and civil cases.
- Patwaris were responsible for the collection of land revenue in the villages.
- Muqaddams were responsible for maintaining peace in the village.
- Sarais were rest houses built by Sher Shah.
- Dak chaukis were mail posts where two horsemen were kept ready to carry mail to the next post. The rest houses or sarais were used as dak chaukis.
- Rupia was the standard silver coin introduced by Sher Shah.
- Patta meant the title deed of land.
- Qubuliat was the agreement of the land.
Time To Learn
I. Fill in the blanks:
- Babur’s eldest son assumed the title Humayun which means fortunate.
- Humayun reconquered the throne of Delhi in 1555 AD.
- Humayun was in Persia after 1540.
- Sher Shah ruled Delhi for five years.
II. Match Column A with Column B
III. State whether the following statements are True or False:
- The First Battle of Panipat decided once for all the fate of the Lodi dynasty.
- The Battle of Khanwa was fought between Rana Sanga and Babur.
- Babur introduced many new reforms for the administration of his new empire in India.
False.Sher Shah introduced many new reforms for the administration of his new empire in India.|
- Humayun died in 1550 AD.
False.Humayun died in 1556 AD.
- Sher Shah built the Grand Trunk Road.
IV. Answer the following questions briefly:
Why was the First Battle of Panipat fought? What were its results?
The First Battle of Panipat was fought:
- The first battle of panipat was fought in 1526, between babur and Ibrahim lodi.
- The battle was the result of policies of Ibrahim Lodhi which resulted in nobility turning against him and rebelling.
- Ibrahim Lodhi’s attitude towards his officials and nobility was resented.
- He also crushed and put to death nobility who rebelled against him.
- Thus, Daulat Khan Lodi, and Alma Khan invited babur to fight against him. Hence, the first battle of panipat fought.It results in the babur declaring him as “Emperor of Hindustan” on April 27th, 1526.
What were the reasons for Babur’s victory in the First Battle of Panipat?
There were several reasons for Babur’s victory at Panipat.
- Babur had used artillery which was unknown to the Indians.
- His army was better trained than the Sultan’s army and his cavalry was far superior to the Indian cavalry.
- He also took over Agra, which was made the capital. On April 27th, 1526 he declared himself “Emperor of Hindustan”.
What difficulties did Humayun face in the beginning?When and how did Humayun reconquer India?
When Humayun ascended the throne in 1530 A.D., he inherited many difficulties from his father Babur. They were:
- He had to face political instability because the vast empire was not consolidated.
- Empty treasure: The treasury was empty because collection of land revenue was not done in a systematic manner.
- Troublesome relatives: Humayuns ambitious brothers rebelled against him.
- Division of empire into jagirs was another difficulty he had to face.
- The government was not well organised. So Humayun had to difficult task of strengthening his position when he ascended the throne.
- Sher Shah died in AD 1545. Shershah’s successors were weak and inefficient. In 1555 AD, Humayun recovered Delhi and became emperor again.
Why is Sher Shah known as a-good administrator?
Sher Shah known as a good administrator because of following reasons:
- Sher Shah divided his empire into provinces (sarkars).
- Each province had a governor with his team of officials to carry out the administrative duties.
- A province was divided into a number of districts called parganas. Each pargana was made up of a number of villages. The village was the lowest administrative unit.
- The two top officials in a pargana were shiqdar-i-shiqdaran and munsif-i-munsifan. The shiqdar handled law and order. The munsif took care of the revenue collection and other civil matters.
- The panchayat looked after village administration.
- The two main officials in a village were patwari (revenue collector) and muqaddam in charge of law and order.
V. Give reasons.
Sher Khan was able to strengthen his position in Bengal and Bihar.
Sher Khan was able to strengthen his position in Bengal and Bihar because of following reasons:
- Sher Shah personally supervised the recruitment and training of his soldiers who had to maintain strict discipline.
- He revived Sultan Alauddin’s measures of branding horses (dagh) and maintaining descriptive rolls of soldiers (chehra).
- He paid regular salary based on their skills.
- He set up forts and garrisons in different parts of the empire for speedy deployment of soldiers.
- Sher Shah kept a close watch over all his officials. He set up a spy system to know about the happenings in all parts of the empire.The officials were transferred every 2-3 years to prevent them from becoming corrupt or powerful.
Sher Shah was named so.
Sher Shah was the son of a jagirdar of Sasaram (in Bihar). His actual name was Farid Khan. During his employment under the ruler of Bihar, he killed a tiger single-handedly, and came to be known as Sher Khan. Then he conquered many states and become Sher Shah.
We say that Sher Shah looked after the welfare of his people.
- Sher Shah constructed an excellent network of roads, mainly the Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Sonargaon (Bengal). He also built roads from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor. He built another road from Lahore to Multan.
- To make travel comfortable Sher Shah built sarais and wells at regular intervals.
- Trees were also planted on both sides of the roads. In all, 1700 sarais (inns) were constructed for the travellers. These sarais gradually gained in importance and became the centres of trade.
- Special officers known as Muqaddams were appointed to ensure the safety of travellers.
