ICSE Solutions for Class 6 Geography Voyage – Types of Agriculture
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POINTS TO REMEMBER
- Agriculture refers to the cultivation of land.
- Subsistence farming is practised by poor farmers who own small pieces of land.
- Intensive farming is practised on small plots of land.
- Extensive farming is practised in areas of low population and where of land is available for cultivation.
- Shifting cultivation is practised mainly by tribal people in some primitive and densely forested regions of the world.
- In commercial forming, crops are grown on a large scale, mainly for selling the produce in the market—both at home and abroad.
- Plantation farming is a type of commercial farming. Here, a single crop, instead of multiple crops, is planted over a large area known as a plantation.
Agriculture : Cultivation of a field.
Combine harvester : a large farm machine which cuts a crop and separates the grain from the rest of the plant.
Commercial : Connected with the buying and selling of goods and services.
Machete : A broad, heavy knife used as a cutting tool or a weapon.
Subsistence : The state of having just enough money or food to stay alive.
Yield : The total amount of crops produced.
THINK AND ANSWER
Why do you think commercial farming is practised in countries like the USA and Australia ?
Both USA and Australia are developed countries having large farms and more money to invest in large machinery, hybrid crops, fertilizers and pesticides. The machineries allow the farmers to cultivate grains like wheat, maize, barley etc. on a large scale.
VALUES AND LITE SKILL
Farmers put in a lot of hard work and money in producing crops. We should remember this and not waste food.
What should you do if you do not like a dish that is served in the school canteen ?
We should not throw the food even if we don’t like it’s taste. We shall keep the dish on the wall for birds or animals to eat.
A. Fill in the blanks
- Food grains are the most important products that come from agriculture.
- Farmers who practise subsistence farming depend on the monsoon rains for water for the crops.
- Intensive farming requires a lot of labour on a small piece of land.
- Extensive farming is practised in areas of low population.
- Shifting cultivation is generally practised in forested areas.
B. Match the columns
C. State whether the following are true or false
1. Agriculture is not an important occupation anymore.
Correct — Agriculture is an important occupation anymore.
2. Farmers who practise subsistence farming use modern methods of irrigation.
Correct— Farmers who practise subsistence fanning use old methods of irrigation or depend on the monsoon rains.
3. Intensive farming requires very little labour to work on the farm.
Correct— Extensive farming requires little labour to work on the farm.
4. Extensive farming is practised in countries like India, China and Japan.
Correct— Intensive farming is practised in countries like India, China and Japan.
5. Shifting agriculture is wasteful and harmful to forests and wildlife.
D. Answer the following questions in brief
What do you understand by agriculture ?
Agriculture means cultivation of a field. It includes growing of crops, rearing animals for dairy and meat products, poultry farming and rearing fish in ponds.
Name any three types of agriculture practised around the world.
The various types of agriculture practised around the world include subsistence farming, intensive farming and extensive farming.
Define subsistence agriculture.
Subsistence farming is growing crops to meet the farmers own needs. The land is small and organic or natural fertilizers like cow dung, dried plants, etc. are used. It depends on monsoon rains for watering of crops.
Why is intensive farming expensive ?
Intensive farming is expensive as the farmer tries to get maximum field from his small land using hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
Name the crops grown by extensive farming.
The main crops grown in extensive farming are wheat, maize and barley.
Why is shifting cultivation not productive in the long run?
This form of agriculture is wasteful and harmful to forests and wildlife. After a few years the fertility of the land is reduced. The infertility is caused by excessive leaching, a process in which the salts and minerals of the soil are drained away by water.
In which parts of India is shifting cultivation practised ?
In India, this practice is prevalent in states such as Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram in the north-east and in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. It is also practised in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Mention any two features of commercial farming.
In commercial farming, crops are grown on a large scale, mainly for selling the produce in the market-both at home and abroad. The main aim of this type of farming is to earn profit. The farms may or may not be very large. Modem methods of cultivation such as using high yielding variety of seeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides are used along with modem irrigation techniques and cold storage to store the produce after harvest.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two paragraphs
Briefly explain subsistence agriculture.
Subsistence farming is practised by farmers who own small pieces of land. Such farmers grow just enough crops to meet their needs and those of their families. They generally grow rice or vegetables and use organic or natural fertilizers such as cow dung, animal droppings and dead and dried plants. They depend on the monsoon rains for water for the crops.
Distinguish between intensive and extensive farming.
Intensive farming :
- Land is small.
- More labour is employed
- Expensive farming as more fertilizers, hybrid seeds, pesticides, etc. are used.
Extensive farming :
- Plenty of land.
- Less labour is employed work is done by large machines like combine harvesters, etc.
- Low cost farming. Mostly cereal crops are grown.
What do you understand by shifting agriculture ?
Shifting agriculture is mainly practised by tribal people who clear a small area in the forests, scatter the seeds, leaves them to grow, depend on monsoon for water and when the land becomes infertile after some years shift themselves to a new piece of land in the forests.
What crops are grown by commercial farming ? What are the methods that are employed ?
The main crops grown on commercial scale are apples, grapes, mushrooms, cauliflower, broccoli, etc. These crops are mainly grown to earn profit. Modern methods of cultivation such as hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, modem irrigation techniques and cold storage to store the produce after harvest are used.
Write a short note on plantation farming.
Plantation farming is a kind of cofhmercial farming in which a single crop is grown instead of multiple crops. These crops include tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, coconut, sugarcane, cotton, etc.
Write a short note on mixed farming.
Mixed farming is a form of farming in which crops are grown and animals are reared on the same farmland. Farmers grow a variety of crops and also keep a number of dairy animals to get milk. Sometimes poultry is also kept. Farmers practise mixed farming mainly with a view to increasing their earnings, from two different sources. One of the major benefits of mixed farming is that if one form of farming enterprise fails, the farmer could still depend on the other. Modem machinery and tools, selected high quality seeds, chemical fertilizers in large quantities and other highly advanced techniques of farming are used. The natural manure provided by the animals helps in minimizing soil erosion, rotation of crops and conservation of water. Mixed farming makes good use of crop residue which, if not used as animal feed, can be used as fertilizers in the soil.
F. Picture study
The photograph here shows a farmer tending to his field.
What type of farming is he practising ?
The farmer is practising subsistence farming i.e. growing crops to meet his own daily needs.
What are the difficulties that he might face ?
He might not get good yield because of poor seed quality, bad monsoon and lack of fertilizers and pesticides.