- Roads helped Sher Shah to establish a good postal system and promoted inland trade.
- His roads and sarais have been called ‘the arteries of the empire’.
- Sher Shah divided his empire into 47 provinces (sarkars). Each sarkar was them divided into many districts (parganas). A pargana comprised several villages.
(Foundation of The Mughal Empire)
A. Fill in the blanks:
- Babur lost both Farghana and Samarkand and became a homeless wanderer. In 1504 ce, he became the ruler of Kabul.
- Humayun lacked the qualities necessary to consolidate the vast empire he had inherited.
- Sher Shah based his administration on the principle of a welfare state.
Sher Shah went on regular tours of inspection and set up an efficient spy system.
- Sher Shah established a large standing army and introduced several reforms to make it disciplined, efficient and strong.
B. Match the following:
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. In 1522 ce, Ibrahim Lodi/S her Khan Suri/Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.
Ans. In 1522 ce, Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.
2. With the help of the Shah of Persia/Afghanistan/Sind, Humayun returned to India in the year 1555
Ans. With the help of the Shah of Persia, Humayun returned to India in the year 1555 ce.
3. Sher Shah divided his empire into 47 sarkars/parganas/ villages.
Ans. Sher Shah divided his empire into 47 sarkars.
4. The rupia introduced by Sher Shah was made of gold/ silver/copper.
Ans. The rupia introduced by Sher Shah was made of silver.
5. Sher Shah’s greatest achievement was the construction of new roads/issuing of coins/his revenue system.
Ans. Sher Shah’s greatest achievement was his revenue system.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
- Babur was a descendant of Timur and Chenghiz Khan.
- Babur’s war-weary and homesick soldiers wanted to return to Kabul after the Battle of Panipat.
- Babur won the Battle of Khanwa through treachery and cunning.
False. Correct: Babur won the Battle of Khanwa with his superior artillery and covering.
- Sher Shah ruled for 15 years.
False. Correct: Sher Shah ruled for 5 years.
- To prevent the officers from becoming corrupt, Sher Shah introduced the system of periodical transfers.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
1.Why did Daulat Khan Lodi invite Babur to invade India?
Ans. In 1522 ce, Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India and help him overthrow Ibrahim Lodi, the cruel and unpopular sultan of Delhi.
2.Between whom was the First Battle of Panipat fought?
Ans. Babur and Ibrahim Lodi came face-to-face at Panipat in 1526 ce.
3.What was the significance of the Battle of Panipat (1526 ce)?
Ans. After the First Battle of Panipat Delhi came under the rule of Babur and he was declared the emperor of Hindustan.
4.What is the name of Babur’s autobiography?
Ans.Tuzuk-i-Baburi it is written in flawless Turkish, and considered to be one of the best autobiographies in the world.
5.Who was Humayun’s most dangerous enemy?
Ans. Sher Khan was Humayun’s most dangerous enemy.
6.How did Humayun escape after his deafeat in the Battle of Chausa (1539 ce)?
Ans.Humayun jumped into the Ganga and floated down the river with the help of a water carrier’s inflated water bag.
7.How many years did Humayun spend in exile?
Ans.15 years (1540-55 ce), Humayun wandered about from place to place in search of shelter.
8.Who helped Humayan to recover Kabul and Kandahar?
Ans. Shah of Persia helped Humayun and he recovered Kabul and Kandahar from his brother Kamran.
9.What is the significance of the Battle of Kanauj (1540 CE)?
Ans. The large but fragile Mughal empire came to an end and was replaced by Afghan rule.
10.How were the affairs of the villages managed during Sher Shah’s reign?
Ans.The villages were looked after by the panchayats composed of village elders. Sher Shah himself kept in touch with the villages through village officials like patwaris and muqaddam.
11.Explain the Chehra system in Sher Shah’s military administration.
Ans.Sher Shah adopted a system of branding horses (dagh) and maintaining a descriptive roll of the soldiers (chehra) were revived.The army was divided into many units and each unit was placed under a commander.
12.Mention one reason why Sher Shah built an excellent network of good roads?
Ans.Sher Shah built an excellent network of good roads, to facilitate the quick movement of officials and troops throughout the empire and to promote trade and commerce and even to make travelling comfortable and easier.
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
Give a brief account of Babur’s early life.
Babur lost his father, when he was eleven years old and at that tender age he became the ruler of a small principality in Central Asia called Farghana which he inherited from his father. He was also able to fulfill his dream of conquering Samarkand, when he was just 14 years old. But within a short time he lost both Farghana and Samarkand and became homeless but due to his courage and determination, after some time he became the ruler of Kabul.
Give an account of the causes, events and consequences of the First Battle of Panipat.
Babur and Ibrahim Lodi came face-to-face at Panipat in 1526 ce. Ibrahim’s large army was no match for Babur’s small, disciplined and loyal army with its excellent cavalry and fine artillery. Babur was a bom leader and an experienced military general. Within a few hours, Ibrahim’s army was routed. By evening, Ibrahim and 15,000 of his soldiers lay dead on the battlefield. The following day, Babur triumphantly entered Delhi where he was proclaimed the emperor of Hindustan.
How many battles did Babur have to fight after the Battle of Panipat? Mention the significance of his victory in each of these battles.
After the Battle of Panipat Babur fought three more battles.
The significance of each battle are:
- Battle of Khanua: This battle was fought between Babur and Rana Sangha of Mewar at Khanua. Babur won this battle and this victory gave him supreme control over central India and it also removed all the obstacles in the way of Mughal rule.
- Battle of Chanderi: This battle was fought between Babur and Medini Rai of Malwa. Babur won the battle and captured Chanderi. After this battle, no other Rajput chief ever dared to challenge Babur’s authority.
- Battle of Ghagra: The Afghans had control over Bihar and Bengal and they posed a threat to Babur’s authority. So Babur had a war with them and after crushing them he became the master of Punjab, Delhi and the Ganga plains near Bihar.
Give a brief account of Sher Shah’s early life.
Sher Shah was the son of Hasan Khan, a jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar. His real name was Farid Khan. He was given the name Sher Khan after he single-handedly killed a tiger. He joined the Mughal army when Babur invaded India and learnt the techniques of Mughal warfare.
With reference to Sher Shah’s enlightened rule, explain:
(a)How was the central government organized? (b) The important features of provincial administration.
The supreme head of the central government was Sher Shah himself. He divided the government into several departments. Each department was under the charge of a minister, who was assisted by other officials.
The whole empire was divided into forty seven provinces or sarkars. Each province was further subdivided into districts or parganas. Each paragana was made up of a number of villages. The villages were looked after by the panchayats composed’of village elders. Each Sarkar was placed under an Afghan chief. In every pargana there were several officials who were supervised by Shiqdar and Munsif. The Shiqdar was responsible for law, order and general administration and the Munsif looked after the collection of revenue and civil cases.
Sher Shah introduced several measures to make the army disciplined, efficient and strong. Explain?
Sher Shah introduced many reforms to make his army efficient, disciplined and strong. He used to take personal interest in the appointment and training of soldiers. The salaries of the soldiers and the officers were fixed according to their skill and ability. The army was divided into many units and each unit was placed under a commander. The cavalry and infantry were highly trained, disciplined and were equipped with artillery.
Discuss the important measures taken by Sher Shah to boost the growth of trade and commerce.
The growth of trade and commerce increased after the construction of roads and sarais. Sher Shah even abolished all duties, except two to boost it further more. He even instructed his officials to treat the merchants well and look after their interests. Proper safety was provided to traders and the village headmen was responsible for it in their respective regions. New weights and measures were introduced. Coins of gold, silver and copper of uniform standard were introduced.
What steps did Sher Shah take to maintain law and order in his kingdom?
Sher Shah strongly believed injustice and he treated all the people equally. In his kingdom the criminal law was harsh and punishments were severe. The village headmen and the local chieftains were made responsible for any crime that took place in their area. They were severely punished if they failed to track down a robber or a murderer.
Sher Shah’s greatest achievement was his land revenue system. In this context explain: (a) Land assessments (b) Taxation policy and its impact
(a) Land assessments: Sher Shah made proper arrangements that the land should be carefully surveyed and measured every year and the average produce to be calculated on the basis of its fertility.
(b) Taxation policy and its impact: One-third of the produce was paid as tax in cash or kind. The land was divided into three types – good, bad and medium on the basis of fertility and taxes were levied on this basis.
Sher Shah is one of the most striking personalities in medieval India. In this context, briefly state the important achievements of his 5-years reign.
- During his reign Sher Shah established a vast, powerful and prosperous empire. Some of his achievements are listed below:
In his empire there was a powerful central government and a sound administrative system.
- He created a huge standing army that was disciplined, well organized and strong.
- His revenue system was efficient progressive and humane and he also showed concern for the welfare of the peasants.
- During his reign good roads and rest houses were constructed for travellers and merchants.
- New weights and measures were introduced by him.
- He also followed a policy of religious tolerance and appointed many Hindus to high posts of trust.
G Picture study:
This is a picture of the tomb of the successor of Babur
Name the Mughal emperor who is buried in this tomb.
Where is this monument located?
In which book could you find a detailed account of his life? Who wrote it?
Humayunnama. Gulbadan wrote it.
Why did he spend 15 years in exile?
After defeat from Sher Khan . Humayun wandered about 15 years from place to place in search of shelter. His brother refused to help him. In 1542 ce, in a small town in Amarkot in Sind, a son, Akbar was born to Humayun and his wife, Hamida Banu.
How did he reconquer his lost empire?
With military help from the Shah of Persia, Humayun returned and recovered Kabul and Kandahar from his brother Kamran. Kamran was blinded and sent to Mecca. By 1554 ce, Humayun had consolidated his position in Afghanistan. Sher Shah had died in 1545 ce. His successors were weak and incompetent. Taking advantage of the situation, Humayun returned to India and recaptured Delhi and Agra in 1555 ce. Humayun died shortly afterwards in an accidental fall down the stairs of his library.